10 Things You May Not Know About Paul Revere

10 Things You May Not Know About Paul Revere


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1. He was of French extraction.

Paul Revere’s father, Apollos Rivoire, was a French Huguenot who immigrated to Boston at age 13 and Anglicized his family name before marrying a local girl named Deborah Hitchbourn. Born around 1734 and one of 11 or 12 children, Paul never learned to read or speak French, though he did fight against Apollos’ former compatriots during the French and Indian War.

2. A silversmith by trade, he sometimes worked as an amateur dentist.

Revere used his skills as a craftsman to wire dentures made of walrus ivory or animal teeth into his patients’ mouths. In 1776 he unwittingly became the first person to practice forensic dentistry in the United States: He identified the body of his friend Joseph Warren nine months after the well-known revolutionary died during the Battle of Bunker Hill by recognizing wiring he had used on a false tooth. Contrary to popular legend, Revere did not fashion a set of wooden dentures for George Washington.

3. He was also known for his art.

When he wasn’t smithing or dabbling in dentistry, the multitalented Paul Revere produced some of the era’s most sophisticated copper plate engravings, creating illustrations used in books, magazines, political cartoons and tavern menus. One of his most famous engravings is a sensationalized and propagandist depiction of the 1770 Boston Massacre, based on a painting by the Bostonian artist Henry Pelham. Its widespread distribution helped to fuel growing resentment toward the British army and government.

4. He led a spy ring.

According to the Central Intelligence Agency, Paul Revere founded the first patriot intelligence network on record, a Boston-based group known as the “mechanics.” Prior to the American Revolution he had been a member of the Sons of Liberty, a political organization that opposed incendiary tax legislation such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and organized demonstrations against the British. Beginning in 1774, the mechanics, also referred to as the Liberty Boys, spied on British soldiers and met regularly (in the legendary Green Dragon Tavern) to share information.

5. The well-known poem about him is inaccurate.

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s 1861 poem about Paul Revere’s ride got many of the facts wrong. For one thing, Revere was not alone on his mission to warn John Hancock, Samuel Adams and other patriots that the British were approaching Lexington on the evening of April 18, 1775. Two other men, William Dawes and Samuel Prescott, rode alongside him, and by the end of the night as many as 40 men on horseback were spreading the word across Boston’s Suffolk County. Revere also never reached Concord, as the poem inaccurately recounts. Overtaken by the British, the three riders split up and headed in different directions. Revere was temporarily detained by the British at Lexington and Dawes lost his way after falling off his horse, leaving Prescott—a young physician who is believed to have died in the war several years later—the task of alerting Concord’s residents.

6. His most famous quote was fabricated.

Paul Revere never shouted the legendary phrase later attributed to him (“The British are coming!”) as he passed from town to town. The operation was meant to be conducted as discreetly as possible since scores of British troops were hiding out in the Massachusetts countryside. Furthermore, colonial Americans at that time still considered themselves British; if anything, Revere may have told other rebels that the “Regulars”—a term used to designate British soldiers—were on the move.

7. A borrowed horse served as his worthy steed on the night of April 18, 1775.

Not only is it unlikely Revere owned a horse at the time, but he would not have been able to transport it out of Boston across the Charles River. It is believed that the Charlestown merchant John Larkin loaned him a horse, which was later confiscated by the British. According to a Larkin family genealogy published in 1930, the name of the lost mare was Brown Beauty.

8. His military record was less than stellar.

Four years after his midnight ride, Paul Revere served as commander of land artillery in the disastrous Penobscot Expedition of 1779. In June of that year, British forces began establishing a fort in what is now Castine, Maine. Over the next few weeks, hundreds of American soldiers converged on the outpost by land and sea. Although the outnumbered British were initially prepared to surrender, the Americans failed to attack in time, and by August enough British reinforcements had arrived to force an American retreat. Charged with cowardice and insubordination, Revere was court-martialed and dismissed from the militia. (He was acquitted in 1782, but his reputation remained tarnished.)

9. He went on to become a successful businessman.

After the American Revolution, Revere opened a hardware store, a foundry and eventually the first rolling copper mill in the United States. He provided materials for the historic frigate USS Constitution, which played an important role in the War of 1812 and is the world’s oldest floating commissioned naval vessel. He also produced more than 900 church bells, one of which still rings every Sunday in Boston’s King’s Chapel. Revere Copper Products, Inc., is still in operation today.

