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Coffee is one of America's favorite drinks, even going back to the country's earliest days. As shown in this caffeinated tribute, the 1960s were no exception.
If you don’t know Seberg, she’s a screen icon in her own right — but one who died tragically by suicide at age 40 in 1979. She’s most famous as the blonde American beauty sporting a boyish haircut in 1960’s “Breathless,” Jean-Luc Goddard’s classic of French New Wave cinema.
In a sadder way, she’s also known as one of the most prominent targets of the FBI’s notorious COINTELPRO project — covert efforts by J. Edgar Hoover to sabotage counter-culture groups in the 1960s.
As the 1960s came to a close, Seberg co-starred with Eastwood in the Gold Rush-era musical, “Paint Your Wagon.” Multiple accounts said the co-stars had an affair, and both were married at the time. The romance got intense enough that Seberg decided to end things with her then-husband, French novelist and diplomat Romain Gary. And that’s when talk of a duel came in.
Clint Eastwood and Jean Seberg in “Paint Your Wagon” (Paramount)
When Eastwood and Seberg met while making “Paint Your Wagon” in 1968, both were at turning points in their lives and careers.
Eastwood wasn’t yet known for “Dirty Harry,” and his Academy Award-winning “Unforgiven” and “Million Dollar Baby” were decades off. Born in San Francisco and raised in Piedmont, Eastwood became a TV star in the 1950s in the Western series “Rawhide,” then became a movie star in the spaghetti Westerns of Sergio Leone.
Looking for new challenges, he chose to star in a musical in which he would, yes, sing. Before he talked to an empty chair at the 2012 Republican National Convention, he sang the love song, “I Talk to the Trees,” to Seberg in “Paint Your Wagon.”
Meanwhile, Seberg started out as a small-town Iowa teen — intelligent, spirited but also sensitive — who was plucked from obscurity when she was cast as Joan of Arc in Otto Preminger’s adaptation of “Saint Joan.” She gained international fame three years later, playing the free-love American, French-speaking heroine in Godard’s “Breathless,” opposite Jean-Paul Belmondo.
She settled in Paris and continued to work in Europe. She married husband no. 1, a French lawyer, then started an affair with Gary, who was 24 years her senior (and at one point the French consul general in Los Angeles). Their affair created a minor scandal in Parisian society When Seberg and Gary finally secured divorces from their respective spouses, they married discreetly and had to keep the birth of their son a secret for several years.
American actress Jean Seberg and her husband, Romain Gary, are seen at The American Church in Paris, Nov. 18, 1963. (AP Photo)
Seberg tried to get parts in American films, mainly because she needed the money. She was relieved to receive the offer for “Paint Your Wagon,” according to Karina Longworth, the host of the “You Must Remember This” podcast. She would co-star with both Eastwood and Lee Marvin, then an A-list star and Academy Award-winning best actor for “Cat Ballou.”
Unfortunately, “Paint Your Wagon” wouldn’t do a whole lot for her career. While the movie did OK at the box office, it was still a product of the dying Hollywood studio system — a bloated, somewhat old-fashioned, three-hour movie that went over way over budget.
“This symbol of the New Wave would now in star in one of the films synonymous with the dinosaurs of the studio system, limping into extinction,” Longworth said.
But Seberg couldn’t know that when she signed on. She was just excited to play the female lead: Elizabeth, the spirited second wife of a Mormon man who wanders into the Gold Rush mining camp. She’s auctioned off for marriage to Ben, a hard-drinking but good-hearted prospector played by Marvin. But she also falls in love with his handsome, soft-spoken partner, who is only known as “Pardner” and who is played by Eastwood.
One of the reasons the film went over budget is that director Joshua Logan wanted to shoot in a remote wilderness in northeast Oregon. But that isolation proved fruitful in some ways. During the long shoot, “Jean amused herself by having an affair with Clint Eastwood,” Longworth said.
Paint Your Wagon, 1969 (Paramount)
Eventually, Gary finally turned up on location. Seberg told him what was going on with Eastwood. As she put it, according to Longworth: “I got a crush on someone else. Because I’m a bad liar, I had to tell Romain about it.”
Gary challenged Eastwood to a duel, though Longworth doesn’t say if Gary specified what weapons they should use.
“They never went through with it, and instead Romain left, and Jean called her publicist to confess she was madly in love with Clint Eastwood, and she needed help announcing she was getting a divorce,” Longworth said.
Seberg assumed Eastwood was madly in love with her, too, and was ready to leave his wife.
But for Eastwood, a workplace affair was nothing new.
“Eastwood’s ferocious sexual appetite was common knowledge in the movie industry,” says biographer Patrick McGilligan. In his book, “The Life and Legend of Clint Eastwood,” he said Eastwood slept with practically all his leading ladies and had a 14-year affair with a stuntwoman from “Rawhide” who gave birth to his oldest child, a daughter whose existence was kept secret from the public until a 1989 National Enquirer expose.
Actor/director Clint Eastwood poses with his wife Dina, left, actress Frances Fisher, right, and Eastwood’s daughter Francesca at the premiere of his new film “True Crime” Monday, March 15, 1999, on the Warner Bros. lot in Burbank, Calif. Fisher is also a cast member in the film, which Eastwood both directs and stars in. (AP Photo/Chris Pizzello)
So, it probably came as a shock only to Seberg that the end of the location shoot also meant the end of the affair. Even more, “Clint totally ghosted her,” Longworth said.
“‘It was marvelous while it lasted,” Seberg said later, according to Longworth. “It’s always a bit of a shock that people aren’t sincere. Perhaps I have to grow up a little.”
Eastwood’s career really took off after “Paint Your Wagon.” In the next few years, he showed promise as a director, starring in and helming in the critically acclaimed “Play Misty for Me.” He also created one of the great screen anti-heroes in “Dirty Harry.” Over the decades, he also had three more major relationships: with co-stars Sondra Locke and Frances Fisher, and his eight-year marriage to Castro Valley native and former KSBW anchor Dina Ruiz, who is 35 years his junior.
Seberg, on the other hand, struggled.
