Main Index: Z

Main Index: Z

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Main Index: Z

Military History Encyclopedia on the Web


Zahna, combat of, 5 September 1813 (Prussia)
Zalamea, combat of, 15 April 1810+
Zama, siege of, 109 BC
Zane, USS (DD-337)
Zeebrugge 1918: Prelude to St Nazaire
Zeilin, USS (DD-313)
Zeira, siege of, 349 BC
Zela, battle of, May 47 BC
Zell, Combat of, 14 September 1796
Zephyr, HMS (1895)
ZERO, Mitsubishi A6M (1939-1945)
Zerstörer 45/ Flakpanzer IV/3cm Flakvierling
Zhang Han, d.205 BC
Zhukov, Georgi Konstantinovich (1896-1974)
Zirke, combat of, 11-12 February 1813
Znaim, Armistice of; 12th July 1809
Znaim, battle of, 10-11 July 1809
Zombie/ Cold Comfort, 17 February-March 1945
Zorndorf, battle of, 25 August 1758 (Prussia, now Poland)
Zornoza, battle of, 31 October 1808
Zubian, HMS (1917)
Zulu, HMS (1909)
Zulu Impi
Zulu War 1879 (South Africa)
Zulu Warrior.
Zutalovka, combat of, 25 May 1809

History & Culture

Photo Courtesy Fannie Taylor Collection.

A Rich Culture: First Peoples

Local communities are closely and directly linked to the park in culture, heritage, and tradition, and also provide important historical information and meaning to the park's landscape. Eight contemporary tribes of the Olympic Peninsula - the Makah, Quileute, Hoh, Quinault, Skokomish, Port Gamble S'Klallam, Jamestown S'Klallam, and Lower Elwha Klallam - have lived in this area since time immemorial and continue to maintain strong relationships to the lands and waters now within Olympic National Park.

Humes Ranch in the Elwha Valley.

Olympic Exploration and Settlement of the Elwha Valley.

Since the 1880s, the Olympic Peninsula's spectacular mountains, rain forest, and unique wildlife have captured the attention of visitors, park advocates, and naturalists. By 1890 Naturalist John Muir, Washington Congressman James Wickersham, and Lieutenant Joseph O'Neil, who led the first well-documented exploration of the peninsula's interior, each respectively proposed creation of a national park on the Olympic Peninsula.

A Park Ranger with visitors on the back balcony of Hurricane Ridge Visitor Center, built in the 1950s.

Preservation and Becoming a National Park:

In 1897 the area received its first national designation, as Olympic Forest Reserve, by President Grover Cleveland in response to concern about the area's disappearing forests. Eight years later, in 1909, President Teddy Roosevelt designated a part of the reserve as Mount Olympus National Monument to protect the habitat of Roosevelt Elk, whose population was in steep decline.

President Franklin Roosevelt visits Port Angeles.

In 1937 President Franklin Roosevelt visited the Olympic Peninsula and added his support to establishment of a national park. The following year he signed the act designating Olympic National Park. An additional area of Pacific coast was added in 1953.

Lake Crescent and Highway 101 location prior to paving.