10. He had a lot of kids.

Revere fathered 16 children—eight with his first wife, Sarah Orne, and eight with Rachel Walker, whom he married after Sarah’s death in 1773. He raised them in a townhouse at 19 North Square that is downtown Boston’s oldest building, first constructed in 1680 after the Great Fire of 1676 destroyed the original home on the site. Eleven of Revere’s children survived to adulthood, and at the time of his death at the ancient (for that time) age of 83, five were still living.


San Francisco's school renaming debacle is a timely mix of confused priorities and bad 𧾬ts'

San Francisco was one of the first US cities to declare a state of emergency at the onset of the coronavirus pandemic. Its public schools have been closed for nearly a year.

And the public outrage over the endless foot-dragging on re-opening is well-deserved, especially considering what the city's school board has spent precious time on rather than laser-focusing on reopening.

Children — especially those in low-income households — continue to suffer mental anguish, the loss of irreplaceable months of youth and social discovery, and a permanent stunting of their education as long as in-person schooling remains unavailable.

And yet for some reason, San Francisco's Board of Education recently devoted a disproportionate amount of time and energy on an effort to review every single public school in the district with the goal of swiftly renaming any building bearing the name of a person who contributed to the abuse or subjugation of women, minorities, queer people, and the environment.

There's still no set date to reopen San Francisco's schools.


10 Facts About Paul Revere

Paul Revere was a silversmith in the time of the American Revolution, and is well remembered for his patriotic actions and involvement in the American Revolution.

1. The Midnight Ride of Paul Revere

Probably what most people know him for, the famous “Midnight Ride” of Paul Revere, occurred on the night of April 18 or early morning of April 19, 1775. Revere, along with two other messengers were sent to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams of the movements of the British Army. Revere set out to accomplish his task, and along the way he risked himself by warning other patriots, and encouraging them to spread the message that the British were coming. Several of those Revere warned also rode on horseback to deliver warnings of their own. This meant that during the night nearly 40 riders were spreading the message of the movement of the British army, and preparing the patriots to fight. The reason this midnight ride is so well remembered is because of the magnitude of the message, and the results of it being delivered properly.

2. Battles of Lexington and Concord

One of the reasons Paul Revere is famous today is because of his role as a messenger, not just the night of the midnight ride, but also during The Battles of Lexington and Concord. He played an important role as he helped to organize an intelligence and alarm system that was designed to keep watch over the British forces and warn Americans of threats so that they could be prepared.

3. Craftsman

Besides being a wonderful messenger, Paul Revere was also a very influential and wealthy man of his time due to his craftsmanship. He was well respected as a talented man in his trade, and was commissioned to engrave plaques and signs for some very important historical sites including one for the Boston Massacre.

4. Manufacturing

When the war was over, Revere did not just fall off the face of the historical significance map. In fact, his skill as a craftsman helped him to recognize the potential that existed for manufacturing metal on a large scale, and he became instrumental in the forward movement of manufacturing rather than just cottage industry production.

5. War experience

Paul Revere played a key role in the Revolutionary War, and was able to be such a key figure, and forward thinker about alarms, etc, because the Revolutionary War was not Revere’s first experience with war. Although only briefly, Paul Revere fought during the Seven Years War and served as a lieutenant in an artillery regiment at the time.

6. Sons of Liberty

Revere was involved in the early political circles of America. Because of his wealth and prominence, Revere got to know a great number of political figures, and he was commissioned to create a number of political engravings. Part of this involvement lead to his involvement with Sons of Liberty, a historically significant group that helped free American fro British grasp.

7. Committee of Public Safety

Following the Boston Tea Party, Revere started working for the Committee of Public Safety. His role was to deliver messages about the political unrest that was occurring in the city of New York to Philadelphia. Again, a large contributor to American liberty.

One of the reasons Revere is so well known is because his story became almost mythical in power. The fact is there is little evidence to show that Revere yelled out the words, “The British are coming,” in fact most historians would argue that he likely did not, and instead delivered the messages in secret due to the fact that at the time there were British loyalist all throughout the countryside, and he would have been in grave danger. Thus, his most famous act was probably not as heroic as it has been made out to be, nor as historically significant as much of his other contributions to the revolution. However, it is often the tales of heroics that make people famous rather than the actual acts.

9. Revere’s run in with the British

Whether or not his ride was significant or not, Revere was a key part of the revolution, and was after that famous night’s ride he was detained and questioned by British loyalists and taken at gunpoint by British officers toward Lexington. He never got that far as the officers were distracted by gun fire, and he was able to escape on foot. His work during the Revolution put his life at risk many times, making his sacrifice and actions more notable.