“When the dust settled, Jean found herself alone in her Coldwater Canyon house, paralyzed by depression,” Longworth said. “She drank too much, and too often mixed booze with valium, and she essentially stopped leaving the house for a while. ‘Without a man,’ she said, ‘I’m like a ship without a rudder.'”
More heartbreak came when the FBI targeted her for her support of radical causes, including for her $10,500 donation to the Black Panther Party, according to FBI documents that later become public. She was the subject of surveillance, threatening phone calls and home break-ins. Hoover even kept President Nixon informed of the FBI’s activities related to the actress. Perhaps most damaging, the FBI planted news stories that she was pregnant with a child by a Black Panther Party member.
Jean Seberg at a press conference in Rome, Italy in 1969, (AP Photo)
Seberg was indeed pregnant but the father was a student revolutionary she met while making a film in Mexico in 1969. She claimed that the stress from the false news stories caused her to go into premature labor and give birth to a baby girl who died several days later. She also had a hard time getting work in Hollywood, probably because of a blacklist.
She returned to Paris and managed to work in European films but never got over the loss of her daughter and persecution by the FBI, according to accounts.
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She continued to take sedatives and drink heavily. On August 30, 1979, she disappeared. Ten days later, she was found near her Paris apartment, dead from an apparent overdose of barbiturates. Her ex-husband Gary said she probably died by suicide.
Seberg has been gone nearly 40 years, but her star as an actress and style icon hasn’t really diminished. In fact, her “Breathless” look and uniquely tragic Hollywood story has inspired Instagram and blog posts, a 2014 documentary and even Madonna’s boyish haircut and striped shirt for her 1990 video “Papa Don’t Preach.”
Flashback: America Loves Coffee - HISTORY
Ironically, Father Knows Best is loved by its fans and disliked by its critics for the same reason: its ideal of the “typical American family”. After World War II, Americans had a bright future ahead, and optimism abounded. Father Knows Best reflects this mood, and was an “improvement” on reality, the way TV shows and movies used to be. The program was like a Norman Rockwell painting- filled with cheery lovable characters and a non-threatening humor that was middle America’s idea of itself. It was an air-brushed, touched-up portrait of family life that people could aim for. It spoke to the sunny ideal of how we could live our own lives. Every episode had a message, something to say that would touch the television audience. In outright defiance of the 1950’s sitcom formula of “zany wives, blustering chowder-head husbands and sassy children one step away from juvenile delinquency”, Father Knows Best portrayed a family that was surprising similar to real people. The parents managed to ride through almost any family situation without violent injury to their dignity, and the three Anderson youngsters were presented as decently behaved children who respected and loved their parents. A newspaper critic at the time wrote that “Jim Anderson may be the first intelligent father permitted on TV since they invented the thing”.
Like many shows of the period, Father Knows Best began on radio (NBC in 1949), 5 years before becoming a television series. It competed with nineteen other family shows then on the air waves, and out-survived them all. The characters were created by Ed James and he wrote more than 100 scripts for the radio version. Jean Vander Pyl- the voice of “Wilma” on the Flintstones- played the role of Margaret Anderson on many broadcasts. 197 radio shows were broadcast over 5 years. (116 of those episodes can be found on the internet in various forms.)
In 1953, Robert Young and his partner Eugene B. Rodney decided to try the format out on TV. In partnership with Screen Gems, a pilot was developed. It was aired on the Ford Theatre in 1953 and was entitled “Keep It in the Family”. It starred Robert Young, in the identical “Father Knows Best” home (soundstage), but with an entirely different cast. It was decided the family in the pilot episode wasn’t good enough to belong to such a “sterling father”, so the hunt was on for a new cast. “For such an out-of-the-ordinary TV father”, said Eugene B. Rodney, ” we didn’t want a TV family stereotype. Our Bud had to have a teen-age boy’s abstraction, not flipness. More than thirty boys read the test script, but only one could say the gag lines – the Bud-isms- flat, able to resist a “this-is-a-joke-see?’ lilt.” “As an example”, said Mr. Rodney, “when Jim, worried about Betty’s going steady, reads aloud a newspaper story about a girl eloping and taking $200 with which her aunt was to buy a TV set, our Bud had to be able to look up and ask seriously, ‘What size screen, dad? Billy Gray was the only actor that could do it the way we wanted”.
Seventy-eight girls were interviewed for Kathy. Mr. Rodney commented, “We got dozens of adorable little blondes. We finally picked a Kathy (Lauren Chapin) who had absolutely no acting experience, because she wasn’t precocious-seeming. Same with our Betty (Elinor Donahue) she had to be attractive, but not sophisticated. For Margaret, we needed a woman who was a real mother, pretty enough to have a Robert Young for a husband, but a Rock of Gibraltar in her own family”. Jane Wyatt rejected the role the first time it was offered to her. She was living in New York City with her Husband, Edgar Ward, and their two sons, and was interested in TV roles there. But Eugene Rodney wouldn’t budge. He sent Miss Wyatt a script anyway. She fell in love with the script and accepted.
Movie Actor Robert Young created and defined the role of Jim Anderson. His approach to playing Jim Anderson was perfect he radiated affection, admitted his own shortcomings and had an uncanny ability to view life from the same perspective as his fictional children. In terms of temperament, directors have referred to Young as Hollywood’s most unstarlike star! He worked hard, seeked direction, apologized for fluffs in lines, was dependable, and got his sleep nights instead of prowling night clubs. He was already happily married to Elizabeth for 24 years when he began Father Knows Best and remained married to her the rest of his life.
Father Knows Best debuted on CBS on October 3, 1954. A few weeks after the show began, the sponsor (Kent Cigarette’s), became dissatisfied with its low rating in the audience poll and decided not to extend the twenty-six week contract. Fans sent letters of protest, with most people hitting the theme that “this is one of the very few shows that our whole family, young and old, watches and likes. We even learn something from it”. Television columnists took up the crusade, urging audiences to write to the President of the CBS network and suggesting that Father might have a higher rating in the polls if it were shown earlier ten p.m. they said, was too late for a family show. Father Knows Best even won the 1954 Sylvania award for “outstanding family entertainment”. But CBS and Kent Cigarette’s cancelled the show anyway. Just when the show seemed scheduled to leave the air for good, the Scott Paper Company (seeing the public response) picked up the sponsorship contract, and moved it to the NBC network at an earlier hour (8:30 p.m.). From there, the rest is history. Within a year 19 million households tuned in to watch Father Knows Best on Wednesday evenings. By 1960 it was finishing in the top ten every week, becoming an institution!
