At Least 3,000 Native Americans Died on the Trail of Tears

At Least 3,000 Native Americans Died on the Trail of Tears


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Davy Crockett objected to Indian removal.

Frontiersman Davy Crockett, whose grandparents were killed by Creeks and Cherokees, was a scout for Andrew Jackson during the Creek War (1813-14). However, while serving as a U.S. congressman from Tennessee, Crockett broke with President Jackson over the Indian Removal Act, calling it unjust. Despite warnings that his opposition to Indian removal would cost him his seat in Congress, where he’d served since 1827, Crockett said, “I would sooner be honestly and politically damned than hypocritically immortalized.” The year after the act’s 1830 passage, Crockett lost his bid for reelection. After being voted back into office in 1833, he continued to express his opposition to Jackson’s policy and wrote that he would leave the U.S. for the “wildes of Texas” if Martin Van Buren, Jackson’s vice president, succeeded him in the White House. After Crockett was again defeated for reelection, in 1835, he did go to Texas, where he died fighting at the Alamo in March 1836.

Renegade Cherokees signed a treaty selling all tribal lands.

John Ross, who was of Scottish and Cherokee ancestry and became the tribe’s principal chief in 1828, was strongly opposed to giving up the Cherokees’ ancestral lands, as were the majority of the Cherokee people. However, a small group within the tribe believed it was inevitable that white settlers would keep encroaching on their lands and therefore the only way to preserve Cherokee culture and survive as a tribe was to move west. In 1835, while Ross was away, this minority faction signed a treaty at New Echota, the Cherokee Nation capital (located in Georgia), agreeing to sell the U.S. government all tribal lands in the East in exchange for $5 million and new land in the West. As part of the agreement, the government was supposed help cover the Cherokees’ moving costs and pay to support them during their first year in Indian Territory. When Ross found out about the treaty, he argued it had been made illegally. Nevertheless, in 1836 it was ratified by a single vote in the U.S. Senate and signed by President Jackson. The treaty gave the Cherokees two years to vacate their lands. In June 1839, after the Cherokees had been forced to relocate to Indian Territory, several leaders of the so-called Treaty Party, who’d advocated for the New Echota agreement, were assassinated by tribe members who’d opposed removal to the west.

Martin Van Buren ordered the roundup of the Cherokees.

During his two terms in the White House, from 1829 to 1837, Andrew Jackson was responsible for putting Indian removal policies in place; however, he left office before the 1838 deadline for the Cherokees to surrender their lands in the East. It was Jackson’s presidential successor, Martin Van Buren, who ordered General Winfield Scott to forcibly evict the Cherokees. Scott’s troops rounded up thousands of Cherokees and then imprisoned them in forts in Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina and Alabama. During these roundups, the Indians weren’t given time to pack and family members, including children, sometimes got left behind if they weren’t home when the soldiers showed up. The Indians were transferred from the forts to detention camps, most of them in Tennessee, to await deportation. At both the forts and camps, living conditions were bleak and diseases rampant, and an unknown number of Cherokees died.

The Trail of Tears wasn’t just one route.

The first group of Cherokees departed Tennessee in June 1838 and headed to Indian Territory by boat, a journey that took them along the Tennessee, Ohio, Mississippi and Arkansas rivers. Heat and extended drought soon made travel along this water route impractical, so that fall and winter thousands more Cherokees were forced to trek from Tennessee to present-day Oklahoma via one of several overland routes. Federal officials allowed Chief John Ross to take charge of these overland removals, and he organized the Indians into 13 groups, each comprised of nearly a thousand people. Although there were some wagons and horses, most people had to walk.

The route followed by the largest number of Cherokees—12,000 people or more, according to some estimates—was the northern route, a distance of more than 800 miles through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, Arkansas and into Indian Territory. The last groups of Cherokees made it to Indian Territory in March 1839. A century later, Route 66, the iconic highway established in 1926, overlapped with part of this route, from Rolla to Springfield, Missouri.

Not all Cherokees left the Southeast.

A small group of Cherokee people managed to remain in North Carolina, either as a result of an 1819 agreement that enabled them to stay on their land there, or because they hid in the mountains from the U.S. soldiers sent to capture them. The group, which also included people who walked back from Indian Territory, became known as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Today, the group has approximately 12,500 members, who live primarily in western North Carolina on the 57,000-acre Qualla Boundary.

The Cherokees rebuilt in Indian Territory.

In the first years after their arrival in Indian Territory, life was difficult for many Cherokees. However, under the leadership of Chief Ross the tribe rebuilt in the 1840s and 1850s, establishing businesses and a public school system and publishing what was then America’s only tribal newspaper. When the American Civil War broke out, the Cherokee Nation found itself politically divided. Ross initially believed the Cherokees should remain neutral in the conflict, but there was a faction who supported the South so the chief made an alliance with the Confederacy, in part to try to keep the Cherokees united. Ross soon grew disillusioned with the Confederates, who had abandoned their promises of protection and supplies to the Indians. Ross spent the rest of the war in Philadelphia, where his second wife had a home (his first wife died while walking the Trail of Tears) and Washington, D.C., trying to convince President Abraham Lincoln that the Cherokees were loyal to the Union. Ross died of illness on August 1, 1866, having served as principal chief for nearly 40 years.

The U.S. apologized to Native American groups in 2009.

In December 2009, President Barack Obama signed a bill that included an official apology to all American Indian tribes for past injustices. U.S. Senators Sam Brownback of Kansas and Byron Dorgan of North Dakota led a bipartisan effort to pass the resolution, which stated: “the United States, acting through Congress…recognizes that there have been years of official depredations, ill-conceived policies, and the breaking of covenants by the Federal Government regarding Indian tribes.” However, the resolution did not call for reparations and included a disclaimer that it wasn’t meant to support any legal claims against the United States.


What You Were Never Told About The Trail Of Broken Treaties

August 1972. Leaders of the American Indian Movement attending a Sun Dance in Colorado hatch an ambitious plan: they'll crisscross the nation, visiting reservations and stirring the hearts of young Native Americans to action. Building on earlier protests, they'd assemble the best, brightest, and most engaged and storm Washington, D.C., just before the presidential election. What could possibly go wrong?

Oh, only nearly everything. While the Trail of Broken Treaties went smoothly on the road, picking up nearly a thousand protesters along the way before cruising into the nation's capital on November 1, 1972, no plan for massive social change ever survives its first encounter with bureaucracy.

The protest's goal, according to organizer Robert Burnette in a press release, was to peacefully raise awareness of the systemic oppression of indigenous people in the United States. As he put it in Paul Chaat Smith's book Like a Hurricane, "Today, Indian identity is defined and refined by a quality and a special degree of suffering. The Caravan must be our finest hour." To speak out about Native American self-determination, a crushing history of broken promises, and the brutal poverty and inequality experienced by many Native Americans, protesters would go on the move, traveling from the West Coast to the nation's capital to call attention to social justice issues facing Native peoples and demand systemic change. It was a great plan, but as today's BIPOC community knows all too well, it didn't succeed in its efforts to create a socially just America.


The Policy Of Civilization That Preceded The Trail Of Tears

For generations, the lands east of the Mississippi River had been the homeland of five tribal nations: the Cherokee, Creek, and Seminole in the south and the Choctaw and Chickasaw in the west. But by the 1790s, ever-increasing numbers of white settlers spread westwards into the area who wanted to use the land to farm for themselves.

As white settlements formed into the American states of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, and Florida, their borders crossed into Native American land. Natives, then, were viewed as a roadblock in the path of westward expansion. This “Indian Problem,” it was believed, could be resolved through a policy of “civilization.”

“Civilization,” as proposed by Thomas Jefferson, would eradicate the Native American’s way of life and assimilate them into western culture. Jefferson believed that Native Americans were stunted by their “savage” customs and so required missionaries to teach them how to be Anglo-American. If they could be converted to Christianity learn to speak, read, and write English as well as dress like whites, eat like whites, and most importantly convert to European notions of individual ownership and commerce then they could be saved.

These five tribes decided it was best to accept, at least in part, this “civilization” program. Collectively they came to be known as the “Five Civilized Tribes.” Though Jefferson saw the assimilation of Native Americans into white culture as inevitable, he did also consider relocating the Natives further west after the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, but he never did.

It would be President Andrew Jackson, then, who forced the relocation of the Natives when he signed his Indian Removal Act into law on May 28, 1830.

Wikimedia Commons President Andrew Jackson, the mastermind behind the Trail of Tears.

Jackson’s motivation was to expand the influence and economic prosperity of the United States. In particular, he wanted to make way for cotton growth on a large scale. Native Americans, consequently, did not fit into this plan for the new southeastern United States.

Instead, the Native Americans were transferred to new territory hundreds of miles away.


Why did Indian Removal cause the Trail of Tears?

The Trail of Tears was a series of forced Indian removals by the United States government. Still, the Cherokee nation's removal from Georgia, Tennessee, and Alabama are the most famous of these forced marches. While the Cherokee removal is the relocation that is most often associated with the Trail of Tears, it was not the only one. The Seminoles (1832), the Choctaw (1830), the Chickasaw (1832), the Creek (1832), the Fox (1832), the Sauk, and the Cherokee (1835) were all removed from their ancestral lands. Each of these removals resulted in an appalling loss of life.

US Treaties with Native Americans

The U.S. Government used treaties to displace Indians from their tribal lands, a mechanism that was strengthened with the Removal Act of 1830. In cases where this failed, the government sometimes violated both treaties and Supreme Court rulings to facilitate European Americans' spread westward across the continent.

As the 19th century began, land-hungry Americans poured into the backcountry of the coastal South. They began moving toward and into what would later become the states of Alabama and Mississippi. Since Indian tribes living there appeared to be the main obstacle to westward expansion, white settlers petitioned the federal government to remove them. Although Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Monroe argued that the Indian tribes in the Southeast should exchange their land for lands west of the Mississippi River, they did not take steps to make this happen. Indeed, the first major transfer of land occurred only as a result of the war.

Native Americans faced increasing pressure from Western Expansion

In 1814, Major General Andrew Jackson led an expedition against the Creek Indians, climaxing in the Battle of Horse Shoe Bend (in present-day Alabama near the Georgia border). Jackson’s force soundly defeated the Creeks and destroyed their military power. He then forced upon the Indians a treaty whereby they surrendered to the United States over twenty-million acres of their traditional land—about one-half of present-day Alabama and one-fifth of Georgia. Over the next decade, Jackson led the Indian removal campaign, helping to negotiate nine of the eleven major treaties to remove Indians.

Under this kind of pressure, Native American tribes—specifically the Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Choctaw—realized that they could not defeat the Americans in war. The settlers' appetite for land would not abate, so the Indians adopted a strategy of appeasement. They hoped that if they gave up a good deal of their land, they could keep at least some a part of it. The Seminole tribe in Florida resisted in the Second Seminole War (1835–1842) and the Third Seminole War (1855–1858). However, neither appeasement nor resistance worked.