10. Longfellow

The fact is, Revere was a contributor to the Revolution just like many others. Why we remember him, is that over forty years after his death Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, a well known poet, wrote about his ride.


Because so many of the cast were minors, who had restricted work hours and had to complete three hours of school per day, many scenes in the show were "assembled" in post-production. Mills jokes that any scene where she was in the kitchen and the kids were at the table, she was actually acting with a piece of tape with a smiley face, or with a hanging tennis ball.

But Savage and McKellar also had instances where they worked alone. In fact, despite the fact that for emotional scenes, the producers tried to have the actors together, McKellar reveals that when Winnie and Kevin said "I love you" for the first time, each was alone.


10 things you might not know about the Founding Fathers (and Mothers)

The people who founded this nation aren't moldy mannequins in history's closet — they're inspirational figures for modern America as we celebrate the Fourth of July holiday. Former Gov. Rod Blagojevich recently said he had a "man crush" on Alexander Hamilton, and Sarah Palin got into a debate about Paul Revere. So here's to life, liberty and the pursuit of historical trivia:

1 Paul Revere did not shout "The British are coming!" Stop and think about it — he was a British subject at the time. In fact, he said the "regulars" were coming — regular uniformed troops. But regulars had one too many syllables for poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

2 Before President Josiah "Jed" Bartlet on "The West Wing," there was Josiah Bartlett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. The New Hampshire physician is credited with saving the lives of people suffering from diphtheria by breaking with the common practice of bloodletting or sweating and treating them with Peruvian bark, which contains quinine.

3 The phrase "Founding Father" is widely credited to President Warren Harding, who said it at the 1916 Republican National Convention in Chicago when he was still a senator. (And by Harding, we mean Judson Welliver, a campaign aide who wrote his speeches.)

4 Phillis Wheatley, whose first name came from the slave ship that brought her from Africa as a child, was too frail for housework but brilliant at poetry. She wrote patriotic verse honoring George Washington and was welcomed at his headquarters — a remarkable meeting considering she was a slave and he a slaveowner. (Four of the first five U.S. presidents owned slaves, the exception being John Adams.)

5 You probably haven't heard of Button Gwinnett unless you're an avid autograph collector. The Georgia politician, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, died violently during the Revolutionary War — but in a duel, not while fighting the British. That early demise makes his signature quite rare, and some say it's the most valuable of any American's. A Gwinnett letter fetched $722,500 at auction last year.

6 Francis Hopkinson, another signer, most likely designed the U.S. flag, the Stars and Stripes. He was never paid, though, and in 1780 he asked the government for "a quarter cask of the public wine" as a "reasonable reward." He never got it.

7 Speaking of American flags, there's little reason to think Betsy Ross sewed the first one. Her legend gained popularity long after the purported events, when her grandson addressed a Philadelphia historical group in 1870 and presented relatives' sworn statements that they had heard Ross tell the story.

8 Like the Ross legend, the Molly Pitcher story was popularized many decades after the fact. But the tale of a woman operating a cannon in place of her fallen husband matches the real exploits of at least two women: Mary Ludwig Hays at the battle of Monmouth and Margaret Corbin at the battle of Fort Washington. The badly wounded Corbin was the first woman to earn a U.S. military pension.

9 Samuel Adams wasn't such a good brewer (he ran his family's business into the ground), but he was a tireless revolutionary. One of the earliest colonists to argue for independence, he wrote hundreds of letters to newspapers promoting the cause. And he signed the letters with myriad fake names so it appeared the countryside was teeming with rebels.

10 What battlefield commander was most vital to American victory in the Revolution? Probably Benedict Arnold. His audacious attacks in upstate New York and Canada protected New England early in the war, and the victory at Saratoga (in which he suffered a grievous leg wound) led to the alliance with the French that made all the difference. OK, so Arnold later committed treason. Nobody's perfect.

Mark Jacob is a deputy metro editor at the Tribune Stephan Benzkofer is the Tribune's weekend editor.


10 Things You May Not Know About Paul Anka

by Austin O'Connor, AARP, April 17, 2013 | Comments: 0

Paul Anka: singer, songwriter, all around suave.

Anka recorded his first No. 1 single, "Diana," in 1957 when he was just 15, the same age Bieber was in 2009 when he released his first hit, "One Time." They share a birthplace, too: Ontario, Canada.