The set for the Anderson home was a $40,000 combination of illusion and reality. Its two floors, patio, driveway and garage sprawled over Columbia Pictures’ Stage 11 (although some incorrect sources say it was stage 10). There was one area for all four bedrooms, with interchangeable, wallpapered walls, that could be made to look like any of four different bedrooms. The kitchen was real. Every morning coffee and sweet rolls were served in it. Lunches were kept in the Anderson’s refrigerator. The Kitchen actually had red wallpaper, white cabinets and blue countertops- but to the TV audience, it was all in shades of gray.
Unlike many studios that used live audiences and three cameras, Screen Gems used one camera on a closed set. Many artists claim that the one-camera process is better because the technique results in a more “intimate image or feel” for the viewer. Screen Gems also “paid attention to the details” with their closed sets, making sure most major rooms had four (not three) walls. This allowed for many different camera angles, anywhere in a room, that made the audience feel like they were in a “real” house. The show was shot with 35mm black and white film (but most prints for networks ended up being on16mm film). It was shot on film because Eugene B. Rodney said, “There’s nothing that’ll grow ulcers faster than trying to do a live show with children”.
Rehearsals were held on Mondays and Tuesdays, with the last three days of the week given over to actual filming. If they didn’t finish, they had to work Saturdays (which was most of the time). Peter Tewksbury, the director for 4 seasons, added extra rehearsals, which made for the longer shooting schedule. He wanted the cast to rehearse so every move was natural and automatic. “We would even go through all the physical gestures, like buttering toast or reading a book, while we rehearsed our lines. The idea was to never lose your concentration. We rehearsed one scene so much that, when filming started, I actually pantomimed the scene rather than using props”, says Elinor Donahue. Each episode cost about $25,000 to produce. The production company stayed about seventeen shows ahead of the air dates. Over six seasons, 203 episodes originally aired. All seasons have now been put out on DVD! Of the 203 episodes- 187 are uncut, meaning they run the full 26 minutes. 15 episodes are syndicated prints running 22 1/2 minutes, (14 of them on the season 1 DVD, and one on the season 5 DVD). In theory, we can say there is one episode still lost, #170 Margaret Goes Dancing. But this episode, made in 1958, is a flashback episode, so maybe only 3-4 minutes of new material is missing, as the original episode #11 was substituted.
Father Knows Best became such a part of American pop-culture that in 1959 the U.S. Treasury Department commissioned a 30-minute episode called Hours in Tyrant land”. Never to be aired, it was distributed to schools, churches and civic groups to promote the buying of savings bonds. (This VERY RARE episode treat is on the Season One DVD.)
Scripts were the most important thing to Eugene B. Rodney and Robert Young. “Good scripts weren’t big action or bagfuls of jokes”, Rodney said. “We sought character, motivation”. The two major writers for the show were Roswell Rogers and Paul West. They got their ideas from their own family life, Mr. Rogers having three children, and Mr. West having four. They looked for scripts that people would say, “that happened to us once”. Many scripts contained what Rodney called “built-in moral lessons”.
The two major directors were Peter Tewksbury and William D. Russell. Mr. Russell directed the first 62 shows. He was a big man with a big voice, who was able to weep easily. Robert Young used to say the cast gauged the effectiveness of any sentimental scene by watching Russell after he yelled, “Cut!” If Russell’s cheeks were all wet, all was well. Peter Tewksbury was a young thirty-three year old who directed the majority of the remaining 141 episodes. When ready to shoot, the assistant director would yell, “QUIET!” Mr. Tewksbury would then deviate from the standard director’s call and say, “All right, now. HAPPY! ACTION!
The producer was Eugene B. Rodney, who was in partnership with Robert Young as the owners of the series. Mr. Rodney would weep happily and copiously as he dubbed in the sound and laughs on each show. He loved the series. When people suggested the series approached over-sentimentality, Eugene declared, “If I ever get a director so cynical that he can’t feel it deep in his heart when a little girl places a crippled sparrow in a nest and then goes upstairs to her room and prays to God that that sparrow lives-why, I’ll fire him!” Says Jane Wyatt about Eugene B. Rodney, “Gene is like that. He knows everything there is to know about this show. After my first season, I went to him and asked how I could improve my characterization. He looked at the ceiling for a moment and said, ‘Love your children as much as you love your husband’. He was right. I’d been concentrating on building up a firm, strong relationship between Jim and Margaret and had been neglecting the children.” The talents, values and attitudes of all the people involved in the show made it the success it was.
In 1960, Robert Young grew tired of the role he had been playing on radio and television for eleven years. He felt the family had outgrown the original premise of the show, as it was time for Betty to get married and Bud to join the army, so they decided to call it quits. (For a more detailed account, read the official statement on this website regarding the shutdown of Father Knows Best.)
In 1977, Robert Young entered the Anderson household again after his successful series, Marcus Welby, M.D., concluded. Two movies were made reuniting the cast, one shown in May and the other in December of that year.
Robert Young passed away July 22, 1998. Jane Wyatt passed away October 20, 2006. Today, Elinor Donahue and Bill Gray live in California, and Lauren Chapin lives in Florida.
Flashback : Dallas
This is a cool aerial shot of downtown, looking toward the south, with a nice look at the back side of the waning Movie Row, with the Pacific Avenue rear entrances of the Majestic and Capri theaters visible. I’m not sure of the date, but the Melba Theater was renamed the Capri on Dec. 25, 1959 and was ultimately demolished in 1980 or 1981, and the Medical Arts Building (seen in the middle at the far right) was demolished in 1977. I’m guessing the s, if only because of the vast expanse of parking lots.
Sources & Notes
Another instance of muddled/incomplete notes on my end. This is a screenshot from… something. I don’t remember if the image seen here is a photo or is from moving footage shot over Dallas.