Main Index: Z - History

Topical Index S-Z

  • #66 Messenger, Another Gospel?
  • #106 Messenger, Acceptance of Joseph Smith Necessary for Eternal Life?
  • Brigham Young Sermon: Joseph Smith's Consent Needed to Enter Heaven
  • Gethsemane and Christ's Blood in LDS References
  • Mormon Claims Answered, SALVATION (Chapter 8)
    • Mormon Claims Answered, Sin
    • Mormon Claims Answered, Two Kinds of Salvation
      • Mormon Claims Answered, General Salvation
      • Mormon Claims Answered, Personal Salvation
      • Mormon Claims Answered, Faith in the Lord Jesus Christ
      • Mormon Claims Answered, Repentance
      • Mormon Claims Answered, Baptism
      • Mormon Claims Answered, Laying on of Hands
      • Mormon Claims Answered, Church Membership
      • Mormon Claims Answered, Keep the Commandments
        1. Mormon Claims Answered, The Ten Commandments
        2. Mormon Claims Answered, The Word of Wisdom
        3. Mormon Claims Answered, Tithing
        4. Mormon Claims Answered, Gaining Knowledge
        5. Mormon Claims Answered, Be Fruitful and Multiply
        6. Mormon Claims Answered, Be Virtuous
        7. Mormon Claims Answered, Doing Good Works
      • Mormon Claims Answered, Accept Joseph Smith and Successors
      • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Smith, Joseph, parentage and birth, 40 spiritual manifestations, marriage, persecutions, translates plates, organizes church, 1820-30, 40-70 missionary work 1830-34, 74-110 tarred and feathered, 92 banking operations, 113 starts newspaper, 115 persecuted, 122-31 in prison, 139 founds Nauvoo, 141 actions at, 1840-4, 143-88 revelation on polygamy, 160 candidate for presidency, 168 arrest and murder, 175-83 character, 184-88.
      • Brief Chronology of Joseph Smith — 1805-1844 (A) Compiled by Sandra Tanner
      • Changing World, Joseph Smith (Chapter 17)
        • Changing World, A Fighting Prophet
        • Changing World, General Smith
        • Changing World, "The Greatest Egotist"
        • Changing World, Smith Ordained King
        • Changing World, Joseph Smith for President
        • Changing World, Greater than Jesus?
        • Changing World, Destruction of Expositor
        • Changing World, Like a Lamb?
        • #88 Messenger, Trouble in Nauvoo
        • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Smith, Joseph, arrest and murder, 175-83
        • Changing World, Destruction of Expositor
        • Changing World, Like a Lamb?
        • John Hay Atlantic Monthly Article
        • Joseph Smith's Death
        • #71 Messenger, Problems All Over
        • #78 Messenger, Dunn Like Smith?
        • #87 Messenger, Joseph Smith's Vision
        • #99 Messenger, First Vision or Fraud?
        • #100 Messenger, Suppressed First Vision Account
        • #101 Messenger, First Vision
        • #109 Messenger, First Vision Problems
        • #109 Messenger, Charles Finney's Vision
        • Changing World, "Strange" Accounts
        • Changing World, Not Unique
        • Changing World, First History
        • Changing World, A Doctrinal Change
        • Changing World, No Revival in 1820
        • #63 Messenger, Joseph Smith's History
        • #71 Messenger, Problems All Over
        • #78 Messenger, An Extensive Forgery
        • #100 Messenger, Joseph Smith's History
        • #100 Messenger, Smith's Diaries and the History of the Church
        • Changing World, Written by Joseph Smith?
        • Changing World, New Discoveries
        • Changing World, Over Sixty Percent After Joseph Smith's Death
        • Changing World, Rocky Mountain Prophecy
        • Changing World, Selected Changes
        • Changing World, Joseph Smith's Diaries Discredit History
        • Changing World, Conclusion
        • #78 Messenger, "Drastically Changed"
        • #78 Messenger, Moses or Joseph?
        • #113 Messenger, Joseph Smith's Translation of the Bible
        • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Kirtland Safety Soc. Bk established, 113
        • Joseph Smith's Kirtland Bank Failure
          • Kirtland Bank 3 dollar bill "Bank" (photo)
          • Kirtland Bank 3 dollar bill "Anti-Banking Co." (photo)
          • Captain Morgan and the Masonic Influence in Mormonism
          • Changing World, Joseph Smith Becomes a Mason
          • #90 Messenger, Joseph Mentally Ill?
          • #95 Messenger, Smith and the Methodists
          • Mormon Claims Answered, Inconsistency about Church Membership
          • Mormon Prophet Attempts to Join the Methodists (The)
          • #88 Messenger, A Fighting Prophet
          • #100 Messenger, Political Kingdom of God
          • Changing World, General Smith
          • #36 Messenger, Walters Writes on 1826 Trial
          • Were the Plates Even Needed?
          • Urim and Thummim or Seer Stone?
          • Changing World, Book of Mormon from the Stone
          • Changing World, Money-Digging and the Book of Mormon
          • Changing World, Working With the Rod
          • Changing World, Joseph Smith's Magic Talisman
          • #66 Messenger, A Tangled Web
          • #66 Messenger, Other Men's Wives
          • #81 Messenger, Why In Utah?
          • #94 Messenger, A Strange Revelation
          • #94 Messenger, In Sacred Loneliness
          • #94 Messenger, Marrying a Child
          • #94 Messenger, Taking Other Men's Wives
          • #100 Messenger, Joseph Smith and Polygamy
          • #100 Messenger, Secret Polygamy Revelations
            • A Double Standard
            • Joseph Smith's Wives Chart
            • Nauvoo, Illinois
            • Publicly Exposed
            • When Did Emma Know?
            • The Revelation
            • Virgins or Married Women?
            • Presenting the Revelation to the Nauvoo Stake High Council
            • Events Leading to Joseph's Death