From a legal standpoint, the United States Constitution empowered Congress to “regulate commerce with foreign nations, among the several States, and with the Indian tribes.” In early treaties negotiated between the federal government and the Indian tribes, the latter typically acknowledged themselves “to be under the protection of the United States of America, and no other sovereign whosoever.” When Andrew Jackson became president (1829–1837), he systematically approached Indian removal based on these legal precedents.

Why Remove Native Americans?

Why was Jackson so committed to removal? Jackson fundamentally believed that Native Americans represented a serious security risk to the United States. Jackson had taken part in the United States campaign against members of the Creek nation who followed Tecumseh in 1814. Tecumseh believed that the United States represented an existential threat to the Creek tribe and all Native Americans in the United States. Tecumseh lead a revolt against the United States to push back the advance of American settlers. Tecumseh's revolted was defeated at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814, but Jackson had already decided that Native Americans and US settlers could not live together peacefully. As a result, the Tecumseh's defeat, Jackson imposed terms on the entire Creek nation that removed them from their ancestral lands.

Native Americans also held some of the farmlands in the Southeast United States. Several of these tribes had already begun to farm these lands and earnest and make them productive. Both states and settlers wanted to seize these agricultural lands from the Native Americans. The states, such as Georgia, cared little that Native Americans had placed farms on these lands, purchased slaves, or built homes. The tribes did not recognize the state's authority over their lands because they viewed themselves as independent nations.

Related Articles

Andrew Jackson and The Removal Act 0f 1830

Jackson strongly favored removing the 60,000 Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Creek and Seminole (the Civilized Tribes) from North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. Indian Removal was one of Andrew Jackson's most important goals. It was so important that during Jackson’s first message to Congress, he asked for a bill and funds to move these tribes west of the Mississippi. Jackson's message was clear, Indians needed to be permanently removed west of Louisiana.

In Jackson's 1830 message to Congress, he stated:

"The consequences of a speedy removal will be important to the United States, to individual States, and the Indians themselves. The pecuniary advantages which it promises to the Government are the least of its recommendations. It puts an end to all possible danger of collision between the authorities of the General and State Governments on account of the Indians. It will place a dense and civilized population in large tracts of country now occupied by a few savage hunters. Rightly considered, the General Government's policy toward the red man is not only liberal but generous. He is unwilling to submit to the laws of the States and mingle with their population. To save him from this alternative, or perhaps utter annihilation, the General Government kindly offers him a new home. It proposes to pay the whole expense of his removal and settlement."

The first piece of legislation passed after Jackson took office was the 1830 Indian Removal Act. The 1830 Act was just a first step in a long process that forced Native Americans off their land to make way for white settlers.

Cherokee Legal Opposition

The Cherokee Nation resisted, however, challenging in court the Georgia laws that restricted their freedoms on tribal lands. In his 1831 ruling on Cherokee Nation v. the State of Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall declared that “the Indian territory is admitted to compose a part of the United States.” He affirmed that the tribes were “domestic dependent nations” and “their relation to the United States resembles that of a ward to his guardian.” However, the following year the Supreme Court reversed itself and ruled that Indian tribes were indeed sovereign and immune from Georgia laws. President Jackson nonetheless refused to heed the Court’s decision.

The Treaty of New Echota Splits the Cherokee Nation

A minority faction of the Cherokee nation led by John Ridge realized little they could do to prevent removal from their lands. Instead of fighting it, they decided to negotiate a treaty with the United States to get the best terms possible. The Cherokee Nation divided on between Ridge's Treaty Party and John Ross's National Party. A delegation was sent to negotiate a Treaty, and they ultimately were promised $5 million and the right to hold the lands in modern-day Oklahoma in perpetuity. Ridge's group agreed to the terms and received approval from the Treaty Party in New Echota. Congress then ratified against the protests of Daniel Webster and Henry Clay in 1835. The Cherokee signing party represented only a fraction of the Cherokee, and the majority followed Principal Chief John Ross in a desperate attempt to hold onto their land. This attempt faltered in 1838, when, under the guns of federal troops and Georgia state militia, the Cherokee tribe were forced to the dry plains across the Mississippi.

Related Articles

Cherokee Removal and the Trail of Tears

Cherokees had split on the issue of removal. Some members of the tribe left early and cherry-picked some of the best lands in Oklahoma, while others resisted forced removal. Chief John Ross supported passive resistance, but it accomplished little. Martin Van Buren organized the removal of 18,000 Native Americans between 1838 and 1839. Anyone who resisted removal was imprisoned and then forcibly removed. Due to the lack of preparation and funding by the United States government, 4,000 Cherokees died from exposure, starvation, and disease on their way to Oklahoma. The Cherokees named this forced march "the trail on which we cried," aka the Trail of Tears.

The Trail of Tears is one of the most devastating disasters in American history. More people died on the Trail of Tears than from the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, 9/11, Hurricane Katrina, or the 1906 San Francisco fire.

Conclusion

To achieve his purpose, Jackson encouraged Congress to adopt the Removal Act of 1830. The Act established a process whereby the President could grant land west of the Mississippi River to Indian tribes that agreed to give up their homelands. As incentives, the law allowed the Indians financial and material assistance to travel to their new locations and start new lives and guaranteed that the Indians would live on their new property under the United States Government's protection forever. With the Act in place, Jackson and his followers were free to persuade, bribe, and threaten tribes to sign removal treaties and leave the Southeast. Except for a small number of Seminoles still resisting removal in Florida, by the 1840s, no Indian tribes resided in the American South from the Atlantic to the Mississippi.


Pain of 'Trail of Tears' shared by Blacks as well as Native Americans

Editor's Note: Tiya Miles is chairwoman of the Department of Afro-American and African Studies, and professor of history and Native American studies at the University of Michigan. She is the author of "Ties That Bind: The Story of an Afro-Cherokee Family in Slavery and Freedom" and "The House on Diamond Hill: A Cherokee Plantation Story." She is also the winner of a 2011 "genius grant" from the MacArthur Foundation.

By Tiya Miles, Special to CNN

(CNN) – African American history, as it is often told, includes two monumental migration stories: the forced exodus of Africans to the Americas during the brutal Middle Passage of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, and the voluntary migration of Black residents who moved from southern farms and towns to northern cities in the early 1900s in search of “the warmth of other suns.” A third African-American migration story–just as epic, just as grave–hovers outside the familiar frame of our historical consciousness. The iconic tragedy of Indian Removal: the Cherokee Trail of Tears that relocated thousands of Cherokees to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), was also a Black migration. Slaves of Cherokees walked this trail along with their Indian owners.

In 1838, the U.S. military and Georgia militia expelled Cherokees from their homeland with little regard for Cherokee dignity or life. Families were rousted out of their cabins and directed at gunpoint by soldiers. Forced to leave most of their possessions behind, they witnessed white Georgians taking ownership of their cabins, looting and burning once cherished objects. Cherokees were loaded into “stockades” until the appointed time of their departure, when they were divided into thirteen groups of nearly 1,000 people, each with two appointed leaders. The travelers set out on multiple routes to cross Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas at 10 miles a day with meager supplies.

At points along the way, the straggling bands were charged fees by white farmers to cross privately owned land. The few wagons available were used to carry the sick, infant, and elderly. Most walked through the fall and into the harsh winter months, suffering the continual deaths of loved ones to cold, disease, and accident. Among these sojourners were African Americans and Cherokees of African descent. They, like thousands of other Cherokees, arrived in Indian Country in 1839 broken, depleted, and destitute.

In addition to bearing the physical and emotional hardships of the trip, enslaved Blacks were enlisted to labor for Cherokees along the way they hunted, chopped wood, nursed the sick, washed clothes, prepared the meals, guarded the camps at night, and hiked ahead to remove obstructions from the roads.

One Cherokee man, Nathaniel Willis, remembered in the 1930s that: “My grandparents were helped and protected by very faithful Negro slaves who . . . went ahead of the wagons and killed any wild beast who came along.” Nearly 4,000 Cherokees died during the eviction, as did an unaccounted for number of Blacks. As one former slave of Cherokees, Eliza Whitmire, said in the 1930s: “The weeks that followed General Scott’s order to remove the Cherokees were filled with horror and suffering for the unfortunate Cherokees and their slaves.”

Although Black presence on the Trail of Tears is a documented historical fact, many have willed it into forgetfulness.

Some African Americans avoid confronting the painful reality of Native American slave ownership, preferring instead to fondly imagine any Indian ancestor in the family tree and to picture all Indian communities in the South as safe havens for runaway slaves.

Some Cherokee citizens and Native people of other removed slaveholding tribes (Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles) have also denied this history, desiring to cordon off forced removal as an atrocious wrong that affected only Native Americans. By excluding Blacks (many of whom had Native “blood&rdquo from a claim on this history, these deniers also seek to expel the descendants of Freedmen and women from the circle of tribal belonging. For it is the memory of this collective tragedy, perhaps more than any other, that binds together Cherokees who draw strength from having survived it.

As a researcher whose work focuses on African-American and Native American histories, I have encountered this resistance. A few years ago, I spoke on the subject of Blacks in the Cherokee removal at a conference of the National Trail of Tears Association. One member of the audience, a Cherokee instructor of Cherokee history, insisted that this was an historical event only for Cherokees, a story that rightfully belonged to them alone. This is a view shared by a former principal chief of the Cherokee Nation, who reportedly implied in a published remark that descendants of Freedpeople do not deserve tribal rights because they did not suffer the collective trauma of removal. The Trail of Tears is a sacred story to the Cherokees, as in special and set apart. It carries a meaningful lesson across time and space—about greed, injustice, and the perseverance of a people staring into a bleak and unknown future.

However, a potent story shared with others is not necessarily diminished by the sharing it might instead grow stronger in its ability to enlighten.

For Black History Month, I collected the opinions of individuals rarely asked about their view of the Trail of Tears: descendants of slaves owned by Cherokees. Common themes in the responses I received were pain at having their history publicly denied and pride in their ancestors’ ability to survive multiple trials.

Kenneth Cooper, a Cherokee Freedmen descendant and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist who has researched his family history through oral and documentary methods, has a great-great-great grandfather, Thomas Still, who walked the Trail of Tears. Cooper said, “At least one of my ancestors was on the Trail of Tears—by double compulsion. The U.S. troops compelled his mixed-white Cherokee owner, who compelled my ancestor to come and, presumably, provide for his needs.”

Terry Ligon, a descendant of Choctaw and Chickasaw slaves who writes a blog about the topic, was frustrated because “the typical story about the ‘Trails of Tears’ speaks to the horrors of uprooting ‘Native Americans’ from their homes. [while] the story that rarely gets told is the tears shed by people of African descent who were enslaved within these same tribes of ‘Native Americans.’”

Olon Dotson, a professor of Architecture at Ball State University, said his great-great-great- grandmother, Betty Mantooth Teichmann Childers Starks, was born to an enslaved woman en route on the Trail of Tears. When Dotson found out about this hidden chapter of his family’s history, he felt “angered and betrayed,” and his anger was not only directed at Indians. “The feeling of betrayal,” he said, “was derived from the customary portrait of American history, as taught and understood, which paints the Five Civilized Tribes merely as victims of cruel and racist policies with little or no mention of the African American experience in the context. I was prepared to pounce on any African American who felt compelled to express pride in their Native American heritage at the expense of their African blood.”