Copyright © 2021 Paula Bosse. All Rights Reserved.
February 7, 2021
Wes Wise, Dallas Texans, WFAA — 1961
A future mayor interviewing future Kansas City Chiefs
The photo above shows future Dallas mayor Wes Wise in 1961 (when he was sports director for WFAA-Channel 8) interviewing players of the Dallas Texans. Wes Wise served as Mayor of Dallas for three terms, from 1971 to 1976. The (second iteration of the) Dallas Texans played in the AFL from 1960 to 1962 until owner Lamar Hunt relocated them to Kansas City where they became the Kansas City Chiefs. (Read about the first, sad, Dallas Texans in the post “The 1952 Dallas Texans: Definitely NOT America’s Team.” )
Below is the full ad. (Click for larger image.)
Sources & Notes
Ad from Sponsor, “the weekly magazine Radio/TV advertisers use” (Oct. 16, 1961).
Copyright © 2021 Paula Bosse. All Rights Reserved.
January 10, 2021
Nighttime Skyline — 1965
Dallas is always at its most impressive at night, as seen in this view to the northwest, with Memorial Auditorium in the foreground.
Sources & Notes
This photo, credited to Dallas Power & Light, appeared in the 1965 Marksmen, the yearbook of St. Mark’s School of Texas. It continued on another page, but I couldn’t fit the two parts together without an annoying gap. The second bit is below (click to see a larger image).
See another cool photo from the same year in the Flashback Dallas post “Dallas Skyline at Night — ca. 1965.”
Copyright © 2021 Paula Bosse. All Rights Reserved.
December 23, 2020
‘Tis the Season For a Hot Dr Pepper
I don’t think I’ve ever had hot Dr Pepper. I remember seeing commercials for it on television as a kid, but I don’t think I’ve ever been in a social setting where it was offered. It always sounded like an odd thing to do with a soft drink. Years ago I was on a tour of the bottling plant in Dublin (…need I say “Dublin, Texas“?), and the guide said that this winter drink (which is always served with a slice of lemon) isn’t the same these days unless you drink Dr Pepper sweetened with real sugar — heated-up corn syrup apparently ruins the flavor.
Here are a few nostalgic advertisements to prove to the whippersnappers that this used to be a thing. The first two ads I could find mentioning this seasonal delicacy (the brainchild of a marketing wiz who might well have worked here in Dallas, home of DP’s HQ) are these two, from January and February, 1959 (click to see larger images):
The “new idea” was definitely being marketed nationally by at least 1963. I don’t know how popular it was, but they even manufactured special cups to drink it from. And, “for those who want something special, try the Boomer” — hot Dr Pepper with a dash of rum.
There are a few vintage commercial online. Here is one starring Dick Clark, featuring the snowman above.
(Am I the only one disturbed by seeing a pot of boiling Dr Pepper?)
There are a couple of others, in lesser image quality: watch them on YouTube here and here .
There you have it. Consider leaving a Boomer out for Santa. It’s chilly out there. Cheers!
Sources & Notes
Top ad (1963) is from Flickr, here .
The rest are from various places, but many were found here .
More Flashback Dallas Christmas posts can be found here .
More Dr Pepper-related posts can be found here .
Copyright © 2020 Paula Bosse. All Rights Reserved.
December 6, 2020
St. Mark’s Campus — 1960s
St. Mark’s chapel at dusk, 1961
A few photos of St. Mark’s School of Texas campus buildings and history from various editions of Marksmen, the school’s yearbook.
Above the exterior of the chapel beneath a full moon. Below, the interior of the chapel (click for larger images).
A photo spread from the 1963 yearbook, commemorating 30 years as an institution (see the St. Mark’s timeline here ).
Sources & Notes
All images from various editions of Marksmen, the St. Mark’s yearbook.
More St. Mark’s-related Flashback Dallas posts can be found here .
Copyright © 2020 Paula Bosse. All Rights Reserved.
December 6, 2020
St. Mark’s, Aerial Views — 1960s
Rendering of the campus by architect Hal M. Moseley, from the 1960 yearbook
St. Mark’s School of Texas, the prep school for boys in North Dallas (10600 Preston Road, south of Royal Lane), has been one of the city’s finest educational institutions for decades. It opened in 1950 after the merging of the Cathedral School for Boys and the Texas Country Day School, both of which traced their roots to the legendary Terrill School, founded in 1906 (see the St. Mark’s timeline on the school’s website here ).
Below are a few aerial photos of the ever-expanding campus from the 1960s. (Above is a drawing of the grounds by architect Hal M. Moseley from the endpapers of the 1960 Marksmen, the St. Mark’s yearbook.)
The campus in 1964 (click to see larger image):
In 1965, plans had been drawn for expansion and renovation. Five of the existing structures would be renovated, and a new gymnasium and “individual study center” (including a 50,000-volume library) would be constructed:
Two photos from 1966, with the caption “before the building of the new library and study center”:
And a rather haphazard editing of mismatched endpaper photos from 1968:
Sources & Notes
All images are from various editions of Marksmen, the St. Mark’s yearbook.
More about St. Mark’s School of Texas can be found at Wikipedia, here .
Other St. Mark’s-related Flashback Dallas posts can be found here .
Copyright © 2020 Paula Bosse. All Rights Reserved.
November 30, 2020
Victor’s Lounge — 1913 Commerce
Victor’s-sponsored bowling team
My posting has been a bit erratic recently. My brother and I have been clearing out my late aunt’s home. It’s one of those inevitable tasks that no one wants to have to do, but as sad as it’s been, it’s also been comforting to see glimpses of my aunt’s life that I had only vaguely heard about — or had never heard about. Going through her photos, I see what a full life she had, how much she traveled, and that she had decades-old friendships.
One of the places she talked about with great fondness was, of all things, a bar: Victor’s Lounge, which was at 1913 Commerce Street, directly across from the Statler Hilton. The Dallas Morning News described it as “a favorite with the downtown office crowd.” My aunt worked for an insurance company in the Mercantile Building, and nearby Victor’s was the place where she and her co-workers gathered after work (and, I think, for lunch). She even participated in a ladies’ bowling league on a team sponsored by her favorite hang-out. The photo at the top shows the team of fun-looking women (my aunt Bettye Jo is on the far right). She still had the crisply-ironed shirt in her closet!