            • Nauvoo Expositor Destroyed
            • Joseph's Widows
            • Smith's Legacy
            • Hale, Emma, marries Joe Smith 1826, 45
            • Smith, Joseph, revelation on polygamy, 160
            • #71 Messenger, Changing Revelations
            • #118 Messenger, PLAYING FAIR? An Evaluation of Joseph Smith's "Rocky Mountain Prophecy"
            • Changing World, False Prophecy (Chapter 14)
            • Joseph Smith's "White Horse" Prophecy
            • Mormon Claims Answered, Prophecies in the Doctrine and Covenants
            • Mormon Claims Answered, Other Prophecies by Smith
            • Sample of Joseph Smith's False Prophecies (A)
            • Joseph Smith's Boasting and Polygamy Denial Sermon
            • Joseph Smith's King Follet Sermon
            • Joseph Smith's Role as 'Prophet' in View of the King Follet Discourse
            • Joseph Smith's Sermon On Plurality of Gods
            • Changing World, Joseph's Example
            • Changing World, Joseph Smith's Bar
            • Bancroft's History of Utah: Schisms and Apostasies (Chapter 23)
              • Gladdenites
                • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Gladdenites, the, sect of, 643-4 denounced by Young, 644.
                • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents):
                • Godbe, W. S., grant to, 609 trial 647-9 biog., 651 interview with Prest Grant, 638.
                • Godbeite movement, success of, 647-55
                • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Morris, Joseph, doctrine of, 615 warrant against, 616 defeat and death of, 617-18.
                • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Strangites, the, sect of, 641.
                • Changing Revelations
                • A Trip to Missouri
                • Pauline Hancock
                • A Second Missouri Trip
                • Jerald Meets Sandra
                • Mounting Questions
                • Blood Atonement
                • Enter Cupid
                • LaMar Petersen
                • Tanners Are Married
                • One God
                • First Vision
                • A Letter to an Apostle
                • A Visit with the Bishop
                • Hiding the Past
                • Tanners Start Publishing
                • Sandra Resigns
                • A Chance Meeting
                • Letter from an Apostle
                • "I Am Warning You"
                • "Out for Repair"
                • Robinson's Quotes
                • Pauline in Salt Lake City
                • Excerpts from Letters and Email
                • Jerald's Formal Resignation
                • Letter from BYU Historian
                • First Vision Problems
                • A Visit with Berrett
                • Apostle Richards Bows Out - The Tanners Move
                • Deseret News Find
                • Charles Finney's Vision
                • A Winter Saturday at BYU
                • "Censoring the Joseph Smith Story"
                • How to Make Enemies and Influence People
                • Back to the Book of Commandments
                • Excerpts from Emails and Letters
                • #62 Messenger, Obsession With Lucifer?
                • #64 Messenger, Devils All Over?
                • #80 Messenger, Flashbacks In Temple
                • #98 Messenger, Temples and the Bible
                • #100 Messenger, LDS Temple Ceremony
                • Baptism for the Dead and the Twelve Oxen Under the Baptismal Font
                • Bible Verses Relating to LDS Teachings on Temple Work
                • Captain Morgan and the Masonic Influence in Mormonism
                • Changes in temple ceremony
                  • #75 Messenger, Temple Ritual Altered
                  • #76 Messenger, Current Mormon Temple Ceremony Now Available
                  • Earliest Ceremony in Kirtland, Ohio
                  • 1837 Anointings
                  • Nauvoo Endowment
                  • Changes in 2005
                  • Defending Temple Changes
                  • Civil Ceremony First?
                  • Summary of Major Changes in the LDS Temple Ritual from 1842-200
                  • Changing World, Baptism for the Dead
                  • Changing World, Temple Marriage
                  • Changing World, Connected with Polygamy
                  • Changing World, A Secret Ceremony
                  • Changing World, Changes in the Temple Ceremony
                  • Changing World, The Temple Ceremony and Masonry
                  • Changing World, Joseph Smith Becomes a Mason
                  • Changing World, Masonic Ritual in the Temple Ceremony
                  • Changing World, Conclusion
                  • Mormon Claims Answered, Temples
                    • Mormon Claims Answered, Genealogical Work
                    • Mormon Claims Answered, Marriage and Sealing
                    • #98 Messenger,Second Anointing
                    • #98 Messenger,Innocent Blood?
                    • #98 Messenger,Husband to Call Wife from the Grave
                    • #92 Messenger, Sealing Men to Men
                    • #92 Messenger, Death of the Doctrine
                    • #94 Messenger, Temple Marriage?
                    • #98 Messenger, Eternal Marriage
                    • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Adoption for eternity, dogma of, 361.
                    • Bible Verses Relating to LDS Teachings on Temple Work
                    • Changing World, Temple Marriage
                    • How the LDS Husband Hopes to Resurrect His Wife According to the LDS Temple Ceremony
                    • Mormon Church Attempts to Conceal Temple Records for Adolf Hitler (The) by Helen Radkey
                    • Mormon Claims Answered, Marriage and Sealing