Some descendants expressed no outrage, but simply wanted the experience of their ancestors to be remembered and respected. Olive Anderson, a descendant of slaves owned by the Cherokee Vann and Bean families, feels proud of her ancestors’ bravery, both during Removal and the Civil War, when her great great grandfather, Rufus Vann, fought with the 1st Kansas Colored Volunteers. “Let it be known,” she said, “that our ancestors walked, fought, loved and died to make this country what it is today.”

The Trail of Tears is an epochal moment not only in Cherokee history, but also in Black history. Descendants of slaves owned by Native people therefore claim this story as rightful heirs. Kenneth Cooper concluded in his remarks to me: “I don’t see how Cherokees. can separate the history of the tribe from the history of the Freedmen they are irrevocably intertwined, before, during, and after the Trail of Tears.” The intertwined histories of Freedpeople and Cherokees, of African American history and Native American history, of all groups in this great and varied nation of ours, is a historical reality that may prove to be one of our greatest strengths.


Search and read both Trail of Tears roll’s, which provide an early glimpse into the Cherokee participants who were forced west in the early 1830’s.

Don’t overlook the official United States Senate report in your research. While short of names, these letters sorted in order of earliest to latest, provide historical context to the movement of the Cherokee on the Trail of Tears.

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101 thoughts on &ldquoTrail of Tears Roll&rdquo

My name is angela stubblefield. My family is hiding the fact of our indian heritage. Im sick of it. Please help me my fathers grandfather name was dennis herman stubblefield. He married ada maye and lived in burkburnet tx on my mothers side my mothers grandmothers tounge was cut out when she was younger her name was cora stella ballard. And she ended up marrying a john tucker from beaver moutain. Cora had 3 or 4 girls and 2 boys none of th looked alike. Reba hazel tucker is listed as her daughter but reba looms full blooded indian reba my grandma showed me a pic of her grandmither she said she was a medicine woman and she wouldn5 tell me anything else so on both sides i want tbe truth so it will set me free

I am looking for any information on my Grandmother’s side. I have a letter stating my GG Grandmother’s parents and grandparents were on the trail of tears coming from N Carolina. My GG Grandmother was born in Missouri in 1851. Was orphaned at a young age and Grandparents raised her in Eagletown Ok. Her maiden name was Brown and married a Ward and had 3 children and he died and she married his brother Robert Ward. She died in Cleveland county Ok in 1930. In the letter it states the Grandparents were full blood cherokee. She did not get on the rolls because she could not prove she was Cherokee. I cannot find any information on my GG Grandmother’s parents. If anyone has any info I would appreciate it. Thanks

My name is Sherri Crews. I am stuck and request advice/assistance or direction. I am researching my 5th GGM, Ruthe/Ruthy West Taylor.
Born Apr 30, 1766, died on The Trail of Tears March allegedly with Richard ‘Dick’Taylor or in Oklahoma. I do have her on the 1835 Henderson Rolls at Red Clay.
I’m looking for a source to verify her death location, her relationship with Richard Taylor, her tribal connection – anything.
I am descended from her daughter, Anna Taylor (1796-1838).

Any assistance would be deeply appreciated.

Trying to locate ANY information on my Grandmother – Ruthe/Ruthy West Taylor, born Apr 30,1766 in Georgia, died September 9,1838 on The Trail of Tears. I have her on the 1835 Henderson Rolls in Red Clay (TN).
Does anyone have a family connection or any information about her?

Hello im looking for information my grandfather was raised on Indian reservation name was todd

Hi, I’m looking for any information on my 3x great grandmother Hester Frasine born abt 1858 in Louisiana. She married Frank McCullough here in Florida. The story is that she come from one of the tribes in Louisiana, but was disowned by her family for marrying a darker man. Any info helps. Thank you.

Being from Louisiana, she most likely was not Cherokee but Choctaw. I have Choctaw relatives on the Dawes Rolls who originally came from Mississippi and Louisiana.

Hello, I’m trying to trace my family’s roots on my dad’s side past my great-great grandmother. It was said she was a young child who was either orphaned or separated from family during the trail of tears. I believe the slaves that she worked with named her “Malinda” as she did not speak English and did not know her name. She was enslaved by a Franklin County, MO farmer. We believe she was born around 1820 possibly in North Carolina or Kentucky. I’m wondering if there was a list of orphaned children or a list of missing children during the “removal”.

Malinda married Charles Wilson (freedman), had 5 children, was sold with her 5 children (Franklin County, MO), and died in 1873 in St. Louis, MO.

Thanks for any help/direction,
Shontel

There is not, as they did not take a census of the Natives before they left on the trail.

Wow. Thanks for the info Dennis.
Shontel

I’m looking for my great great grandfather David Weaver of the Cherokee nation his Dawes roll #30925?

My great grandmother was
Martha Jane Ross married last name luper..My grandmother was her daughter Evie Luper married last name hooks..My mother was Ima Jean Hooks married name Flowers
My name is LaJeana Ann Flowers married last name Roberts..
Anyone please help me find more information about my great gramma..her tribe was Choctaw maybe cherokee..
[email protected]
That’s my personal email..
Please help me

I am researching Polly Ann Rainwater, spouse of William Oscar Fowler. Family stories state that she was Cherokee and participated in the Trail of Tears. I appreciate any information available.

I have several names in my family tree.I am chickasaw and choctaw and I wanted to know if you can help me find out something.My greatgranmother was named Anna Mosely and Anna’s mother was name Sarah Moslely and Sarah’s mother was named was Louisa Hillhouse and Jefferson Hillhouse. Any information is a big help thank you.

Dates would be really helpful to close in on time frames. I put her info in and she is not coming up. Can you provide any closer time frames?

Dates would be really helpful to close in on time frames. I put her info in and she is not coming up. Can you provide any closer time frames?

I have traced a great grandparent relative, who was the cousin of a indian chief of the Montaukett tribe of Long island., NY He also had tribal lineage with the Shinnecock, and Matinecock tribes, who’re located on Long island., NY
Doing a family genealogy, is how you will find and discover about your native american roots. Should anyone, have a relative from the early 1800’s or mid 1800’s there’s a strong possibility that you and your family have native indian roots.
I have traced one of my great great grandparents, from 1832 on my father’s side. I think my family’s tribe are the Shinnecock tribal nation, of Long island., NY

I have traced my family to the one ( Meigs) who married Chief Ross’s daughter, Jenni .
I’m extremely interested in everything I can find out!

According to history, my family loved the Cherokee and fought for their rights and land.

Hi, I have been tracing my fathers roots and have found that we are connected to the Montauk , and have found Mongotuckees Longknife Sachem of Wyandanch. 1550 -1599 married Quashawan Mohawk tribe of Montauk 1556 – 1600 Child Chief Grand Sachem Wyandanch 1571 – 1659 married 1594 Wuch I Kit Tau But from there you will find all kinds of ancestors with these names and be able to trace backwards. These are my fathers ancestors off his fathers side. Is this any help?

There is no written record of Native Americans before the 17th century… therefor any claim to specific ancestry prior to that period is suspect at the least, fraudulent normally:

I too am a direct descendant of Grand Sachem Wyandanch of the Montaukett tribe of Long Island… if that is who you are related too let me know.. I have all the work up on him… his genealogy is already done in Family Search… he has ties to the Mohawk… and his wife Wichikitaubut is Pequot … granddaughter if Sassacus

Hello! I am curious as I am a “ Feud” Hatfield also , please email me as I would like to chat with you ..

My grandparents were from Arkansas and moved to Oklahoma. Grandmother names was Martha Matilda (Bowman)Owens & grandfathers name was Calvin Lee Owens. Our family has always been told we have Cherokee & Osage Indian in our blood. I had a DNA test done & did not show any. Would like to find out for sure. If anyone has information to help me I would appreciate it.

My GGgrandparents also from Ark moved to Ok. GGgrandmother was Caroline(a) aka Cally Owens. Any connections tp your family? I am un unable to find her. She married James Wesley Smith(native american?) ty

I have been told same. Martha Matilda (Grandma Tildie) and Calvin Owen’s are my Paternal Grandmother’s parents. Her name was Edra Geneva Owen’s O’Donnell. I would so appreciate any help. Edra lived in Stillwater, OK. She passed in 2000.
Thank you in advance for any information.
Sandra O’Donnell

I have been researching a lady named Sarah Harriet Gortney, born 1810 in South Carolina, married Jeffrey Washington Beck in 1830 in Rome, Georgia. He was born in Pendleton, South Carolina. He died in 1860 in Etowah, Cherokee, Georgia from what I could learn. The family of Sarah believe that she died on Jul 3, 1891 on the Penobscot Indian Reservation near Old Town, Maine. They believe she “escaped” the Trail of Tears and fled to Maine. I could find no record of her parents or any siblings she might have had. Do your have any information on her? Would love to hear from you!

Regarding Sarah Harriet Gortney…I did find her parents. Their names are William Gortney and Sherry Ann Burdeshaw. I found out that 2 of Sarah’s children were residing in Illinois during the 1870 Census and wondered if she could have possibly gone to live near them after her husband, Jeffrey W. Beck, passed away in 1860. I am from Maine and the stories of her going to Maine and dying there when at least 2 of her children are in Illinois seems strange to me. I would love to know if anyone has proof that she died on the Penobscot Reservation in Old Town, Maine.

Was Louvenia one of children?

Hi Deanna, I have heard the same about my great (x3) grandmother’s mother, Theresa Ray. she was Cherokee from South Carolina. All the genealogy I have indicates she died in Indian, Penobscot, Maine. I am intent on figuring out how and why that was believed to be the case. I wonder if this was a common place to go. But interested in your anecdote because I had not heard of that phenomenon before.

I have been looking for a long k to my great grandmother Louvenia Beck. We know they come that area and we were always told we came from Sarah
Louvenia married Adolphus Layffete Mayne

I am looking for any information on Morning Star. David Vance, born 1798, my GGGG Granddad went to NC and brought Morning Star, a Cherokee Indian, back to TN and they had four children. My cousin had said they had a ceremony but the white man would not accept it. I grew up about Morning Star and David Vance and stories about them. But I can not find any information on her. I went to NC and they said they didn’t keep records on the Indians that far back. She lived with her people on Little Rock Creek, NC in the foothills of the Smokey Mountains. If anyone could help me I would appreciate it.

Here is some information to help get you going:
David Vance I
1788–Deceased • LYQQ-LZZ ​​
No Marriage Events
Morning Star
Deceased • LT46-G5T
David Vance II
Birth
1816 Carter, Tennessee, United States
Death
1886 Caney Ridge, Dickenson, Virginia, United States

Looking for descendants of the Bass family Emily Sue America she was on the trail of tears as a child if any information please leave a comment only serious comments please this is no joking matter.