Victor’s was opened by Victor Ballas (who later opened the Purple Orchid a block away at 2016 Commerce). Born in New York, Ballas arrived in Dallas as a child, went to Forest Avenue High School, and had several businesses, one liltingly called “Ballas of Dallas.” My aunt said he always looked after his customers, especially the single women when they were being aggressively hit on by male patrons. Ballas died on Christmas Day, 1971 of a heart attack — he was only 53.
Victor’s opened as a cocktail bar in 1957 or 1958 with a regular piano player (for many years it was Tony Rizzo), but ads indicate that it became more of a restaurant than a bar in the 1960s.
The Commerce Street location closed in 1971 — it was replaced at the end of that year by the Wild West Saloon, another cocktail bar (but one which included topless entertainment).
I heard so much about Victor’s over the years from my aunt that when I recently stumbled across odd shots of the place in random film footage I was pretty excited .
I wish we could have gotten a drink there together, Bettye Jo. And maybe hit the lanes at your favorite alley and bowled a few frames.
1962 (click to see larger image)
Sources & Notes
Top photo and photo of bowling shirt from the collection of Paula Bosse.
The three color images are screenshots from films in the G. William Jones Film Collection, Hamon Arts Library, Southern Methodist University. The first is from the WFAA NewsFilm Collection, the second and third from a promotional film for The Dallas Morning News all are from the 1960s.
Map is a detail from a 1962 map featured in the Flashback Dallas post “Map of Downtown Dallas, For the Curious Conventioneer — 1962.”
The Birth of America’s Obsession With the Perfect Cup of Coffee
Because there’s wonky science behind that perfect cuppa.
Wanted: someone to set the record straight on coffee’s health effects and work out the recipe for a perfect cup.
This was the National Coffee Roasters Association’s proposition to Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Samuel Prescott in 1920, in exchange for $40,000 worth of funding (half a million today). The public was fed up with snake-oil-style health ads and were newly protected from fraudulent pseudo-medical packaging by legislation. So coffee peddlers needed more precise, scientific advertising — and nothing embodied precision like MIT.
Professor Samuel Cate Prescott in his new laboratory devoted to perfecting coffee in 1920.
Prescott accepted the gig and was soon monitoring coffee’s effects on rabbits. He separated decades of quackery from legitimate literature, sipping obscene quantities of brown gold for three years before delivering the perfect cuppa: “One tablespoon of coffee per eight ounces of water, just short of boiling, in glass or ceramic containers, never boiled, reheated or reused.” Prescott didn’t want his fairly basic research bandied about, but that didn’t stop the coffee roasters from plastering his quotes for 36 million newspaper readers to see. Just 20 years earlier, coffee was known for being cut with sawdust, but brewing had now become an exercise in perfection.
To fully understand coffee brewing’s empirical affair, we need to rewind to the magnates, Mad men and bad science involved. Rising demand throughout the 19th century drove massive expansion of Brazilian plantations. Coffee men bet and bought like stockbrokers, on wisps of rumors of boom or bust in Brazil, until, by the 1890s, natural selection had honed an oligopoly of coffee-industry early birds like Folgers, Chase and Sanborn.
The late 19th century was a boom time for claims from patent medicines and psychological misinformation.
Mark Pendergrast, coffee historian
Of the magnates, John Arbuckle wrote the book on coffee salesmanship. His brew was conveniently prepacked with prize-redeemable coupons in every bag, packaged in beautifully crafted collectible crates. When Hermann Sielcken, Arbuckle’s biggest competitor, targeted Native American buyers by saying his coffee made men as strong as the lion on the wrapper, Arbuckle retorted that his insignia’s angel was stronger than 10,000 lions. If “Lion wants to beat my angel, they’ll have to put on their label a picture of God himself,” he mused.
Arbuckle modernized coffee advertising with two Don Draper-ish tricks: undermining self-worth and promising health. People had argued about coffee’s healthiness for hundreds of years, but it was Arbuckle’s ads that equated skilled coffee brewing with wifeliness, exploiting housewives’ insecurities, and healthy living.
The industry soon adopted his suggestive, insecurity-targeting advertising style, but they weren’t alone. A flash flood of snake-oil-like entrepreneurs had also noticed, and as coffee historian Mark Pendergrast tells OZY, “the late 19th century was a boom time for claims from patent medicines and psychological misinformation.”
Among them was traveling salesman C.W. Post, whose concept of a “coffee substitute” of burned-and-ground cereal called Postum seemed doomed to fail in 1895. But he pushed it with a fierce campaign, with headlines like “Lost Eyesight Through Coffee Drinking,” citing quack physicians and equating caffeine to “cocaine, morphine, nicotine and strychnine.” Post claimed that customers could “recover from any ordinary disease by discontinuing coffee … and using Postum.” Within a decade he was a millionaire, his $1.5 million advertising budget rivaling the entire coffee industry’s.
The brazenness that made him rich also proved his downfall. After Collier’s Weekly — a periodical that was muckraking fraudulent advertising at the time — lambasted Postum, he slandered it and got sued, with the coffee peddlers eagerly watching as the prosecutor convinced the jury to “make this man honest again,” according to The New York Times. Coffee trade magazines called out the father of the Food and Drug Administration, Harvey Wiley, for ignoring Post in his food-industry investigations. Wiley was no friend of the coffee industry he believed, as Pendergrast notes in his book Uncommon Grounds, that “coffee drunkenness is a commoner failing than the whiskey habit.” But Post’s ads were an embarrassing pain, and he finally forced Post to stop advertising Postum as coffee.