"There's always been screaming girls, you know?" Anka says when asked to compare himself with the increasingly troubled teen idol. He has followed Bieber's career, but worries about the constant media attention that accompanies young stars. He's glad he shot to fame decades earlier.

"There are too many people coming from left and right at these kids, and I don't know that they can handle it," he says. "Along with the success there's going to be some rejection, some failure. I learned more in my work from my failure, not my success, and I don't know that they're doing that. These kids fall apart."

Bieber would do well to listen to Anka. As showbiz storytellers go, the guy is tough to beat. His string of big hits, including "Puppy Love" and "Put Your Head on My Shoulder," began when he was a teen by mid-career, he settled in as a headliner in Las Vegas and tagged along with Frank Sinatra and the Rat Pack.

Anka has penned some of the most famous pop songs of all time, for artists as diverse as Buddy Holly and Michael Jackson. And he's about to be red-hot again: His new autobiography, My Way, and new album, Duets, hit stores this April. (See a video at the bottom of this page about Anka's duet with Michael Bublé.) His summer tour begins in May.

"I've lived a life, that's for sure," Anka says, with the knowing chuckle of a man whose career has bridged two centuries.

Here, in his words and ours, are 10 facts of that life you may be surprised to learn.

1. At 16, he joined the "Biggest Show of Stars" tour with the likes of Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry. He wrote a song for Holly, "It Doesn't Matter Anymore," just before the singer died in a plane crash. It was a posthumous hit. Anka gave his royalties from the song to Holly's widow.

Buddy was a heavy influence, but he was more of a friend. He was around my age, we started in the music business together. We appreciated each other.

2. In 1962, little-known comic Johnny Carson asked him to write the theme song for a new version of Tonight on NBC.

I was doing a show in England and I needed some comic relief from all the music and I hired Johnny. I kept in touch with him, and he ended up in New York and called me and said, "I've got this TV show that I'm going to be doing for maybe a couple of years — ha ha ha — and can you write me a new theme?" Who knew it would be on that long, five days a week? I got paid every time it got played.

3. As rock 'n' roll became popular, his throwback style led him to the place that would define the rest of his career: Las Vegas.

It's become a big Disneyland. It's corporate. It's shorts and sandals. I knew it when everybody was in shirt-and-tie and it was Mafia-driven and it had a great sense of style. I look at it really with a smile on my face. From the beginning, I watched this whole journey, this whole circus. It's cool, you know?

Paul Anka croons a tune in 1968.

4. As a headliner in Vegas in the '60s, he had a front seat for the heyday of the Rat Pack. He idolized Frank Sinatra.

I saw him from corner to corner, from behavior in steam rooms to socially at parties, onstage, rehearsals. So I got the full menu of what this guy was about. I don't think there's anybody who's been talked about or written about as much. Even today. What you had coming at you was this guy, this person, this godlike creature, he was a bad boy, he was a good boy — and could sing! Think about that, huh, today? Stylistically, he was an incredible interpreter of American standards.

5. In 1968, he penned the lyrics to "My Way" — written for Sinatra's impending retirement — in a single night.

When I perform it, I feel the difference from when I started. You do feel certain songs differently at certain passages of your life. There's no doubt about it. I play it at every show. They'd throw [stuff] at me if I didn't. They come to see it. They want "Diana." They want "My Way." There are certain songs that you wouldn't dare not do.

6. Of all the songs he's written, "She's a Lady," which was a No. 1 hit for Tom Jones, is his least favorite.

I love it for Tom to sing. But I don't think it's something that I could have made a hit. I'm a writer first, and I write for people who have different styles. I think it's somewhat chauvinistic, but Tom pulls it off.

7. Even the songs he wrote as ad jingles became hits. In 1975, "The Times of Your Life," written for a Kodak commercial, hit No. 7 on the Billboard charts.

Isn't it amazing that there's no Kodak [commercials] today? Who would have thought that? The song was a departure, a totally different working environment.

8. He cowrote Michael Jackson's final hit, "This Is It," which was released after it was discovered at the singer's home following his 2009 death. It was recorded in the early '80s, but Anka says Jackson secretly took the demo tapes from Anka's studio.

He was always pretty cool around me. I knew him as a kid. His family came to Vegas. He sought me out in the '80s. I guess the only negative I would have [about him] is when he did steal the tapes from me, but I wouldn't be talking about that song today if he hadn't. He was different. Very different. A little eccentric. But he was a great artist.