                    Terminology [see Terminology Differences by Sandra Tanner]

                    • #36 Messenger, A Stranger to Hunger
                    • #47 Messenger, Mormonism—Shadow or Reality?
                    • #47 Messenger, Still Struggling
                    • #49 Messenger, Support Needed
                    • #58 Messenger, IRS's Final Ruling
                    • #65 Messenger, Think About It!
                    • #71 Messenger, If He Were Satan
                    • #71 Messenger, New Tract Ministry
                    • #101 Messenger, Bremen, Germany: An Example of Apostasy
                    • #56 Messenger, Tanners' Riches
                    • #68 Messenger, Getting Rich?
                    • #81 Messenger, The Lighthouse Needs A Home!
                    • #84 Messenger, Support the Lighthouse
                    • #86 Messenger, Building A Home For the Lighthouse
                    • #87 Messenger, The New Lighthouse
                    • #88 Messenger, The New Lighthouse
                    • #89 Messenger, In the Lighthouse
                    • #99 Messenger, Want to be a Utah Lighthouse Partner?
                    • #100 Messenger, Ministry is Born and is Sued
                    • #36 Messenger, Impeachment?
                    • #81 Messenger, Mormon Leaders Fight Satanic Infiltration
                    • #93 Messenger, A First Class Production
                    • #96 Messenger, LDS Church Sues Ministry
                    • #101 Messenger, Bremen, Germany: An Example of Apostasy
                    • Associated Press Article on Tanners
                    • Charisma article: "The Bravest Woman in Utah" (.pdf) by John Draper
                      Reprinted with permission from Charisma & Christian Life, June, 2006. Copyright Strang Communications Co., USA. All rights reserved.
                    • Under the Cover of Light: News
                    • #38 Messenger, 15,000 Books Met with Silence
                    • #62 Messenger, In the Mail
                    • #66 Messenger, In the Mail
                    • #74 Messenger, In the Mail
                    • #76 Messenger, In the Mail
                    • #77 Messenger, In the Mail
                    • #78 Messenger, Are You Part of the Team?
                    • #84 Messenger, Extracts From Letters
                    • #87 Messenger, In the Mail
                    • #89 Messenger, Extracts from Letters
                    • #90 Messenger, Extracts from Letters
                    • #91 Messenger, Extracts from Letters
                    • #92 Messenger, Extracts from Letters
                    • #93 Messenger, Extracts from Letters
                    • #94 Messenger, Extracts from Letters
                    • #95 Messenger, Extracts from Letters and Email
                    • #96 Messenger, Extracts from Letters and Email
                    • #97 Messenger, Extracts From Letters and Emails
                    • #98 Messenger, Extracts from Letters and Email
                    • #99 Messenger, Extracts from Letters and Email
                    • #100 Messenger, Extracts From Letters and Emails
                    • #101 Messenger, Extracts from Letters and Emails
                    • #102 Messenger, Extracts from Letters and Emails
                    • #103 Messegner, Extracts from Letters and Emails
                    • #104 Messenger, Excerpts from Letters and Emails
                    • #105 Messenger, Excerpts from Emails
                    • #107 Messenger, Excerpts From Email and Letters
                    • #108 Messenger, Excerpts from Letters and Email
                    • #109 Messenger, Excerpts from Emails and Letters
                    • #118 Messenger, Excerpts From Letters and Emails
                    • #119 Messenger, Excerpts from Letters and Emails
                    • #120 Messenger, Excerpts from Letters and Emails
                    • #124 Messenger, Excerpts from Emails and Letters
                    • Letters to the Editor
                    • Tanner Bibliography 1959� (A) (PDF) by H. Michael Marquardt
                    • 1. LDS Scriptures
                    • 2. LDS Manuals
                    • I. Richard Mouw&rsquos Tabernacle Apology
                    • II. The Origins of Snow&rsquos Couplet
                    • III. The Couplet and the Prophet Joseph Smith