While the coffee industry successfully capitalized on public demand for transparency, taking down substitutes’ snake-oil-style advertising, it also managed to shoot itself in the foot. Not everyone drank coffee, but access to a cheap cuppa by then had become an American birthright. So in 1906, when Arbuckle’s old competitor Sielcken bankrolled the Brazilian government’s scheme to sequester surplus beans, Americans were outraged. Substitutes offering a “healthier,” cheaper alternative gained steam. Under the subsequent barrage of pseudo-scientific attack ads, coffee brands decided the wisest action was swiping at each other’s throats. If one ad claimed that coffee’s tannins or acids caused a health problem, every other brand countered with pseudo-medical bull claiming that that was what happened when you drank any other brand.
Unsurprisingly, this undermined people’s faith in the health benefits of coffee. So, after Postum was dispatched, heads of the industry and editors of top trade publications formed the National Coffee Roasters Association. In 1912, to improve the industry’s brewing standards, they charged inventor/researcher/entrepreneur and future chairman Edward Aborn with conducting the first study of coffee’s chemical composition. They resigned the whimsical ad campaigns in favor of more scientific ones — employing crack teams of Mad men who used psychological research to figure out how best to target customers, says Pendergrast.
Brands that resisted the new scientific style of advertising, including the once-dominant Arbuckle, quickly crumbled. And on the eve of the Jazz Age, the NCRA approached Prescott for help, raising their glass on a new coffee era.
America's 'Secret War' and the Most-Bombed Country in History
Democracy or hypocrisy? In this series, “American Hypo-cracy,” OZY looks at America’s lengthy struggle to live up to its lofty ideals by exploring some of the uglier episodes in its past that are often overlooked by the history books. Read more.
Christine Boyle’s store, Queen Design Lao, offers rings, necklaces and pendants to shoppers along Luang Prabang’s quaint peninsula. Most of the trinkets resemble normal jewelry, but the miniature cluster bombs on some chains in the friendly Aussie’s shop are less subtle.
Known as “peace jewelry,” the necklaces sport metal harvested from unexploded bombs, a reminder of how nearly a half-century ago, Laos became the most-bombed country in history during a “secret war” that lasted more than a decade. The American public was kept in the dark as the U.S. Air Force and CIA fought in Vietnam’s neighbor, where reverberations are still felt today in the quiet countryside.
This September, Barack Obama will become the first U.S. president to visit Laos, now that America has started to commit more money to cleaning up the bombs that make large swaths of the 7-million-strong landlocked country dangerous to tread.
You didn’t have to be in Laos for very long … to know what was going on.
Martin Stuart-Fox, former UPI correspondent
Several decades ago, another young president took office with Laos on his mind. The day before John F. Kennedy’s 1961 inauguration, the outgoing president, Dwight D. Eisenhower, urged him to focus on Laos as a way to stop communism’s spread, telling him “Laos [was] the key to the entire area of Southeast Asia.”
The U.S. backed the weak Royal Lao Government, which was battling the communist Pathet Lao. The Americans briefly left after Laos was officially declared neutral by the 1962 Geneva Agreement, which ordered all foreign forces to leave. But as the Vietnam War escalated, Laos became a crucial battleground — and its supposed neutrality was ignored by the North Vietnamese and the Americans. The former used Laos and Cambodia to move supplies along the Ho Chi Minh Trail as they worked to prevent the U.S. from gaining a strategic foothold in the Plain of Jars area bordering North Vietnam.
Skirmish successes went back and forth, with the CIA-backed local troops — mostly ethnic Hmong people from the mountains under the leadership of the charismatic Vang Pao — trading territory with the Pathet Lao. The Hmong were effective at guerrilla warfare but less skilled when it came to conventional battles, where they suffered heavy casualties.
Bomb scrap, shrapnel and cluster bombs sit in a pile next to a new home.
By 1969, as the North Vietnamese started to increase their ground forces, the U.S. had intensified its bombing campaign but denied doing so because it remained illegal. “It’s extraordinary, really, that official denial went on for as long as it did,” says Martin Stuart-Fox, author of A History of Laos and a United Press International correspondent in the capital city of Vientiane during the early years of the war. “Because the secret war wasn’t really secret, you didn’t have to be in Laos for very long … to know what was going on.” While the press reported on the fighting, President Richard Nixon did not formally acknowledge the presence of U.S. forces until 1970.
The scale was staggering. According to the Lao government’s bomb-cleaning organizers, American planes flew 580,000 bombing missions over Laos, dropping 2 million tons of explosives — more than the Allies dropped on Germany and Japan combined during World War II.
Stuart-Fox says the overall casualty numbers are still impossible to verify, but were high on both sides. Irregulars from neighboring Thailand and even Hmong children were pulled into the fight. The American-backed forces had some success in the biggest paramilitary operation in CIA history. Notably, at the Battle for Skyline Ridge in 1972, American-backed fighters defeated a much larger Communist force.
Historian William Leary wrote that the CIA deserved its accolades for fighting a far bigger army to a standstill for more than a decade. “As in Vietnam, however, victory on the battlefield did not mean much in the end,” he noted. “It merely delayed the final outcome of the war.”
Here's What Chicory Is, And Why It's In Your Coffee
If you've ever had the experience of drinking chicory coffee (and chances are, you were in New Orleans when you drank it), you might've had to wonder just exactly what chicory even is. For the record, chicory is this pretty flowering plant.
But underneath the plant is its root, and that's the stuff that we're going to talk about today. The root is what gets roasted and ground to be brewed with coffee in some parts of the world. This is what that root looks like:
But how and why does this stuff end up in our coffee? It's all rooted (pun not intended) in world history, a little bit of tradition and a whole lot of politics and economic hardships. For most of our coffee-drinking past, the addictive caffeinated beverage has been expensive. There weren't always Starbucks and Dunkin' Donuts competing on every street corner. Sometimes coffee was scarce -- especially if a major port was blocked for political reasons.
No one is sure exactly when people began mixing chicory with coffee, but according to Antony Wild (author of 'Coffee: A Dark History'), the use of chicory became popular in France during Napoleon's 'Continental Blockade' Of 1808, which resulted in a major coffee shortage. Chicory is native to France, where it has long been loved for culinary reasons so it's only natural that's where the story began.
During the blockade, the French mixed chicory with limited supplies of coffee to make their coffee stretch -- and even used it in place of coffee altogether. While chicory does't have any caffeine, it does share a similar flavor to coffee, which makes it a decent substitute in times of need.