I’m from the Bass family, my relative I believe was Annie Stanley niece of Sarah sturdivant

Hello,
I am looking for information on my great grandma, Nora Mae Gorman. She was born in vermillion county Ill. on March 11 1882 .She also went by Sylvia Gorman. She married Albert Jesse Lanham and had several children including my grandpa (Alfred Andrew Lanham) . When Albert passed away she married a Robert (bob) Reynolds who made her put her children in an orphanage in Ill somewhere .Then she had more children with Reynolds.
My grandpa always said that Nora was born on a Cherokee reservation and that her mother Jane Henshaw was full blooded Cherokee. I know of one sister of Nora who is Jane Hathaway. My grandpa was born in In Indianola Ill. in 1909.He also ran away from the orphanage.When Reynolds passed away my grandpa brought her back to Indiana where he was living, which they both resided till passing.I would love to more about my great grandma and my great great grandma and their Indian names and tribe.

Hello, I am looking for my great grandmas Cherokee heritage, Her name is Nora Mae Gorman .Also went by Sylvia Gorman. Born March 11 1882 Was told her mother was Jane Henshaw, I know of one sister who is Jane Hathaway. Nora married Albert Jesse Lanham ,They had Alfred Andrew Lanham (my grandpa) and other brothers and sisters. When Albert passed she married a Robert Reynolds who made her put her kids in an orphanage. Then she had children by Reynolds. Grandpa said that his mother was born on a reservation in Illinois in vermillion county, He said that he was born in Indianola Ill. I had been searching and cannot find anything on her or her mother Jane. Would love to know her Indian name and what tribe she is from .

There are no reservations in Illinois unless he is talking about, Illinois in Washington state (Saline Reservation)

Hi , My name is Susan Young. My grandpa is Alfred Andrew Lanham , His mother is Nora Mae (Sylvia) Gorman. Grandpa told us that she lived on a reservation in vermillion county Illinois, Cherokee, She had married a Albert Jesse Lanham and then a Robert Reynolds. Her mother I was told was named Jane Henshaw, Gorman , married William Gorman , which he said that jane was full blooded Cherokee my. I know of one sister to Nora who is Jane Hathaway.Please help me find my indian ancestors.

I am trying to find information about one of my relatives who is said to have been assistance to the Cherokee during the Trail of Tears. He would have been named Cox. Perhaps Thomas Mason Cox.

Thank you for any information you may have.

My 4th great grandfather who is believed to be of mixed European and Indigenous ancestry (John Cox) fits this description. Hope to speak sometime.

hello i am trying to trace my family tree , my grandmother told me that my my great grandfather is Stand Watie. Anyone wiling to help me any resources to locate the family tree . I would be so grateful

Looking for information on Mary Amanda Berry born around 1818. Married William Tilley in 1835. Lot’s of family say she was 100% Cherokee but no one knows who her parents were or anything? Any info would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!!

I’m looking for any info on James Russell Ivie and his Cherokee Heritage. He was born in Georgia in the early 1800s.

HI – I’m looking for Indian heritage in Muskogee Oklahoma. My grandparents were Benjamin and Jesse (Stanfield) Stroud. As we have inherited mineral rights for their land and it is on Indian land, (per the Federal Land Management Bureau), I do believe the trail is there- I am just struggling to find it. My great, great grandparents were John P and Penelope (White) Stroud. Penelope definitely appears to have Native American roots, (found a picture of them on Ancestory). If anyone could provide direction or guidance- it would be most SINCERELY appreciated! Thank you so much!

Looking for information on my great, great grandmother Lucinda Gulliam Father was a suppose to be a Chief on Trail of Tears…
Thank you

Hi my name is Just. Contact me at my daughters email [email protected] and we will look and see what we have.

I am looking for anyone who may have information on John Wesley Green or Susan Pickle Green Lann. My great great grandparents. I am told that John Wesley Green is full blooded Chetokee and Susan Pickle Green Lann is 7/8 Cherokee. I am at a loss at this point. I have a photo of Susan but not on John. Please let me know if you have any information. Thank you.

I’m looking for information about Henry Green and his full blood Cherokee wife, Clara Emma Bear ( Green) I don’t have any info on Henry , except the year he was born and died, and I wonder if he was Cherokee also. They would be my 4th great grandparents.

Susan Jones …I am also a GGGGgrandchild in Oklahoma looking for the same information. I would love to exchange information that is already charted in our files.

Did you find any info? On tribes or Association,? Her son was my 3rd great grandpa. I just found my grandpa Irwins death certificate which states American Indian but I have no other information.

I also belong this family. Did you find anything out?

My mother’s grandfather was James Alfred Green. My mother is still living. James Alfred’s Greens parents were supposed to be John Wesley Green and Susan Pickle Green Lann. My mom’s father told her that his father had two brothers and one half brother who was named Andy Lann. Research shows Andy had one sister named Effaland. Mom said my Papaw (my mom’s dad) told her his grandfather was 3/4 Cherokee and his grandmother was full-blooded Cherokee.

I am looking for any Coley and/or Cannard/Canard/Kinnard, Choctaw from Mississippi. I can share first names as well but all names I have are from when they already had arrived in Indian Territory after the Trail of Tears. Help is certainly appreciated. Yakoke!

I am looking for information on the Canards. David Allen Canard who married a Lyddia Bundy & had a daughter named Sarah J. zCanard who married a James M Clay & had a daughter named Mintie Clay 2 husband was William Forhand lived in Arkansas

Hi, Barbara. Were any of these folks Choctaw or Creek by any chance?

My grandmother was a Kinnaird from Missouri. Descendant of Montgomery. Does that ring a bell?

Thanks, Juanita! Any chance she was Choctaw (or any of her lineage further back)?

Tachel,. I don’t know about Choctaw but I think I they might be Creek.

I think they were Creek. They lived in Arkansas

My great-grandmother was from Virginia and was Cherokee. Her name was Lucianna Glass after she married my great grandfather Edward Glass. They had a son named Henry Glass who married Dorothy Segar and lived in Toledo Ohio. I would love any information that you could give me on Lucianna, including what clan she belonged to. Thanks so much!

My heart is breaking, trying to find my true Indian relation. My 3rd great grandfather, Eugene R. Brown married Ella Winn, she is supposed to be, according to my relatives, half Potawatomi. I have done the ancestry thing, her father was Eli Winn. Her mother was Sobrina Winn. Eli, on records show him as being white. So I dug deeper. Sobrina’s maiden name was Hendricks. Now, I have family photos of my 2nd and 3rd great grandmothers, and yes they do resemble Indian. The rest of the Browns shunned Eugene because he married an Indian. Talk was one of my Great Grandfathers was full blooded Potawatomi, and he died on the trail of courage and is buried in an unmarked grave somewhere. Is it possible, Sobrina was adopted so she wasn’t forced on the trail? I’m stumped, and will talk with my Fulton county, Indiana historian.

In Oklahoma in search of any information on my 5th great grandmother, Co-Sho-Hock-Ty (possibly Jefferson), my 5th great grandfather, Ibah-Fon-Quah-Tubby Perry (Choctaw ball player for old nation), my 4th great Chickasaw grandmother, Fuletike, and my 4th great Chickasaw grandfather, King/Chief Schicktokike also known as Lewis/Luis Johnson, his father was Solomon Johnson.

In search of Cornelius Hart information. Born 1789. Died before 1840. Wife Elsa or Elsie Beams , Robuck, Hart, Walker. Said to be a wife man and one of the first settlers of Indian Territory Choctaw County. Their son was my 5 th great grandfather. It is said the he died when his horse got spooked while he was working for the government making a delivery. I can’t find anything about his family or where he comes from. Can anyone help?

Hi, not sure if you are still looking for this information or not, but here is what I find on your family, who happens to be related to my husbands family. Hopefully, this is the correct info.
Good luck,
Rhonda

Name
Elsie Little Blue Hen Beams
Sex
Female
Birth
October 1800
Yazoo, Neshoba, Mississippi, United States

Death
1865
Doaksville, Choctaw, Oklahoma, United States

Burial
1865
Hart- Walker Cemetery, Soper, Choctaw, Oklahoma, United States

Birth Name
Ailsey ” Alice” Beams
Birth Name
Ailsey ( Alice) Beams
Birth Name
Elsie Little Blue Hen Beams

Ezekial Roebuck
1800–1832 • L6L7-TX5
Elsie Little Blue Hen Beams
1800–1865 • LWYX-1B6
Marriage: 1815
, Yazoo, Mississippi
William G. Roebuck
1820–1885 • LH34-P9S
• • Benjamin Franklin Roebuck
1822–1886 • KP3R-LH6
• • Anna Roebuck
1830–Deceased • MBRB-N83

William T Beams
1780–1831 • KVG3-686
Hettie Folsom
1782–1831 • L6L7-Y7D
Marriage: 1799
Yazoo, Neshoba, Mississippi, United States
1. Elsie Little Blue Hen Beams
1800–1865 • LWYX-1B6
• • Jensie Beams
1820–Deceased • 9F3B-G2B
• • Unknown Beams
Deceased • LJRK-MB9
• • Unknown Beams
Deceased • LJRK-SYF

Cornelius Hart
1812 – 1840 • MBRB-HJS
Name
Cornelius Hart
Sex
Male
Birth
Abt 1812
Oklahoma

Cornelius Hart
1812–1840 • MBRB-HJS ​
Elsie Little Blue Hen Beams
1800–1865 • LWYX-1B6 ​
Ezekial Roebuck
1800 – 1832 • L6L7-TX5 ​

Name
Ezekial Roebuck
Sex
Male
Birth
1800
Honey Island, Humphreys, Mississippi, United States
Christening
Add
Death
1832
Quachita River, Trail of Tears, Arkansas, United States
Alternate Name
Birth Name
Ezekial Honey King Roebuck
Birth Name
Ezekial Honey King Roebuck

Ezekial Roebuck
1800–1832 • L6L7-TX5 ​
Elsie Little Blue Hen Beams
1800–1865 • LWYX-1B6 ​

William G. Roebuck
1820–1885 • LH34-P9S ​

Benjamin Franklin Roebuck
1822–1886 • KP3R-LH6 ​
Anna Roebuck
1830–Deceased • MBRB-N83 ​

Ezekiel Roebuck
1755–1830 • KN8G-6SW ​
Choctaw Women
1780–Deceased • LHG8-LK9 ​

Ezekial Roebuck
1800–1832 • L6L7-TX5 ​

Just scrolled down the names above. My family is directly related to the beams family. Trying to track down any kin still alive on reservations.
I just want to know more about little blue hen.

My mother is Melanie beams daughter of James w beams

I’ve been trying to find information on my GREAT grandmother who was named Mossie Dever/Deavers. We were told all the time of growing up that she was full blood Osage! I was also told that my grandfather was half Cherokee! Any and all information would be very appreciated! Thank you!

Roebuck from Mississippi/Georgia or South Carolina?

I’m looking for any info on ida paschal born around 1835-1840

I been told on my father’s father side. Have native American Indian. I have built a family geneanolgy / tree. To try and locate any possible native American Indian. My grandfathers last name was Roberts.
His mothers last name was crose.
May you help me locate? Please?

As well, I been told on my mother’s mom and dad side. Both have native American Indian. I already located the native American Indian on her father side. But I’m having trouble locating native American Indian on her mother side.
3 names to place the name. Erwin, Lynn, and sokeland.
Appreciate your help.