                    • IV. The Ongoing Significance of the Couplet in Snow’s Career
                    • V. The Couplet in Recent Times
                    • VI. The Couplet and the Doctrine of Deification
                    • VII. Conclusion: Mouw, the Couplet, and the Future
                    • Changing World, From One to Many
                    • Changing World, The Heavenly Mother
                    • Changing World, The Virgin Birth
                    • Changing World, Serious Changes
                    • Changing World, Removing the Lectures
                    • Changing World, A Changeable God
                    • Changing World, The Holy Ghost
                    • Mormon Claims Answered, The Trinity
                      • Mormon Claims Answered, God the Father
                      • Mormon Claims Answered, Mother God
                      • Mormon Claims Answered, Jesus Christ
                      • Mormon Claims Answered, The Holy Ghost
                      • #77 Messenger, Embarrassing Doctrine
                      • #87 Messenger, No Virgin Birth?
                      • Changing World, The Virgin Birth
                        Mormon Stories: Sandra Tanner - Reflections on Mark Hofmann and "Murder Among the Mormons" (03/10/21)Faith After Mormonism Conference: Sandra Tanner (10/12/2019)Be. Ready. Conference: Sandra Tanner (04/05/2019)Sandra Tanner Discusses Early Mormon History (11/08/2018)RÉVÉLATIONS - LES MORMONS À LA CONQUÊ DU MONDE (10/10/2018)
                        • [French video. Click on CC (Closed Captions) then change subtitles in settings to English under Auto-translate.]
                          Does God Have a Father? (02/11/2018)Is Jesus My Brother? (02/18/2018)Do We Eternally Progress? (02/25/2018)Who Has the Priesthood? (03/11/2018)Do We Need a Temple? (03/18/2018)More Scriptures Than The Bible? (03/25/2018)
                      • #77 Messenger, Brigham Young Indicted For Murder
                      • #81 Messenger, Blood Atonement Ritual
                      • #98 Messenger, Brigham Young Responsible?
                      • Brigham's Destroying Angel by Bill Hickman
                      • Mountain Meadows Massacre, DOCTRINE OF "BLOOD ATONEMENT" AND ITS RESULTS.
                      • Mountain Meadows Massacre, ELDER PENROSE'S "DEFENSE" OF BRIGHAM YOUNG AND THE CHURCH.
                      • Sermons, Talks, Interviews: Blood Atonement
                        • Brigham Young's Speech on Slavery, Blacks, and the Priesthood
                        • Journal of Discourses Vol. 3, p. 243-249
                        • Journal of Discourses Vol. 4, p. 51-57
                        • Journal of Discourses Vol. 4, p. 215-221
                        • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Deseret alphabet, hist. of, 712-14 characters, 713
                        • Brigham Young's Deseret Alphabet
                        • #63 Messenger, Avoiding the Problem
                        • Brigham Young's Estate
                        • #66 Messenger, Other Men's Wives
                        • #66 Messenger, Absolutely Essential
                        • #81 Messenger, Why In Utah?
                        • #94 Messenger, Hiding Young's Wives
                        • Bancroft's History of Utah (Contents): Young, Ann Eliza, suit for divorce, 393.
                        • Brigham Young Interview by Horace Greeley, July 13, 1859
                        • Brigham Young's Wives and His Divorce From Ann Eliza Webb
                        • Changing World, Number of Wives
                        • Changing World, Taking Other Men's Wives
                        • Indian Polygamy Revelation
                        • #39 Messenger, Brigham Young Misrepresented
                        • Brigham Young Interview by Horace Greeley, July 13, 1859
                        • Brigham Young's Speech on: Slavery, Blacks, and the Priesthood
                        • Changing World, Brigham Young Misrepresented
                        • Brigham Young's Speech on Slavery, Blacks, and the Priesthood
                        • Journal of Discourses Vol. 3, p. 243-249
                        • Journal of Discourses Vol. 4, p. 51-57
                        • Journal of Discourses Vol. 4, p. 215-221
                        • Brigham Young's Speech on Tobacco, Journal of Discourses Vol. 9, p. 31-40
                        • Changing World, Brigham Young's Distillery