When the blockade lifted and economic prosperity returned to France, the use of chicory in coffee subsided. But it did not disappear. Actually, the practice made its way over to the French colonies, like Louisiana. In 1860 alone, France exported 16 million pounds of chicory, and as a result, it's now grown in other parts of the world, namely North America and Australia. But it wasn't until the Civil War when Union naval blockades cut off the port of New Orleans, one of the largest coffee imports at the time, that coffee chicory became a big thing stateside.
Staying true to their roots, New Orleans locals turned to chicory to make their limited coffee supply stretch. The practice stuck, even when coffee became readily available again, because according to locals it's all about tradition. The world famous Cafe Du Monde still makes its cafe au lait with chicory, and it's especially good with a side of hot beignets.
Star of the film Harrison was not present, but other sequences have seen a stuntman wearing a mask resembling a young Indiana Jones, hinting at flashbacks to the 1980s, when the movie franchise was launched.
While the plot is yet to be released, it's been rumoured that Indiana Jones 5 will will revolve around the space race, specifically before the Apollo 11 moon landing.
No-show: Harrison Ford was once again absent, as the sequence was shot with minimal actors and crew on an empty road in the Dumfriesshire countryside in Scotland
Back at it: Harrison, 78, is reprising his role as Indiana Jones 30 years after the film franchise began and 13 years on from the last film, Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (pictured on set)
Iconic: Harrison and love interest Karen Allen famously took on the Nazis during the 1981 Raiders of the Lost Ark film
According to the Illuminerdi Harrison will take on villain Mads Mikkelsen, a Nazi scientist enlisted into NASA by the United States government to work on the space agency’s moon landing initiative.
Indiana Jones 5 director James Mangold then hinted at a Sixties theme when he tweeted back in January: 'I'm mentally living in 60's NYC right now cause that's where all the movies I'm working on take place'.
A sixties release would fit with the franchise timeline, as the last movie Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull was set in 1957.
Elaborate scenes: The action sequences required cranes, heavy-duty lighting and a smoke machine
High-octane: Also present were motorbikes with sidecars
Pictures taken on the set have not yet hinted at a time frame, with Harrison not giving away the era with his clothing due to wearing his famous brown uniform.
Nazis clearly make an appearance in the move in some way, however, with an insider recently revealing that the crew are only filming these scenes at night, so as not to offend any passersby.
A source told The Sun: 'They're desperate not to cause offence, so filming has mainly taken place at night, under the cover of darkness.
High-speed: Stunt drivers were seen racing along the road in a World War II car with Nazi flags on it
Absent: Star of the film Harrison, 78, was not present
'The Nazi swastikas on the various vehicles were taped over until the last minute and during the day they were hidden away.
'All effort was taken to be as sensitive as possible.'
As well as Nazi scenes, stunt men were seen filming a high speed chase sequence on motorbikes through the Scottish Highlands’ village of Glencoe on Monday.
Plot: The scene appeared to be a flashback with the WWII vehicles
Storyline: The plot - which is being shrouded in mystery - appears to feature a wartime backstory
Meanwhile, Harrison has been undertaking a gruelling exercise regime while filming the latest instalment in the series, much of which has been shot so far at Bamburgh Castle in Northumberland.
The Hollywood star has been cycling 40 miles and going on walks after just six hours of sleep before shooting on an 11-hour filming schedule.
'It’s clockwork, very regimented. It’s wake up, lunch, a very long bike ride, then he’s at the film set from 6pm,' an inside source told The Mirror on Saturday.
Bored: An actor dressed as a soldier loitered on the road between takes
The Nazis are coming: Flags were tacked to the front of the vintage motorcar
They continued: 'He then arrives back at the hotel around 5am. That exercise and work regime would be punishment for a man half his age. It’s real dedication.”
'It’s incredible. He seems to live a very strict routine. You can set your watch by the things he does at the same time every day. Regimented.'
For his cycles, Harrison reportedly uses a £12,000 road racing bike and has stopped for lunch at the Ship’s Cat seafood restaurant in North Shields to refuel.
The star is chaperoned for his daily workout by security and is also accompanied by his personal assistant.
MailOnline has contacted Harrison's representatives for comment.
Vroom! Other sequences have seen a stuntman wearing a mask resembling a young Indiana Jones, hinting at flashbacks to the 1980s, when the movie franchise was launched
Aerial view: The cars and bikes zoomed along the country lane
Crew: Members of production were seen reassessing the scene
This marks Harrison's fifth time reprising the title role of the heroic archaeologist with supporting parts going to Mads Mikkelsen, 55, and Phoebe Waller-Bridge, 35.
And although Harrison is in impeccable shape, a younger stunt double has been spotted on the set.
The stuntman was spotted earlier this week in an action packed scene - shot in the early hours in Pickering - where he accidentally fell off of a motorcycle.
Vroom vroom: As well as Nazi scenes, stunt men were seen filming a high speed chase sequence on motorbikes through the Scottish Highlands’ village of Glencoe on Monday
Three's company: The riders were seen burning rubber down the quiet streets of Glencoe
The on-set first aid team was called over to check out the stunt rider. While it appeared he was unharmed, filming was paused due to damage caused to the bike.
According to a witness, one of the crew was heard saying that the production is already a day behind schedule, following a lengthy hold up thanks to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Indiana Jones 5 was first announced in 2016 and originally scheduled to be released in July 2019.
It was then pushed back a year, before being delayed for another 12 months until July 2021 after Jonathan Kasdan - whose father Lawrence Kasdan wrote 1981's Raiders of the Lost Ark - was brought on board to work on the script after original screenwriter David Koepp departed the project.