I have always been told that my great Grandmother was full blood Cherokee. I have been trying to find out more information on her but I have come to a block. Her name was Sarah Elizabeth Sanders Boling , born in 1853 died in 1923. Father listed as Milton White Sanders and Mother and 1st wife of Milton was Sarah Sallie Richards born 1814 died 1850. They were originally from NC and moved to Kentucky. Odd thing is Sarah Elizabeth is listed as being born in 1853 which is 3 years after her listed mother who is said to have died in 1850. Please help me if possible. We have been told that Sarah Elizabeth was adopted and took on the name Sanders. This could explain a lot. Also, I caneed not find parents for Sarah Sallie Richards.

Hi,
Is this the information that you were looking for by chance?
Sarah Sallie Richards parents and siblings:
Thomas Richards
1778–1850 • LC26-P4Q ​
Malinda Marlow
1779–1853 • LJ5M-3WS ​

Elizabeth Malinda Richards
1799–1895 • LC2D-DTC ​

William Richards
1807–1854 • L2RP-CTY ​
William Richards
1807–Deceased • MCTR-1ZL ​
Thomas Richards
1810–1881 • KL7H-BR5 ​
Sarah Sallie Richards
1814–1850 • LC2Q-9VF ​

Thomas’ parents and siblings:

Parents and Siblings
Caesar Richards
1740–1813 • K6MY-D16 ​
Priscilla Downes
1759–1822 • K63J-HV6 ​

Mary Richards
1774–1854 • LHX9-3VW ​

James H. Richards
1776–Deceased • MTRZ-7NW ​
Thomas Richards
1778–1850 • LC26-P4Q ​
Ann Richards
1779–Deceased • 9KF6-GC6 ​
Leonard Ranson Richards
1784–1794 • MTR9-GK1 ​
Richard B. Richards
1785–Deceased • 9KF6-GDS ​
Leonard Ramsey Richards
1794–1830 • LZ68-56J ​
Sarah Richards
1794–Deceased • LC2N-9BF ​
Gabriel Richards

Richard Marlow
1737–1822 • LHQS-2R6 ​
Lydia Lelia Berry
1739–1820 • LHT3-NGL ​

Amelia Marlow
1762–Deceased • 2BLB-S98 ​

John William Marlow
1765–1817 • LTNN-MYC ​
William Berry Marlow
1767–1850 • LMWP-BLS ​
Samuel Marlow
1773–1865 • LHX9-SB7 ​
Malinda Marlow
1779–1853 • LJ5M-3WS ​

My families last name is Cornelius. There are 25 people listed at least two of which are family matches. How do you get family information on those listed.
My last known relative is Cyrenius (Cyrus) Cornelius. Born in Tennesse. Parents are from North Carolina. Born 1827 (about) first wife was name Margaret.
If anyone has any knowledge of him please let me know. We live according to census with other families also on the Henderson rolls for the next 70 years.

My grandfather’s Benjamin Wilbure Cox mother was full blooded Cherroke Indian! I don’t know her name and I don’t know the name of my great-grandfather, her husband! I believe my grandfather may have been born in lower eastern Missouri! Where can I start to find information about her! Any assistance would be greatly appreciated! My grandfather was an railroad engineer and lived his life out in possibly Missouri and finally in Arkansas! He married Bessie May (Wilson) Cox. 6 kids! My mom’s name is Vonnia Della Cox deceased 1930-2017! Thank you in advance!

I have Cox in my family line out of Sussex NJ the man did a whole web page of his own on Cox and other Sussex County Families and includes evne more –Jeff Cox of [email protected] he is always looking for Cox descendents and am sure would be glad to hear form u glad I found this sight up late bored – looking for grave from a native ancestor who was separated from her family when made to go west to Oklahoma – Boteida unsure of spelling – was married to Deliverance Adams – both english and native storeis on web – burined in papers somewhere – this is all tonight b ecause checked facebook before going to bed and got a like from a Donna Youngblood from Oklahoma – from my genealogical research know a lot of names of settlers in NJ ended up attached to native Delawares that were then move – recall in looking for my one grandfather graves on find a grave of Ramseys – old name in NJ – since Cox an old old name there, in my Adams family line, I would start there and go backwards – the old version of find a grave easier to use to scroll through various cemeteries – u can emal me anytime : [email protected] amazed at what they have on this site – other missing natives in my family and my husbands, busy with stuff that has to be done but know that I will be back here when I can get all my paper on gen. out to look at good luck Wilson is also a name from western NJ geneal. and eastern PA – where I am orig.from

Hi,
Is this the Benjamin Wilbur Cox 91901-1978) that you are referring to?
Benjamin Wilbur Cox
13 December 1901 – 14 February 1978 • LBCF-D96 ​

Benjamin Wilbur Cox
Sex
Male
Birth
13 December 1901
Puxico, Stoddard, Missouri, United States
Christening
Add
Death
14 February 1978
Burial
Pine Log Cemetery, Brookland, Craighead, Arkansas, United States
1910
Brookland, Craighead, Arkansas, United States
1920
Brookland, Craighead, Arkansas, United States

Benjamin Wilbur Cox
1901–1978 • LBCF-D96 ​

Parents and Siblings
Thomas Piety Cox
1865–1923 • 94YM-R8C ​
Nancy M.
1868–1912 • LBCD-29X ​

William Paten Cox
1896–1977 • LBCF-N93 ​

Benjamin Wilbur Cox
1901–1978 • LBCF-D96 ​
Dicy L. Cox
1905–Deceased • LBCF-2SJ ​

His father:
Thomas Piety Cox
22 July 1865 – 15 March 1923 • 94YM-R8
Name
Thomas Piety Cox
Sex
Male
Birth
22 July 1865
Illinois, United States
Christening
Add
Death
15 Mar 1923
Burial
1923
Pine Log Cemetery, Brookland, Craighead, Arkansas, United States

Residence
1870
Illinois, United States
1900
Duck Creek (north part) Paxico village, Stoddard, Missouri, United States
1910
Brookland, Craighead, Arkansas, United States
1920
Brookland, Craighead, Arkansas, United States

Thomas’s family (note second wife below)

Thomas Piety Cox
1865–1923 • 94YM-R8C ​
Nancy M.
1868–1912 • LBCD-29X ​

William Paten Cox
1896–1977 • LBCF-N93 ​

Benjamin Wilbur Cox
1901–1978 • LBCF-D96 ​
Dicy L. Cox
1905–Deceased • LBCF-2SJ ​

Thomas Piety Cox
1865–1923 • 94YM-R8C ​
Minnie E.
1878–Deceased • LBCF-FPW ​

No Marriage Events
Parents and Siblings
Benjamin A Cox
1837–1869 • KL1F-C9T ​
Mary Elizabeth Lemons
1843–1893 • K6Q7-QZN ​

Nancy Ann Cox
1862–1897 • KL1F-C7C ​

Thomas Piety Cox
1865–1923 • 94YM-R8C ​
John Charles Cox
1868–1879 • 94YM-R86 ​
Benjamin Franklin Cox
1871–1951 • 94YM-R8J ​

His family and parents/siblings:
Name
Benjamin A Cox
Sex
Male
Birth
27 April 1837
Kentucky, United States
Christening
Add
Death
14 September 1869
Gallatin, Illinois, United States
Burial
1869
Ridgway, Gallatin, Illinois, United States
Other Information
Open Details | Add
Alternate Name
Birth Name
Benjamin A Cox Jr.
Birth Name
Benjamin A Cox
Residence
1870
Illinois, United States
Title of Nobility
Jr.
Occupation
Private
Family Members
Spouses and Children
Benjamin A Cox
1837–1869 • KL1F-C9T ​
Mary Elizabeth Lemons
1843–1893 • K6Q7-QZN ​

Nancy Ann Cox
1862–1897 • KL1F-C7C ​

Thomas Piety Cox
1865–1923 • 94YM-R8C ​
John Charles Cox
1868–1879 • 94YM-R86 ​
Benjamin Franklin Cox
1871–1951 • 94YM-R8J ​

Parents and Siblings
Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Nancy Elizabeth Bean
1803–1855 • LJRL-Z5J ​

Wilson, Tennessee, United States

Elizabeth Cox
1819–1843 • K4YK-MC4 ​

Catherine Cox
1821–Deceased • KCS2-TFV ​
Bricem Garner Cox
1821–1872 • LKD7-LRF ​
Catherine Cox
1822–Deceased • LKD7-LBT ​
Jonathan Cox
1823–1849 • LKD7-GQP ​
Sarah Cox
1823–1900 • LKD7-GZ2 ​
Sarah Ann Cox
1824–1903 • LHSZ-46S ​
Brice Cox
1827–Deceased • K86H-71X ​
Andrew Jackson Cox
1828–1873 • K4RD-LBQ ​
Katie Cox
1829–Deceased • KZGW-PFW ​
Betsy Cox
1831–Deceased • KCK5-Y63 ​
Joseph Noah Cox
1833–1914 • K64W-GVR ​
General John Henry George Washington Cox
1835–1881 • K4P7-WQF ​
Benjamin A Cox
1837–1869 • KL1F-C9T ​
Jacob Cox
1839–1747 • 26KX-VCC ​
Jesse B Cox
1840–1909 • K2QV-7VL ​
Jesse Cox
1842–Deceased • KCF8-SZY ​

Benjamin’s Mom
Name
Mary Elizabeth Lemons
Sex
Female
Birth
15 March 1843
Illinois, United States
Christening
Add
Death
25 November 1893
Elba, Gallatin, Illinois, United States
Burial
25 November 1893
Elba, Gallatin, IL
Other Information
Open Details | Add
Alternate Name
Birth Name
Mary Elizabeth Lemons
Residence
1870
Illinois, United States
Family Members
Spouses and Children
Benjamin A Cox
1837–1869 • KL1F-C9T ​
Mary Elizabeth Lemons
1843–1893 • K6Q7-QZN ​

Nancy Ann Cox
1862–1897 • KL1F-C7C ​

Thomas Piety Cox
1865–1923 • 94YM-R8C ​
John Charles Cox
1868–1879 • 94YM-R86 ​
Benjamin Franklin Cox
1871–1951 • 94YM-R8J ​

Samuel C Hedger
1836–1913 • LW51-F8J ​
Mary Elizabeth Lemons
1843–1893 • K6Q7-QZN ​

Gallatin, Illinois, United States

Benjamin and his family, note multiple wives below and then even more family:
Benjamin Cox
13 November 1791 – 1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
View Tree
Watch

Details
Memories 1
Ordinances

Vitals | Other | Family | Sources 7 | Discussions 1 | Notes 4

Life Sketch
Vital Information
Open Details
Name
Benjamin Cox
Sex
Male
Birth
13 November 1791
Holly Springs, Randolph, North Carolina, United States
Christening
Add
Death
1841
Gallatin, Illinois, United States
Burial
Add
Other Information
Open Details | Add
Alternate Name
Birth Name
Benjamin Cox
Family Members
Spouses and Children
Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Rachael Reynolds
1797–1826 • 2WFL-8CP ​

Randolph, North Carolina, United States

Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Nancy Elizabeth Bean
1803–1855 • LJRL-Z5J ​