                        *See Main Topic

                        For the best results be sure to check:
                        Index to The Changing World of Mormonism
                        For topics that may not be in this Topical Index

                        Schutz School Chronology

                        September 1924 School for Egypt UPNA Mission Children opens at Schutz in Alexandria, with 18 boarding students. Classes and dormitory located in one building. School opens with 2 teachers, and an Egypt Mission member in charge of operations. Schutz has grades 1-10, with an American college preparatory curriculum.
                        September 1924-May 1940 Schutz has 18-32 students a year, 2 or 3 American teachers, 1 or 2 local teachers, and a local resident as matron for the boarding department.
                        September 1940 Schutz moves to Assiut over summer of 1940, opening on the campus of Assiut College, a

                        UPNA Egypt Mission institution far removed from the bombing in the areas of Alexandria and Cairo. Boarders lived with Mission families at Assiut College. Classes were held in College and Mission residence buildings.

                        be called the Inter-Mission High School to be located in Alexandria at Schutz

                        Over the next 9 years, the boarding department grew to about 80, day students increased to about 75.

                        One great experience, two ways to get started

                        Learning System
                        Anyone can register to use the Learning System and earn IBM Digital Badges. Take on the same challenges, but no prizes are awarded. The system is open year-round.

                        The Student Contest
                        Students attending any accredited institution can register for the global virtual contest, compete for prizes, and earn badges. The contest is open September 14, 2020 through January 17, 2021.