Flashback: Donald Trump’s 25 Things You Don’t Know About Me
President-elect Donald Trump has never been one to hold back what's on his mind, especially in recent months. Back in May 2010, Trump, then the host of The Celebrity Apprentice, opened up to Us Weekly with 25 fun facts about himself. He revealed some of his favorite foods, how he gets to work every day, and even gave a shout-out to his immigrant mother. In honor of Trump’s victory in the presidential election, take a look at his list:
1. I ride an elevator to work. It's my greatest luxury.
2. I do my own hair (but my wife cuts it).
3. I like cherry-vanilla ice cream.
4. I don't use an intercom in the office.
6. I often have mirrors, chairs, and sinks in my front office in order to decide what's best for my buildings.
7. I have one of Shaq's shoes in my office.
PHOTOS: The Celebrity Apprentice: All-Stars Cast: Then & Now!
9. Citizen Kane is my favorite movie.
10. I turn off the lights when I leave a room.
11. I like to read history, biographies, and the New York Post's Page Six.
12. I don't drink coffee, tea, or alcohol.
13. I love spending time with my family.
14. I like to drive myself when I'm out of the city.
PHOTOS: Celebrities' Political Affiliations
15. I scrape the toppings off my pizza — I never eat the dough.
16. I love Scotland, where my mother was born, and where I'm developing a golf course.
17. I ask a lot of questions.
20. I like having dinner at home with my family.
21. My sister Maryanne makes meatloaf for me on my birthday.
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22. I eat lunch at my desk.
23. I have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
24. "You're fired!" is the No. 3 greatest TV catchphrase of all time.
25. I'm actually very modest.
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Don't Call It 'Turkish' Coffee, Unless, Of Course, It Is
Throughout the region that was once the Ottoman empire, people make coffee pretty much the same way: using coffee beans ground into a fine powder, then boiled in a little brass pot that the Turks call a cezve. maxpax/via Flickr hide caption
Throughout the region that was once the Ottoman empire, people make coffee pretty much the same way: using coffee beans ground into a fine powder, then boiled in a little brass pot that the Turks call a cezve.
When I was in Istanbul in March, I stopped by a tiny cafe called Mandabatmaz, near Taksim Square. Ten Bulgarian tourists were inside, waiting for demitasses of rich, strong coffee "so thick even a water buffalo wouldn't sink in it," according to a translation of the cafe's name.
I ordered a cup of the velvety coffee, crowned with a bubbly froth.
"A beautiful Turkish coffee," said one of the Bulgarian tourists.
Back home in Bulgaria, as well as Slovenia, Hungary, Romania, Iran and Israel, they do call this "beautiful coffee" Turkish. And they make it pretty much the same way: using coffee beans ground into a fine powder, then boiled in a little brass pot that the Turks call a cezve. The coffee is ready when it rises, bubbles and nearly overflows.
The style of coffee, also known as Arabic, first came from Yemen. An Ottoman governor stationed in Yemen in the 16th century fell in love with it and introduced it to Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, who popularized coffee in Istanbul and beyond.
A century later, Sultan Murad IV outlawed coffee, calling it an indecent drink, and chopped off the heads of those who drank it. The coffee, obviously, won out.
The Turkish coffee served at Mandabatmaz cafe in Istanbul, where the coffee is served "so thick even a water buffalo wouldn't sink in it." Joanna Kakissis for NPR hide caption
The Turkish coffee served at Mandabatmaz cafe in Istanbul, where the coffee is served "so thick even a water buffalo wouldn't sink in it."
But ordering Turkish coffee today doesn't go over well in some Balkan or eastern Mediterranean countries that were once part of the Ottoman Empire — even if their preparation of the coffee is remarkably similar.
In Armenia, where the Ottomans led a genocide against more than a million people between 1915 and 1923, it's Armenian coffee. In Sarajevo, Bosnia, I once ordered a "Turkish coffee" only to be corrected by the irritated waiter: "You mean a Bosanska kafa" — a Bosnian coffee. In Cyprus, which the Turks invaded in 1974, it's a kypriakos kafes — Cypriot coffee. (Except in the northern third of the island, which Turkey has occupied since 1974.)
In Greece, where I live and which has a tortured history with Turkey, you order an elliniko -- a Greek coffee.
"It wasn't always this way," says Albert Arouh, a Greek food scholar who writes under a pen name, Epicurus. "When I was a kid in the 1960s, everyone in Greece called it Turkish coffee."
Arouh says he began noticing a name change after 1974, when the Greek military junta pushed for a coup in Cyprus that provoked Turkey to invade the island.
"The invasion sparked a lot of nationalism and anti-Turkish feelings," he says. "Some people tried to erase the Turks entirely from the coffee's history, and re-baptized it Greek coffee. Some even took to calling it Byzantine coffee, even though it was introduced to this part of the world in the sixteenth century, long after the Byzantine Empire's demise."
By the 1980s, Arouh noticed it was no longer politically correct to order a "Turkish coffee" in Greek cafes. By the early 1990s, Greek coffee companies like Bravo (now owned by DE Master Blenders 1753 of the Netherlands) were producing commercials of sea, sun and nostalgic village scenes and declaring "in the most beautiful country in the world, we drink Greek coffee."
Nationalism was one reason for the change, says Marianthi Milona, a Greek cookbook writer who grew up in Cologne, Germany. "But it was also a way to differentiate from other kinds of coffee."
In the first half of the 20th century, the only coffee in Greece was "Turkish" coffee. Then came frappe, the iced drink made from instant Nescafe. Then espresso and cappuccino, which are now the hottest items in most Greek cafes. "So the 'coffee' — the first coffee — had to have a name too," she said. "And because we are in Greece, we decided it must be Greek."
In Athens, my uncle Thanassis, who has been making this coffee for more than 60 years, waits until the water in the pot is warm before adding the powdery grounds. He stirs the mixture until it looks creamy. In Istanbul, I noticed the man making the coffee at Mandabatmaz adding a few drops of hot water to spoonfuls of coffee and sugar, then whip-stirring the mixture into a dark paste. He then added more hot water to the pot before boiling it to velvety perfection over a gas flame.
My uncle and I tried the Mandabatmaz method at his house in Athens, with Turkish coffee I'd brought him as a gift from a market in Kadıköy on the Asian side of Istanbul. The coffee was stronger than the Loumidis brand my uncle usually buys but he agreed that it tasted great.
"To Suleiman the Magnificent," he said, holding up his demitasse in a toast. "Thanks for the coffee."