9. He has four grown daughters and a 7-year-old son.

It's different, in the sense that at this stage — how many summers do I have left? I don't work in my office anymore. I work at home. I'm up every morning with him, and I take him to school, and I pick him up at school. He's always with me. I work out of home so that I'm here for him, because time is the biggest asset that we all have, and you have to use it properly.

10. He has never felt younger.

If you're fortunate enough to do something that you do love, if you have a passion, then you're never working a day in your life. And that's me since I'm 16. With all the Rat Pack experience, I came away from it not being a heavy smoker or drinker because I saw what it did to them. Eating properly and exercise, and mentally keeping myself in the right place with the right kind of pressure: It's worked for me. I've been protective of my body for the last 40-some years. If you do that, and stay active, you got a shot at having a real, unfettered life, and keeping the brain working. I've seen too many guys retire, even Frank, and they sit around counting their money and they just die. They throw dirt on you if you stand still, and I've been afraid of that. I just keep moving and doing what I'm doing.


11 Things You Probably Didn’t Know About Paul Revere

Everyone knows about Paul Revere’s midnight ride, but this patriot did a lot more to help America gain its independence. Here are 11 little-known facts about the Founding Father.

1. His father was a Huguenot.

Revere’s father, Apollos Rivoire, was a French Huguenot refugee who fled his country as a result of religious persecution. He was born in Riocaud in 1702, but with time he lost most of his connection to France—he could not read or write the language. The Frenchman later changed his name to Paul Revere, "on account that the Bumpkins pronounce it easier." He married Deborah Hitchbourn, a member of a very old Boston family, and passed the anglicized name, Paul, to his eldest son.

2. As a teen, Revere worked as a church bell ringer.

When he was around fifteen, Revere would ring the bells at the Eight Bell Church near his home. The young patriot and his friends set up a bell ringers’ association. They drafted a document that detailed the rules and guidelines for membership. Members could only be allowed into the group through a unanimous vote, members could not beg for money, and a moderator was chosen every three months to delegate work and changes within the group. The simple document focused on the fundamentals of public duty, majority vote, and community.

3. Revere made some interesting items in silver.

Revere’s father came to Boston as an apprentice smith. He worked for a man named John Coney for several years and purchased his freedom for forty pounds. After Revere was born, he apprenticed under his father and learned how to craft things from gold and silver. Some items include a chain for a pet squirrel, an ostrich egg snuffbox, and sword hilts. You can tell an item is made by Revere by his maker’s mark—either his last name in a rectangle, or his initials in cursive.

4. The silversmith was also a dentist.

When dental surgeon John Baker moved to town, Revere happily studied under him. He learned how to create false teeth out of ivory and insert them using wire. Revere became so confident in his abilities that in 1768, he placed an ad declaring he “can fix [teeth] as well as any surgeon dentist who ever came from London, he fixes them in such a manner that they are not only an ornament but of real use in speaking and eating.”

5. He made a lot of money. Literally.

During wartime, Revere used his smithing skills to engrave printing plates to print money in Massachusetts. He was also commissioned to design the Continental currency, money used to pay the rebel army. The new bills strangely ranged from one-sixth of a dollar to 80 dollars.

6. During the war, Revere accidentally engaged in some super early forensics.

After Dr. Joseph Warren was killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775, he was buried like others in an unmarked grave. Ten months later, the bodies were exhumed and examined. Revere was Warren’s dentist, and recognized him by his teeth: Revere had given Warren a false tooth fastened with wire. This was the first body identification done by teeth in recorded history.

7. He had a large family.

Revere had two wives, Sarah Orne and Rachel Walker, and he had eight children with each of them. Revere was a doting father who referred to his kids as his “little lambs.” Ten of Revere’s children perished at a young age, but he still managed to acquire 52 grandchildren.

8. Revere was unfailingly polite and dapper.

The patriot even dressed well on his famous midnight ride. Impressed by his garb, his captors saluted him as one of equal rank (before threatening to shoot him in the head). Even with a gun in hand, the redcoat politely asked, “May I crave your name, sir?”

9. He was not drunk on his midnight ride.

This urban legend took hold when the media was eager to discredit the Founding Fathers during the tumultuous era surrounding the Vietnam War. One Boston newspaper ran a story in 1968 claiming that Revere drank some rum early into his midnight ride. Revere’s drunken yelling apparently roused the patriots accidentally. While Captain Hall, a patriot stationed in Medford, did own a distillery, there is no evidence suggesting that Revere’s booze-fueled yelling truly occurred. Regardless, the unfounded accusations caught on and are often still suggested as truth.