                        Main Index: Z - History

                        The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is the nation's principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

                        Below is a list of major events in HHS history and a list of the Secretaries of HHS/HEW.

                        The Affordable Care Act was signed into law, putting in place comprehensive U.S. health insurance reforms.

                        The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 was enacted - the most significant expansion of Medicare since its enactment. It included a prescription drug benefit.

                        The Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness (now the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response) was created to coordinate efforts against bioterrorism and other emergency health threats.

                        The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid was created, replacing the Health Care Financing Administration.HHS responds to the nation's first bioterrorism attack - delivery of anthrax through the mail.

                        Publication of human genome sequencing.

                        The Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999 was signed, making it possible for millions of Americans with disabilities to join the workforce without fear of losing their Medicaid and Medicare coverage. It also modernized the employment services system for people with disabilities.

                        Initiative to combat bioterrorism was launched.

                        The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) was created, enabling states to extend health coverage to more uninsured children.

                        Welfare reform under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act was enacted.

                        The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted.

                        The Social Security Administration became an independent agency.

                        Vaccines for Children Program was established, providing free immunizations to all children in low-income families.

                        Human Genome Project was established.

                        Nutrition Labeling and Education Act was passed, authorizing the food label.

                        Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resource Emergency (CARE) Act began providing support for people with HIV/AIDS

                        The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (now the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) was created.

                        JOBS program and federal support for child care was created.

                        McKinney Act was passed to provide health care to the homeless.

                        National Organ Transplantation Act was signed into law.

                        Identification of AIDS - In 1984, the HIV virus was identified by the Public Health Service and French scientists. In 1985, a blood test to detect HIV was licensed.

                        Federal funding was provided to states for foster care and adoption assistance.

                        The Department of Education Organization Act was signed into law, providing for a separate Department of Education. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) became the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) on May 4, 1980.

                        The Health Care Financing Administration was created to manage Medicare and Medicaid separately from the Social Security Administration.

                        Worldwide eradication of smallpox, led by the U.S. Public Health Service.

                        Child Support Enforcement and Paternity Establishment Program was established.

                        National Cancer Act was signed into law.

                        National Health Service Corps was created.

                        International Smallpox Eradication program was established.

                        Community Health Center and Migrant Health Center programs were launched.

                        Medicare and Medicaid programs were created, making comprehensive health care available to millions of Americans.

                        Older Americans Act created the nutritional and social programs administered by HHS' Administration on Aging.

                        Head Start program was created.

                        Release of the first Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health.

                        Migrant Health Act was passed, providing support for clinics serving agricultural workers.

                        First White House Conference on Aging.

                        Licensing of the Salk polio vaccine.

                        Indian Health Service was transferred to HHS from the Department of Interior.

                        The Cabinet-level Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) was created under President Eisenhower, officially coming into existence April 11, 1953. In 1979, the Department of Education Organization Act was signed into law, providing for a separate Department of Education. HEW became the Department of Health and Human Services, officially arriving on May 4, 1980.

                        Communicable Disease Center was established, forerunner of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

                        The Federal Security Agency was created, bringing together related federal activities in the fields of health, education, and social insurance.

                        Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act was passed.

                        Social Security Act was passed.

                        The National Institute (later Institutes) of Health was created out of the Public Health Service's Hygienic Laboratory.

                        The Bureau of Indian Affairs Health Division, forerunner to the Indian Health Service, was created.

                        President Theodore Roosevelt's first White House Conference urged creation of the Children's Bureau to combat exploitation of children.

                        The Pure Food and Drugs Act was passed, authorizing the government to monitor the purity of foods and the safety of medicines, now a responsibility of the FDA.

                        Conversion of the Marine Hospital Service into the Public Health and Marine Hospital Service in recognition of its expanding activities in the field of public health. In 1912, the name was shortened to the Public Health Service.

                        Immigration legislation was passed, assigning the Marine Hospital Service the responsibility for medical examination of arriving immigrants.