Wilson, Tennessee, United States
Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Rachel Beeson
–1826 • LC89-STY ​

Holly Spring, Randolph, North Carolina, United States
Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Rachel Reynolds
1805–1851 • LH7M-CQF ​

Holly Spring, Orange, N.C.
Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Mary Cox
1804–1887 • KNQ3-NH3 ​

Holly Spring, Randolph, North Carolina, United States
Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Nancy Bean
1803–1880 • LRK9-7FW ​

No Marriage Events
Parents and Siblings
William Cox
1761–1845 • LR31-Q2Z ​
Ruth Cox
1767–1826 • LTCD-5X4 ​

Holly Springs, Wake, North Carolina, United States

Amy Cox
1789–Deceased • L7G8-DZT ​

Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Martha Cox
1793–Deceased • LDM8-XBP ​
Ruth Cox
1795–1826 • LD1Y-MJM ​
Mary Cox
1797–1870 • KGM9-P4T ​
Katherine Cox
1799–Deceased • LD1Y-M24 ​
William S. Cox
1801–1870 • LCJ1-YVH ​
Rebecca Cox
1803–1821 • KLDH-CNT ​
Sarah Cox
1805–1870 • 297Y-4SX ​
Joseph Cox
1807–1863 • MM26-RVH ​
Soloman Cox
1809–1849 • KLFQ-CLN ​
Nancy Cox
1813–1874 • L7K8-QVY ​
Jane Cox
1813–1880 • LCV4-BN1 ​

Nancy Elizabeth Bean
1803 – 1855 • LJRL-Z5J ​
View Tree
Unwatch

Details
Memories 0
Ordinances

Vitals | Other | Family | Sources 4 | Discussions 0 | Notes 0

Life Sketch
Vital Information
Open Details
Name
Nancy Elizabeth Bean
Sex
Female
Birth
1803
Newberry, Newberry, South Carolina, United States
Christening
Add
Death
1855
Gallatin, Illinois, United States
Burial
Add
Other Information
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Nancy Elizabeth Bean
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Nancy Bean
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Nancy Elizabeth Bean
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Benjamin Cox
1791–1841 • LKD7-2YY ​
Nancy Elizabeth Bean
1803–1855 • LJRL-Z5J ​

Wilson, Tennessee, United States

Elizabeth Cox
1819–1843 • K4YK-MC4 ​

Catherine Cox
1821–Deceased • KCS2-TFV ​
Bricem Garner Cox
1821–1872 • LKD7-LRF ​
Catherine Cox
1822–Deceased • LKD7-LBT ​
Jonathan Cox
1823–1849 • LKD7-GQP ​
Sarah Cox
1823–1900 • LKD7-GZ2 ​
Sarah Ann Cox
1824–1903 • LHSZ-46S ​
Brice Cox
1827–Deceased • K86H-71X ​
Andrew Jackson Cox
1828–1873 • K4RD-LBQ ​
Katie Cox
1829–Deceased • KZGW-PFW ​
Betsy Cox
1831–Deceased • KCK5-Y63 ​
Joseph Noah Cox
1833–1914 • K64W-GVR ​
General John Henry George Washington Cox
1835–1881 • K4P7-WQF ​
Benjamin A Cox
1837–1869 • KL1F-C9T ​
Jacob Cox
1839–1747 • 26KX-VCC ​
Jesse B Cox
1840–1909 • K2QV-7VL ​
Jesse Cox
1842–Deceased • KCF8-SZY ​

Parents and Siblings
Jonathan Bean
1781–1850 • LRVZ-LV4 ​
Catherine Schieff
1784–1885 • LRV8-9T4 ​

William Bean
1802–1890 • KHNH-R4B ​

Nancy Elizabeth Bean
1803–1855 • LJRL-Z5J ​
John Bean
1804–1814 • LJRL-ZKL ​
Elizabeth Bean
1805–Deceased • LJRL-Z9S ​
Henry Marion Bean
1808–1852 • KGCL-ZWP ​
Henry M Bean
1809–Deceased • LJRL-Z4M ​
James Douglas Bean
1811–1882 • LVF7-KJ1 ​

Hope this helps lead you! Does not show a wife. You also are related to me. Small world!
Good luck,
Rhonda

I’m looking for any information on my great, great, great, great grandmother, Hosanna Syler. We have always been told she was of full blood Cherokee ancestry. We think they lived in Ohio, possibly Holmes county. She had a daughter named Catherine and grandaughter Anna, my great grandmother. We don’t know her Cherokee name. Any information would be greatly appreciated. Thanks so much, Lola

Hi,
Is this your Hosanna Syler?
Hosanna Syler
14 September 1882 – 3 February 1900 • MYMK-T6W ​
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Hosanna Syler
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Birth
14 SEP 1882
Of,,Knox,Ohio
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03 FEB 1900
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Hosanna Syler
1882–1900 • MYMK-T6W ​

Parents and Siblings
Simon S Syler
1842–1910 • M5LK-Y3H ​
Catharine Yoder
1848–1914 • M5LK-Y3K ​

Clara Syler
1869–1928 • KH8V-1V2 ​

Evilina Syler
1871–1872 • KHM6-2PY ​
Elnora Syler
1872–1901 • 9417-G7X ​
Ira Syler
1875–1897 • KCRC-FKR ​
George Walter Syler
1876–1911 • KDMJ-LSN ​
Wilma Syler
1878–1887 • KCRS-G9Q ​
Barbara E. Syler
1880–1966 • KCHV-W9G ​
Hosanna Syler
1882–1900 • M6F9-1Y6 ​
Hosanna Syler
1882–1900 • MYMK-T6W ​
Harvey Elray Syler
1883–1951 • MYMK-TXH ​
Harvey Syler
1883–Deceased • LVZV-XFP ​
Ivan Walter Syler
1885–1913 • K83Y-6C4 ​
Florence Catherine Syler
1889–1978 • LVZV-FMR ​
Clay Syler
1893–1978 • LWP7-BL7 ​
Fern E. Syler
1896–1949 • LWPW-MMR ​
Hope it helps!
Rhonda

Hi! I am trying to find information on my GGG Grandpa. William Allen Jr born 1-4-1813 died 2-8-1874. I found a note on another site that says his parents names were William and Nancy but no other information was left.
I was told that our family was Cherokee and that he changed his name in efforts to keep his land. I was also told that our family lived in North Georgia at the time of the Trail of Tears.
Any information or guidance as to where I can find this information would be greatly appreciated!

i have ancestors that where part of the trail of tears and he helped lead my ancestors while in the trail all that i know of him is that he is my grandfather far down on my dads side of the family his last name was young?

I am a descendent of the Young’s. Do you know his first name or any other family members close to him?

I am also a Young. What was his or someones name? I am on ancestry . com and have found many a Young and family there.

My great great grandmother’s name was Mary Hale and on the roll for the trail of tears…so was wanting any information I could get

Am looking for info on my granddad “Carl McPeck” was borned in Buchanan Co. either WVA or Va. In 1896 , who had grandfather that was a full bloodied Cherokee Chief, so I have been told. Do not know name but granddads mothers first name was Florence and her sister was Kate who married a Jenkins and they ran a store in Ky.Any info would be greatly appreciated.

Do you need info on Carl Mcpeck or his mothers side of family?

Looking on information on Levi Todd. This is relative of Mary Ann Todd Lincoln whom listed as father. Told traces also to Saponi in Carolina. And that he was on Dawes Roll. Ok.
Family hx says g parent was poss choctaw cherokee. Traces also family hx of same Ancestor as my spouse gparent for ggparent Todd. My this line come theough Grimsley for Ellis

My Great- Grandmother was mixed Cherokee. She was born in 1896 and always said that her mothers side of the family was Cherokee. The names were John Holt and Elizabeth Campbell. They lived in Madisonville, Madison county Texas in the mid-1800’s I think, My Grandmother and I always chase the Campbells and Holts. I do my family genealogy and I hit a wall every time I try to look for the parents of my great- Great Grandmother, Effie Ann Holt. If anyone knows anything about my Cherokee ancestry, please get back with me.

Look for info on my great grandmother Rose Melinda Gilliam. Was told her parents was part of the trail of tears. All i know is her dads name is William she was was born in 1874 died in 1950 in walnut rudge Arkansas. She married my great grandpa Artemus Edward Taylor hadv2 kids i kniw of cleo taylor and Minnie Taylor i can find info from my great grandparent forward but its like the trail stops with them. Any help would be appreciated.

Looking for information going back to my great grandfather, Uriah Cloud. I am told he was full blood Cherokee and I am searching for some history to trace my roots – anything anyone can offer to guide me in the right direction would be greatly appreciated. My mother, at age 85 is searching for her mother, grandfather and great grandfathers ancestry path and history. We believe, as told by my grandmother that Uriah Cloud (who had a son Andrew Jackson Cloud) was full blood and walked the Trail of Tears but I am not able to find any information to confirm this. Thank you

Hi,
Is this the info that you were looking for?
Uriah Cloud
1825 – 1888 • L5DY-9H4 ​
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Uriah Cloud
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Birth
1825
, Frederick, VA
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1888
, Frederick, VA
Burial
1888
Old Stone, Greenspring, Frederick, VA
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1870
West Virginia, United States
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Uriah Cloud
1825–1888 • L5DY-9H4 ​
Ellen STEWARD
1832–1915 • LCJZ-H73 ​

Frederick County, Virginia

John W Cloud
1859–Deceased • KC5T-JMW ​

Robert Lee Cloud
1859–1922 • KH37-73L ​
Jane Cloud
1861–Deceased • MBCG-CKF ​
James E Cloud
1864–Deceased • KCMZ-J11 ​
Andrew J. Cloud
1865–1946 • K4LL-F93 ​
William T Cloud
1872–Deceased • LHCF-HX1 ​
Mollie E Cloud
1873–Deceased • KH3P-BG2 ​
Mollie E Cloud
1875–Deceased • LHCF-HFM ​
Mary Cloud
1876–Deceased • MBCG-CLR ​
Elizabeth Cloud
1878–Deceased • MBCG-CG7 ​
Elizabeth Cloud
1880–Deceased • KDMB-Z54 ​
Elizabeth Cloud
1880–Deceased • LHCF-HFS ​

Parents and Siblings
William Cloud
1795–1876 • LCDR-G3Q ​
Nancy Butterfield
1808–Deceased • LCDK-RRC ​

Winchester, Winchester, Virginia, United States

Uriah Cloud
1825–1888 • L5DY-9H4 ​

Amos Cloud
1827–1890 • LCDB-43L ​
John Cloud
1833–Deceased • LCJZ-H46 ​
Sarah J Cloud
1836–Deceased • LCJZ-H45 ​
Naomi I. Cloud
1838–Deceased • K8ZC-MM7 ​
Lucy Ellen Cloud
1848–Deceased • LCJZ-HHR ​
Ruth Cloud
1849–Deceased • LCJZ-HCT ​
Rebecca Ann Cloud
1850–Deceased • M84C-PZH ​
Armstead Cloud
1852–Deceased • L28H-TTN ​

Ezekiel Cloud
1762–1850 • L2BS-CD8 ​
Elizabeth Harrison
1775–1860 • L2BS-CPJ ​

James Johnson Butterfield
1774–1820 • L4X6-BXM ​
Edith Cloud
1785–Deceased • KD34-G99 ​

Nancy Butterfield
1808–Deceased • LCDK-RRC ​

John Thomas Butterfield
1811–Deceased • L4X6-BSM ​
Joseph Butterfield
1813–1834 • L4X6-B3F ​
John M Butterfield
1818–Deceased • MC87-LB6 ​

By the way, we are related through Uriah, if this is the correct person that you were searching for.
Thanks and good luck!
Rhonda

Hello. i am looking for any information on Mary Ann Kidwell born about 1849 – 1900. i am a descendant and have been told she was Cherokee. Thank you so much for any information.