10. He wasn’t the only one to go on a midnight ride.

Paul Revere and William Dawes originally planned to carry news of the invasion to Concord, where military supplies were stored, and then warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams, who had been targeted for capture. On the trip there, the duo would ride through Somerville, Medford, and Arlington, warning patriots as they passed through. They ran into Samuel Prescott (who was just leaving a lady friend’s house at one in the morning) in Lexington, and asked him to come along.

Revere was captured about halfway through the ride, but the others managed to escape and keep going. Revere had his horse confiscated but still managed to warn John Hancock and Samuel Adams. The true hero was Prescott, who actually went through with the plan and reached Concord.

So why were the more successful criers left out of the story? One very popular—but incorrect—poem is to blame. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s "Paul Revere's Ride" starts with this very familiar stanza:

Listen, my children, and you shall hear
Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere,
On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-Five:
Hardly a man is now alive
Who remembers that famous day and year.

This poem is filled with intentional inaccuracies. Longfellow did his research, but took many liberties in order to properly convey his message. The poet wanted to create a folk hero by painting a lone man as the midnight rider. In order to do such, he removed the extra players.

11. We’ve all been misquoting him.

Paul Revere and his fellow patriots never shouted, “The British are coming!” That wouldn’t have made sense, since most colonists were British. The actual warning was "the Regulars are coming out.” This misconception is another result of Longfellow’s creative license—he found the real sentence to be too wordy for his poem.


The city has the largest openly gay community in Latin America, and every year hosts what is considered to be the largest Gay Pride Parade in the continent. In 2016, more than two million people attended the event. There are many hotels, bars, clubs and churches catering to the community. In 2012, the São Paulo State government created the Museu da Diversidade (Diversity Museum) to preserve the cultural heritage of the LGBT community in Brazil.

São Paulo is also home to the largest number of Japanese people outside of Asia. Japanese immigration to Brazil started in the early 1900s and today the community’s population is believed to be around 1.5 million. The Japanese Liberdade neighborhood is currently one of the most popular tourist spots in the city. This community has its own newspaper and many street names and storefront banners are written in Japanese. They also celebrate all the major festivities, such as Moti Tsuki, Toyo Matsuri and Tanabata Matsuri.


&aposSister Act 2&apos was a critical and box office failure

The second film sees Goldberg return to her former San Francisco Catholic high school (now run by the sisters from Saint Katherine’s convent), running the school’s choir in an effort to raise the school’s reputation to stave off closing. It marked the film debut of a young Hill, who would launch a successful music career shortly after making the film.

But critics slammed the film for being formulaic and focusing too much on Goldberg’s relationship with the students at the expense of her relationship with the nuns and mother superior. The film underperformed expectations at the box office, making $57 million in the US. Despite this, the sequel gained a following on home video and cable in the years following its release.


10 Things You May Not Know About Paul Revere - HISTORY

Paul Revere was born in the North End of Boston on December 21, 1734. Although Revere originated from the middling sort, through his membership in St. Andrews Lodge of Freemasons, he made connections with a number of people who later became the founding members of the Loyal Nine. Although he was not a member of the Loyal Nine, it is believed that he assisted this predecessor organization of the Sons of Liberty in leading political protests against Parliament’s authority to tax the colonies. While he was not known for exceptional oratory, he was a master of propaganda, and his works helped the Sons of Liberty galvanize support for their dissident cause.

Resisting Taxation Without Representation

In August of 1765, Paul Revere participated in the Stamp Act Riots in response to the impending Stamp Act that was to take effect in the coming months. During these riots, the mob tore down the houses of government officials, including the house of Lieutenant Governor and Chief Justice Thomas Hutchinson. While these riots were viewed in a negative light by Parliament, the now apparent unpopularity of the Stamp Act in British North America forced its repeal. Following swiftly on the heels of the Stamp Act’s repeal was the passage of the Declaratory Act in 1766, further asserting Parliament’s right to tax the colonies. From this point forward, Paul Revere dedicated himself to the production of engravings which highlighted the excesses of the British government, and the unpopularity of their laws in Boston.