                        The federal government opened a one-room laboratory on Staten Island for research on disease, a very early precursor to the National Institutes of Health.

                        The National Quarantine Act was passed, beginning the transfer of quarantine functions from the states to the federal Marine Hospital Service.

                        Appointment of the first Supervising Surgeon (later called the Surgeon General) for the Marine Hospital Service, which had been organized the prior year.

                        President Lincoln appointed a chemist, Charles M. Wetherill, to serve in the new Department of Agriculture. This was the beginning of the Bureau of Chemistry, forerunner to the Food and Drug Administration.

                        History & Culture

                        Road through pinelands before 1928.

                        Everglades Digital Library

                        Water in south Florida once flowed freely from the Kissimmee River to Lake Okeechobee and southward over low-lying lands to the estuaries of Biscayne Bay, the Ten Thousand Islands, and Florida Bay. This shallow, slow-moving sheet of water covered almost 11,000 square miles, creating a mosaic of ponds, sloughs, sawgrass marshes, hardwood hammock, and forested uplands. For thousands of years this intricate system evolved into a finely balanced ecosystem that formed the biological infrastructure for the southern half of the state. However, to early colonial settlers and developers the Everglades were potential farm land and communities. By the early 1900s', the drainage process to transform wetland to land ready to be developed was underway. The results would be severely damaging to the ecosystem and the species it supported.

                        With the support of many early conservationists, scientists, and other advocates, Everglades National Park was established in 1947 to conserve the natural landscape and prevent further degradation of its land, plants, and animals. Although the captivation of the Everglades has mostly stemmed from its unique ecosystem, an alluring human story of the Everglades is deeply interwoven with its endless marshes, dense mangroves, towering palms, alligator holes, and tropical fauna. Various groups and people navigated through and wrestled with the watery landscape to make it home, and even to exploit its natural wonder at times. On these pages you can discover more about the Native Americans that existed and thrived the agricultural development and drainage of the Everglades the people and groups who advocated for the conservation of the area the Everglades’ role in United States War efforts the preservation and restoration work that continues today and much more.

                        Main Page

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                        2021-06-11 Guilty Gear -Strive-: International release 2021-06-08 Guilty Gear -Strive-: Early Access Playstation Release 2021-06-06 Guilty Gear -Strive-: Launch Trailer 2021-04-15 Granblue Fantasy Versus: Eustace Gameplay Reveal Video 2021-03-07 Dragon Ball FighterZ: SS4 Gogeta Gameplay Reveal Video 2021-02-20 Guilty Gear -Strive-: I-No Announcement Video 2021-01-26 Granblue Fantasy Versus: Anre released. 2021-01-25 Guilty Gear -Strive-: Singleplayer/Online Modes Trailer Video. 2021-01-22 Granblue Fantasy Versus: Anre Reveal Video 2021-01-01 Guilty Gear -Strive-: Anji Mito Reveal Video 2020-12-26 DNF Duel: Reveal Trailer Video By WMW:Neople along with ArcSystemWorks. 2020-12-20 Dragon Ball FighterZ: Super Baby 2 Announcement Video. Gogeta (SS4) announced. 2020-12-13 Granblue Fantasy Versus: Yuel released. Announcement Video. Anre announced. 2020-10-19 Granblue Fantasy Versus: Cagliostro released. 2020-10-10 Guilty Gear -Strive-: Giovanna Announcement Video. Anji Mito teased. 2020-07-30 Mobile Suit Gundam EXTREME VS. Maxi Boost ON: International Release


                        Visit Stanford Libraries latest exhibition: Between: Artist Books, Albums, and Portfolios from the Mark Ruwedel Photography Archive at Stanford on view through September 26 in Green Library

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  1. Parthenios

    Yeah ... Here, as people used to say: they teach the ABC - they shout in the whole hut :)

  2. Suzanna

    Is it the drawing?

  3. Bradene

    It's not cool!

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