I am looking for someone with very little information. The only thing that I know is she walked the Trail of tears, name is lizzy (if this is how it is spelled) and that she is Cherokee. Can anyone help me towards where I could possible lead me to getting more information. Any help would be greatly appreciated.

I say a Lizzy Coley on the Dawes roll

Hello my name is Robin Long. I am a great Granddaughter of Renie Ethel Duncan who was born around 1894. I was informed that her Parents James Duncan and Martha Jane Cook where possibly part of the trail of tears cause i know they come from around Kentucky. Any information would be great

I was told that James l Brock was on the Oklahoma Indian Rolls.if anyone has any information it would be appreciated.

A quick search came back with just one James Brock on the Dawes Roll (Final), listed under Cherokee, blood quantum 5/16, age 3.

The National Archives in Seattle has two ladies who are the Native American specialists. I don’t know what the fee is to have them pull that for you, but making a Certified Copy costs $8 and comes with a red ribbon, etc.–it isn’t just embossed or stamped. It was a 4-hour round trip for me to go get mine. You can find their phone number online. You may need to leave a message for them. I’m not sure if other National Archive locations have any Native American specialists.

Former Principal Chief Wilma Mankiller (deceased) did away with all their blood quantum requirements. She said, “If we enrolled everyone with Cherokee ancestry, we would have as many citizens as China, and we would be a formidable nation.”

Because of this, there is a 2-3 year wait for your enrollment. Cherokee (Oklahoma) do their own CDIB (Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood) cards—that, enrollment, and photo are all on one ID card. They do collateral enrollment—it doesn’t have to be directly from a great-grandparent but can be a great-aunt or uncle. You will need to have either birth or death certificates showing the path from you back to your Brock ancestor that was on the Rolls. Don’t be discouraged if some of them say “white” for race—there wasn’t an option to list American Indian the only options were: white, black, and in some states mulatto (black/white mixed). The tribe knows this, and it will not be counted against you. If you have recognition of any other organizations, tribes, government entities, you may send it as supplemental. They aren’t interested in family histories, and only include photographs that would back up any supplemental recognition or showing that you’re keeping the culture even though you’re off-rez. Vital Source is the best way to get your certified copies of the birth or death records—-it cannot be a photocopy but has to be the actual certified one. They get it to you in 2 days to 2 weeks. If you order it from the state directly, that will take 12-13 weeks.

The application for enrollment is at their website. Just type in Cherokee Nation enrollment form Oklahoma into your search engine.

Make a checklist for your enrollment packet, including: enrollment application, birth/death certificate (and whose it is), plus any supplemental information. Have 3 columns on one side: one for have-it, one for copied-it, one for in-packet/envelope. Make 3 photocopies of everything you send in! One for you, and then pick 2 other people not in your house to keep a set. This is in case they have any questions, you have a physical copy in front of you, and someone else has a set you can easily access in an emergency. Mail it via Priority Mail–comes with confirmation of delivery. There’s no point in overnighting it—Oklahoma is a 2-day delivery regardless.

Good luck, and feel free to ask me any other questions. I didn’t want to link through here on my profile, but you can message me via FB messenger (it’s set to anyone): Diana Schooling. I’m in Washington State, although I doubt there’s another one on there.

I am looking for any information on a Patty Pace born in 1746 Campbell, Tennessee, who may be a daughter to an Indian chief? She married a man named Caleb Davis who was supposed to be an Indian Scout & traded blankets & a horse from the chief for Patty? They had a daughter Rachel Davis born in 1764 or 1768 in Tennessee. Rachel married a Thomas Murray. Any help would be appreciated. Thank you.

Looking for information on James l Brock, and or James l bushyhead Brock , and Delbert Brock.

My ancestors are from Ky. My great gma was Beth R. Skinnerhorn ,my father was Stanley S. Gilstrap, Ohio Co. Ky.would like any information you may have! Thanks in advance! Rose.

A little late, considering it’s 2019, but I’m a Gilstrap by birth. I’ve been trying to do my genealogy for years and I have some distance kin in Oklahoma and Texas. Ironically I’ve been a traditional and contemporary Native American dancer since age 4 and speak Cherokee conversationally. I’m trying to get an enrollment packet together but I’m hitting some roadblocks. Just wanted to reach out!

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Oklahoma’s Choctaw Horses Connect to Mississippi

By JANET McCONNAUGHEY
Associated Press

POPLARVILLE, Miss. (AP) _ Six foals sired by a cream-colored stallion called DeSoto scamper across a pasture in southwest Mississippi, the first new blood in a century for a line of horses brought to America by Spanish conquistadors and bred by Choctaw Indians who were later forced out of their ancestral homelands.

Choctaw horses were thought to be long gone from this region, disappearing when their Native American owners were expelled from the U.S. Southeast by the government. But the surprise discovery of DeSoto on a farm in Poplarville 13 years ago led to a plan to help the dwindling strain survive.

``That really gives us a shot in the arm,'' said Bryant Rickman, who has been working since 1980 near Antlers, Oklahoma, to restore the line. He estimates he has bred more than 300 of the horses from nine mares and three stallions. But having so few stallions led to a bottleneck, because the gene pool was so small.

Choctaws saw great power in horses. Ian Thompson, tribal historic preservation officer for the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, said their word for horse, issoba, means ``like a deer'' and the deer was the tribe's most important animal, both economically and spiritually.

``So naming the horse after the deer was really saying something,'' Thompson said.

Ian Thompson, tribal historic preservation officer for the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma. (Photo Credit: Oklahoma Public Archaeology Network)

Choctaw horses are descended from those brought to the United States in the 1500s and later by Spanish explorers and colonists, said Dr. D. Phillip Sponenberg of the Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech.

It's one strain in a breed called Colonial Spanish horses, often referred to by the misleading term ``Spanish mustang.'' Colonial Spanish horses are among the world's few genetically unique horse breeds, and are of great historic importance to this country, Sponenberg said.

Choctaw horses are descended from those brought to the United States in the 1500s and later by Spanish explorers and colonists. (Photo Credit: The Equinest)

The Choctaw nation lived in much of what are now Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. Choctaws owned tens of thousands of horses by 1830, when Congress gave President Andrew Jackson the power to force Indians out of lands east of the Mississippi, Thompson said.

The relocation of Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Muscogee, and Seminole Indians to Oklahoma, which has come to be known as the ``Trail of Tears,'' took decades. Thompson said more than 12,000 Choctaw people made the journey but an estimated 3,000 to 4,000 died along the way. In Oklahoma, the Choctaw and their horses were part of the cattle-ranching economy.

The horses are small but tough and durable.

``They're very people-oriented. They're just as docile as your favorite dog,'' said Rickman.

Oklahoma range herd. (Photo Credit: returntofreedom.org)

DeSoto was discovered in 2005 when Sponenberg visited Poplarville to check out small cattle descended from Spanish colonial stock. He was surprised to find Spanish colonial sheep, there, too. Then came the day's biggest surprise.

``Out of the woods came this horse, single-footing,'' he said, referring to a smooth gait between walking and galloping, rather than the bouncing trot common to most horses.

Bill Frank Brown was 14 when he inherited the Poplarville farm that Sponenberg visited in 2005. The farm had been in Brown's family since 1881 and the livestock there, even longer. Brown had three stallions back then, including DeSoto. He called them pine tacky horses. The Texas A&M veterinary school tested samples of the stallions' DNA, and they matched those of Rickman's Choctaws.

Two of the stallions have since died, leaving only DeSoto. Sponenberg picked the mares that would be the best genetic matches for DeSoto, and they were brought to Mississippi last year. The Browns say some of the offspring will remain in Mississippi while others will go back to Oklahoma, along with pregnant mares.

To learn more about Choctaw horses and efforts to save their herd and others, visit Return to Freedom. The organization's mission is to preserve the freedom, diversity, and habitat of America’s wild horses and burros through sanctuary, education, advocacy, and conservation.


RELATED ARTICLES

Among those who have called for a commission to fully investigate the legacy of Indian boarding schools is Interior Secretary Deb Haaland (pictured)

Haaland, in an essay published on June 11 in the Washington Post, said the news from Canada made her 'sick to my stomach.'

'Many Americans may be alarmed to learn that the United States also has a history of taking Native children from their families in an effort to eradicate our culture and erase us as people,' wrote Haaland.

For over 150 years, hundreds of thousands of Indigenous children were uprooted from their communities and forced into US government-operated boarding schools that focused on assimilation.

Before shutting down in 1918, the Carlisle school housed some 10,000 indigenous children.

Many students were forced to cut their braids, dress in uniforms, speak English and adopt European names. Infectious diseases and harsh conditions claimed the lives of many children buried there.

The deaths were primarily from diseases made far more lethal in many of the schools because of poor treatment.

Marsha Small, a Montana State University doctoral student, is part of a team that has worked to locate unmarked graves at the Chemawa Indian School cemetery in Salem, Oregon, using ground-penetrating radar.

For over 150 years, hundreds of thousands of Indigenous children (pictured) were uprooted from their communities and forced into US government-operated boarding schools that focused on assimilation.

Since 2016, dozens of Native American and Alaskan Native families have requested that their ancestors be returned from Carlisle school (pictured)

As many as 40,000 Native American children (pictured) may have died from poor care at government-run boarding schools around the US, McBride claims

So far, Small has located 222 sets of remains, but says additional work is required to have a full accounting.

'Until we can find those kids and let their elders come get them or know where they can pay respects, I don't think the native is going to heal, and as such I don't think America is going to heal,' Small said.

Chemawa, founded in 1880, is still operating.

Native Americans acknowledge that the schools still operating have transformed in important ways.

Many are now under tribal oversight and children are taught their native languages instead of being punished for speaking them. However, the schools have yet to acknowledge their pasts, said the coalition's McCleave and others.

'Before we can move forward, they have to recognize that legacy,' she said.

The remains of 215 children were discovered at the Kamloops Indian Residential School in British Columbia (pictured)


Native Americans walk from San Francisco to Washington, D.C. for U.S. civil rights, 1978

After the occupation of Alcatraz from 1969 to 1971, and subsequent forcible removal of American Indians by the United States government, the movement for civil rights for Native Americans became increasingly determined, firm, and conflictual. The government responded to this shift with exceedingly vigorous and sometimes fatal tactics. By 1979, some researchers and scholars had deemed the period the “continuing Indian Wars”. The movement began to partner with and draw from the ideas of the rising Black Power Movement, and received friendship and support from this group of African-American activists, who shared similar concepts of empowerment and nationalism.