On October 1, 1768, two thousand British regulars arrived in Boston. Paul Revere rendered his first of many engravings which, in a subtle manner, detailed the ill effects of British imperial policy in North America. In his engraving of the arrival of British troops, Revere included towering church steeples along Boston’s skyline as evidence of the town’s orderly and religious origins. To the viewer of the eighteenth century, this made the arrival of British regulars even more offensive. If Boston was capable of managing its own affairs, then why were two thousand regulars quartered in the town?

The Boston Massacre

As time passed, tensions between the occupying force of British regulars and the town of Boston mounted. On March 5, 1770, these tensions resulted in the deaths of five unarmed Boston civilians on King Street. This tragedy later became known as the Boston Massacre. Henry Pelham produced an engraving that was later copied and sensationalized by Paul Revere entitled the Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street. In this engraving, Revere depicted Captain Thomas Preston standing behind his soldiers of the 29th regiment, implying that he ordered them to fire into the crowd—which was later refuted during the Boston Massacre Trial. In addition, Ebenezer Richardson was shown firing his buckshot into the crowd (which had happened only a few weeks prior on February 22, 1770, resulting in the death of Christopher Sneider), and a storefront labeled “Butcher’s Hall” as to appeal to the viewer’s perception of the British Army as brutal oppressors.

Revere’s Revolutionary Propaganda

These examples of propaganda did much to convince the public of Parliament’s flawed colonial policies. In the years that followed, Paul Revere, and the leaders of the Sons of Liberty did everything in their power to keep the memory of the Boston Massacre alive. On March 5, 1771, only one year after the massacre, Paul Revere staged an elaborate public demonstration from his home in the North End. From the windows of his home, he displayed various scenes of the Boston Massacre. In one of his windows, he displayed the ghost of young Christopher Sneider along with the names of the five men that fell on King Street. A second window depicted the soldiers of the 29th regiment firing into the crowd, and the third window displayed lady liberty with one foot on the head of a British Grenadier, and her finger pointing toward the window displaying the massacre.

Paul Revere’s Ride

These various forms of propaganda had a profound effect on the people of Boston, and were instrumental in persuading the citizenry that the struggle for liberty was a just cause. In the years that followed, the leaders of the patriots would discover other useful talents in Paul Revere. Following the Boston Tea Party, he was dispatched to New York and Philadelphia to inform the Sons of Liberty in those towns of Boston’s resistance to the Tea Act. In addition, he was sent by Dr. Joseph Warren to alert the countryside of British regular troop movements on the evening of April 18, 1775, the day before the Battle of Lexington-Concord. While Paul Revere has widely been credited with the midnight ride, other riders were dispatched to raise the alarm of the approaching British Army. His place in history would be solidified by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, who canonized Revere as the lone midnight rider in an 1860 poem entitled “Paul Revere’s Ride.”

Legacy & Leadership

While Paul Revere is best remembered for his horsemanship, his most important contributions came from his hammer and chisel. His ability to appeal to the sensibilities of colonial subjects through the works of his copper engravings, and vigils demonstrated the power of propaganda. After the War of Independence, Revere expanded his business to open an iron foundry in the North End of Boston making utilitarian cast iron products that were useful and widely consumed by the local populace. He also opened a copper mill which produced bells for churches, rolled copper for the hulls of wooden ships, along with copper bolts and spikes that were useful to Boston’s burgeoning ship industry. All of this demonstrated that Paul Revere was a man of many talents and a true revolutionary, and was therefore indispensable to Boston’s success in resisting the authority of the British Parliament, and King George III.


10 Things You Didn't Know About Microsoft Billionaire Paul Allen, Seattle Seahawks Owner

Bill Gates must be America's best-known billionaire, as well as the richest. His name is rarely out of the headlines, most recently thanks to his philanthropic deeds rather than his heritage as Microsoft's co-founder. His Forbes profile page hovers near the top of our most-read list every day.

Gates' high school friend and co-founder of the world's largest software maker Paul Allen has traditionally taken up far fewer column inches in the press. The 61-year-old billionaire often described as "Microsoft's other mogul" wouldn't have it any other way.

With his NFL team the Seattle Seahawks headed to the Super Bowl, it's Allen's turn in the limelight. Here's your primer on the very private polymath who'll be cheering from the owner's box this Sunday.

1. Like Gates, Paul Allen is a college drop-out. He attended Washington State University for two years before leaving to become a programmer. That decision clearly hasn't hindered his success: Allen has a net worth of $15.8 billion per the most recent Forbes 400 rich list, making him the 26th wealthiest person in America.

2. The Seattle Seahawks are one of three teams under Allen's ownership. He purchased the NBA's Portland Trail Blazers in 1988 and owns a minority stake in the Seattle Sounders FC soccer team.

3. Aside from sports, Allen's passions include aviation. He funded SpaceShip-One, the first private aircraft to successfully put a civilian in suborbital space, earning him and designer Burt Rutan the Ansari X-Prize in 2004. Now, his Stratolaunch Systems is aiming for a 2016 test flight of what would be the world's largest airplane, one designed to launch satellites from mid-air into low-earth orbit.

His interest in flight isn't just focused on the future. He's painstakingly overseen the collection and curation of perfectly preserved WWII planes, all restored to working order and on show at his Flying Heritage Collection in Everett, Wash. He invited Forbes' sister publication ForbesLife for a tour in 2013. You can check out my interview with Allen and photos of his incredible collection here.

4. Allen's dedication to preserving history doesn't end with airplanes. He funds the EMP Museum, a collection of contemporary pop culture artifacts in the shadow of the Space Needle in his home city of Seattle.

A 15-minute drive away is his Living Computer Museum, showcasing vintage computers, many the size of small cars and restored so they hum and spurt out warm air as they would've in the 1960s. Allen allowed Forbes to tag along for a reunion of early Microsoft employees at the Living Computer Museum in 2013. One of many guests of honor? His lifelong buddy Bill Gates. The two reenacted an iconic photo from 1981, when they were both still boy wonders.

5. Allen is one multi-talented mogul. Last summer he and his band the Underthinkers released their debut blues-rock album, Everywhere At Once. The Microsoft billionaire plays a mean electric guitar, with accompaniment from friends like Joe Walsh of the Eagles and Chrissie Hynde of the Pretenders. He's also an Emmy winner: his Vulcan Productions film company won the award for Rx for Survival–A Global Health Challenge. His 2011 memoir Idea Man was a New York Times bestseller.

6. Computer programming won't be Allen's sole scientific legacy. To date, he's poured over $500 million into the Allen Institute for Brain Science. His goal, as my colleague Matthew Herper masterfully explained in a 2012 Forbes magazine story: to reverse-engineer the human brain.

As Herper wrote: "His first $100 million investment in the Allen Institute resulted in a gigantic computer map of how genes work in the brains of mice, a tool that other scientists have used to pinpoint genes that may play a role in multiple sclerosis, memory and eating disorders in people. Another $100 million went to creating a similar map of the human brain, already resulting in new theories about how the brain works, as well as maps of the developing mouse brain and mouse spinal cord. These have become essential tools for neuroscientists everywhere."

7. His family's influence on his life's trajectory is indelible. His interest in computers began in the stacks of the University of Washington library, where his late father Kenneth was associate director. Seven-year-old Allen would pull out books under his father's supervision and read for hours.

"I was trying to understand how things worked–how things were put together, everything from airplane engines to rockets and nuclear power plants," he told me last year. He's since endowed the library, now named after his late parents.

His interest in the human brain was partly stoked by his own late mother Faye Allen's struggles with Alzheimer's disease. “You see their personality, everything that makes them human, slowly slipping away, and there is nothing you can do about it," he told Forbes in 2012, shortly after she passed away.

If you look closely at your television during Sunday's game, you may see a large turquoise and silver ring gleaming from Allen's right hand. It belonged to his father and he rarely takes it off.

8. He's giving his money away. Allen was one of the first billionaires to join friends Bill Gates and Warren Buffett's Giving Pledge back in 2010. His philanthropy to date totals more than $1.5 billion he's vowed to leave the majority of his estate to charitable deeds. You can read the letter he sent Gates and Buffett when he joined in their ambitious pledge here.

9. Allen's a survivor. He beat Hodgkin’s lymphoma in 1982, leaving Microsoft in the process. In 2009, he was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and underwent chemotherapy. Said his sister and business partner Jody Allen in a statement at the time: "For those who know Paul's story, you know he beat Hodgkin's a little more than 25 years ago, and he is optimistic he can beat this, too." So far, so good.

10. He likes his toys. And why shouldn't he? Every programming genius turned philanthropic renaissance man deserves a little down time. His 400 foot super-yacht, the Octopus, must be seen to be believed (ditto its two on-board helicopters and 10-man submarine). Allen's Mercer Island, Wash. home is also a playground, and includes a basketball court and indoor pool with waterslide. He took 60 Minutes' Lesley Stahl on a rare tour in 2011. Check out the video here.


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