Amidst the violence of the decade, some Native American leaders discovered the existence of eleven bills pending in Congress which would limit rights to tribal government, hunting, and fishing, as well as restrict access to social services by closing Native schools and hospitals. They decided to organize a nonviolent demonstration to draw attention to the cause and protest the potential legislation.

Dennis Banks, one of the co-founders of the American Indian Movement, proposed the idea of a 3,000-mile march from Alcatraz Island in San Francisco, California to Washington, D.C. in response to the bills in front of Congress regarding Native rights. The bills would have essentially eliminated land and water rights in Maine and New York, as well as on reservations across the country imposed new laws in Washington state requiring Native Americans to acquire permits for fishing and hunting severely limited the power of tribal jurisdictions implemented a policy of forced assimilation and would have cut off virtually all social services including schools, hospitals, and housing projects. Banks felt that the march would be not only an effective way to protest the infringement on American Indian rights, but also to raise awareness among non-Native Americans. His concept gained popularity among leaders and members of the Native rights community, including both American Indians and Americans from other various backgrounds.

The journey would also pay homage to the Trail of Broken Treaties of 1972, which consisted of a caravan by car and subsequent march in Washington, D.C. and occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to protest the government’s consistent negligence and hypocrisy in regards to treaties for land, water, and sovereignty rights for American Indians since the arrival of European settlers. In turn, the Trail of Broken Treaties was a memorialization of the history of forced migration that the Native American community has had to endure, including the Trail of Tears (following the Indian Removal Act of 1830) and the Long Walk of 1864, when nearly 5,000 Apache and Navajo people were faced with the choice of either starving in the wake of the systematic destruction of their crops and livestock by the American army or relocating the 400 miles to Fort Sumner. Throughout the journey and even at Fort Sumner, many died of starvation and disease, or were shot or picked up by slave traders for falling behind the others. Therefore, symbolism played a significant role in the Longest Walk, both in the sense of reincarnating Native Americans’ most traumatic persecutions and representing the unity and solidarity of many Indian tribes, despite the fact they were often targeted separately or purposefully pitted against each other by the U.S. government.

On February 11, 1978, 2,000 marchers, of whom approximately half were Native Americans and half non-Native Americans, left San Francisco on foot, bound for the nation’s capital: Washington, D.C. In addition to the goal of preventing the passage of the eleven bills, the organizers of the campaign sought to educate Americans along the route about Indian culture and persecution through “teach-ins” in various cities and towns, and to foster solidarity among the many Indian nations (of which over 100 participated). While preventing the devastating consequences of the potential legislation was important, in order to change the treatment of American Indians in the United States, it was necessary to spread knowledge about Native culture, beliefs, and practices, as well as the laws and implicit policies limiting their sovereignty and well-being.

Because the form of protest was physically grueling and therefore not possible for the elderly, the very young, and many others, most of the marchers traveled the majority of the distance by bus, car, or plane. Twenty-six demonstrators completed the entire distance, walking nearly 3,000 miles, and traveling and camping in harsh conditions. They had to spend winter months in the mountains and march in high temperatures with limited funds for food and water. Paul Owns the Sabre, one of the twenty-six who walked the entire distance, said of the experience: “We faced horrible conditions…It really became a spiritual thing”. Like many activists before them, the Longest Walkers sacrificed safety and comfort to further their cause and achieve their ultimate objectives.

Five months later, on July 15, 1978, the 2,000 marchers entered the capital city. They stopped first at Meridian Hill/Malcolm X Park for a rally, at which speakers included AIM leader Clyde Bellecourt, Chicano leader Reies Lopez Tijerina, actor Marlon Brando, and U.S. Representative Donald Dellums. The marchers then made their way to the Washington Monument. Muhammad Ali, Senator Edward Kennedy, and comedian Dick Gregory also attended various rallies to demonstrate their support for the campaign.

For the following 12 days of demonstrations and rallies, most camped out at a federal park in Maryland a few leaders of the campaign symbolically slept in a tent in front of the Washington Monument.

Over the course of the next two weeks, the participants held a series of marches and protests, including a demonstration in front of the Supreme Court to support political prisoners and bring attention to what they termed a “judicial genocide” being perpetrated against them. On July 25, they held a mass rally at the Washington Monument to protest the bills before Congress and present a Native American Manifesto challenging the current structures and definitions shaping the treatment of Native Americans and outlining their rights and needs. Two days later, California Representative Donald Dellums read the statement into the Congressional Record in its entirety.

By the end of July, all of the demonstrators had returned to their homes and, ultimately, Congress did not pass any of the eleven bills into law.


Tragic Connections

Some historians see a direct link between Andrew Jackson's refusal to enforce the Supreme Court decision in Worcester vs. Georgia and the outbreak of the Civil War, 23 years after the Cherokee were forcibly removed. A case can be made that letting Georgia in effect nullify federal law strengthed the South's position on state's rights. The case for this link to the Civil War has been made at least as far back as Horace Greeley's American Conflict: A History of The Great Rebellion, published in 1864.

If you accept that connection, it may not be too much of a stretch to say that the Indian Removal Act played a role in sending the entire United States down a Trail of Tears.


Missouri’s Many Trails of Tears

At the time of statehood in 1821, there were roughly 5,000 Native Americans residing in Missouri. By 1839, there were no Native American tribes in Missouri. The story of the massive relocation of these tens of thousands of Native Americans to reservations beyond the borders of Missouri might have been a bloody and violent one. That it wasn’t was largely due to the steady guiding hand of William Clark.

After the Louisiana Purchase, in 1803, President Thomas Jefferson envisioned the Missouri Territory as a refuge for Native Americans who voluntarily moved there to avoid extermination in the East. But such a vision had no realistic possibility of being put into practice.

Missouri experienced a population surge as white settlers poured across the Mississippi River to take up lands in the newly formed state. These newcomers had no intention of sharing their home with the original occupants.

The Shawnee and Delaware were among the first tribes in Missouri to experience the arrival of land-hungry Americans. In the early 1790s, these tribes had been invited by the Spanish to cross the Mississippi and settle on a large land grant in today’s Southeast Missouri. In a manner similar to the Cherokees in Georgia, they erected log houses and barns, built fences, and cleared land for crops. Their lifestyle was virtually indistinguishable from that of their Spanish, French and more recent Anglo neighbors. During the Spanish era, the predominantly French and Native American residents coexisted peacefully with each other in mutually beneficial settlements.

With the American takeover, however, all lands had to be surveyed before public land sales could commence. Previous titles held by Spanish, French and pioneer Americans had to be confirmed before any public land could be offered for sale. This tedious process dragged on until 1818.

But the unstoppable flood of new settlers was already starting to occupy both unsurveyed and Native American lands. This frustrated American authorities, who could do little to stop either. In response, the Shawnee and Delaware tribes took a different course than that followed by the Cherokee holdouts in Georgia, whose tragic forced march west was along a “Trail of Tears” of suffering and death. In the fall and winter of 1838-39, Cherokees and other tribes were removed by military force from their traditional homelands in the southeastern United States. Compelled to make their trek by land in extreme weather conditions, thousands of Cherokees succumbed to disease, privation or harsh weather conditions before reaching their destinations in what was then referred to as the Indian Territory in modern-day Oklahoma. At least three of the several land routes they followed led through Missouri.

The Shawnee and Delaware already knew what to expect of Americans, whose advancement into the Northwest Territory they had earlier fled. There was no need to evict them by military force. They began to leave their Southeast Missouri home on their own. By the time the first of several treaties with the Shawnees was inked in 1825, most of the Shawnees in Southeast Missouri had already migrated into the southern Ozarks, Southwest Missouri, and finally to reservations set aside in Kansas.

In 1804, a small contingent of Sauk-Fox chiefs signed a treaty in St. Louis in which they gave up a huge tract of land in north Missouri, Illinois and Wisconsin. William Henry Harrison, the negotiator, allegedly got them drunk and tricked them into signing a document they didn’t understand. Understand or not, they had just signed away all of their tribal lands to the Americans.

This infamous act caused lasting enmity among the Sauk-Fox, especially the war chief Black Hawk, who led a large faction. During the War of 1812, his warriors murdered several Missouri settlers. Still undefeated by Americans at the war’s end, Black Hawk and his followers nurtured their bitterness. Finally, in 1832, the Black Hawk War erupted but was short-lived. Large numbers of Black Hawk’s followers — men, women and children alike — were slaughtered at the Battle of Bad Axe in Wisconsin. The defeated survivors, including Black Hawk, spent their last days on reservations.

In 1808, William Clark, with Meriwether Lewis, executed a treaty with the once-mighty Osage to cede all of their lands between the Arkansas and Missouri rivers, a huge tract for a paltry sum of money. A later treaty in 1825 led to the transfer of an additional 30,000 square miles in exchange for a small reservation in what is now Kansas.

As the 1820s gave way to the 1830s and the age of Andrew Jackson, America’s policy toward Native Americans shifted from voluntary to compulsory relocation. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 set this new policy into motion.

During this period of Native American removal, one man in Missouri presided over the entire process as it played out in the West: William Clark. Following his famous expedition with Lewis, Clark settled in St. Louis and, under different titles, managed western Native American affairs until his death in 1838. In his long career of public service, he served under every president from George Washington to Martin Van Buren.

Clark shared Jefferson’s view that Native Americans should be protected, not exterminated, as many frontiersmen would desire. This approach cost him election as Missouri’s first governor he was considered too soft on Native Americans because the treaty, not the gun, was his main weapon. Over his career, he conducted 37 treaties. Native Americans surrendered over 100,000 acres of ancestral homelands. Some 75,000 Native Americans set out on countless trails of tears to reservations in the West.

Clark’s last treaty also completed the boundary of Missouri as we know it today. Prior to 1836, the state’s northwestern boundary was a line that extended north from the mouth of the Kansas River. It excluded an area that became known as the Platte Purchase, consisting of present-day Platte, Buchanan, Holt, Andrew, Nodaway and Atchison counties.

By the mid-1830s large numbers of Ioway and Sauk-Fox had been relocated there by previous treaties. The rich soil of this region caught the attention of Americans eager to spread the Missouri settlement frontier. As in every previous instance of land-hungry whites coveting Native American land, the tribes had to give way. So in 1836, Clark drafted what would become his final treaty. This time the trail of tears was a short one for the Sauk-Fox and the Ioway — just across the Missouri River to reservations in Kansas and Nebraska.

Two years after this treaty, Clark died. Gone too were the many tribes that had once inhabited Missouri — the Osage, Shawnees, Delaware, Kickapoos, Sauk-Fox and Ioways.

Thanks to Clark, this tragic process of uprooting, dispossession and relocation was, in main, accomplished with treaties rather than violence or ethnic cleansing. Americans of that day were more than capable of those options. Whatever else can be said about the complex character and actions of William Clark, the numerous trails of tears he helped create were much less stained by bloodshed and extermination than they might have been had a lesser man been at the helm.


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