Vladimir Copic

Vladimir Copic

Vladimir Copic was born in Yugoslavia in 1891. A member of the Communist Party he volunteered to fight for the Popular Front government during the Spanish Civil War.

Copic arrived in Spain in 1937 and joined the other International Brigades at Albacete.

Copic was appointed commander of the 15th International Brigade and served at Brunete in July 1937. Copic was killed in 1938.

The XVth Brigade commander, Vladimir Copic, who had a penchant for singing opera and staying away from the front lines, ordered the executions, Copeman said, and they were reluctantly carried out by Sam Wild, the battalion commander.

The perspectives on Copic were predictably varied. Jason Gurney believed he was "an utterly unprincipled brute who would swear that black was white if it suited his convenience, and his only genius lay in his capacity for intrigue." Robert Merriman, the commander of the Lincolns, loathed Copic's arrogance and held him responsible for the decimation of the American battalion on February 27, 1937, by forcing it into an impossible attack. On the other hand, from a British commissar's perspective, Copic "symbolises proletarian strength," an example of the kind of man "our class produces."


Jarama Series The Regiments

In the Jarama Series, The Volunteer Blog will present a series of articles examining the experiences of volunteers in the Abraham Lincoln Battalion from its formation to the Brunete Offensive in July 1937. Articles will focus both on the battalion’s formation as well as on the individuals who served. These articles are intended to provide the reader with a better appreciation of the men and women who made up the first American combat formation in Spain.

Jarama Series #16 The Regiments

In the spring and early summer of 1937, the XV th International Brigade (XV IB) reached its highest point in combat strength. A robust headquarters element, six infantry battalions, an anti-tank battery, and cavalry squadrons positioned the XV IB well to contribute to the Republican’s first major offensive. The 15 th Division ordered the addition of an additional layer of command to accommodate the XV IB’s growth in strength. Part of this restructuring included the formation of two groups or regiments. The Dimitrov 6 th of February and the Spanish 24 th Battalions made up the first regiment/group and the Lincolns, British and newly arrived Washington Battalion made up the second/group.

The XV IB’s battalions were close to full strength with a cadre of combat veterans in each of the international battalions. Replacements from the training bases, along with the assignment of a Spanish Company to each battalion, increased strength and allowed each of the battalions to field three infantry companies and a machine gun company.[i] The XV IB’s Estado Mayor (Headquarters) included not only the command staff, but also a number of subordinate formations that provided mix of sustainment and combat elements (see Figure 1). These consisted of:

  • The Signal platoon, in Spanish Transmisiones, established and maintained the brigade’s communication with subordinate elements. They accomplished this by laying wire between the units. When the wires were cut, teams were dispatched to trace the wire and make repairs. This duty often occurred under fire. There is no definitive date for which this formation joined the EM.
  • The Auto Park consisted of dispatchers, drivers, mechanics and the rolling stock assigned to the brigade headquarters. The EM vehicles included trucks, sedans and motorcycles.
  • Fortifications provided engineering support to the brigade headquarters and subordinate units.
  • Medical, in Spanish Sanidad, provided health support and combat casualty care to the brigade headquarters.
  • The Armory provided ordnance support supplying ammunition and small arms maintenance.
  • The Cavalry Squadron provided reconnaissance and straggler policing. The squadron was destroyed in combat during the Brunete Offensive.
  • The British Anti-Tank Battery was equipped with three, state-of-the-art, Russian 45mm anti-tank guns.
  • The Quartermaster Section was an amalgam of various sections and teams in the Estado Mayor that provided cook support, supply, mail and water to the headquarters and supported regiments.
  • The Scouts provided reconnaissance for the headquarters.
  • The Military Police, in Spanish Vigilancia, provided guards for the headquarters and enforcement of military rules and regulations.
  • The Topography section obtained, drew, copied and distributed maps for the brigade headquarters and subordinate units.
  • The Reserve Battalion consisted of recruits from the training sites who were sent to the battalions to replace combat losses. They existed only as a replacement pool.
  • One or more artillery batteries were under the operational control of the XV BDE at various times before and during the Brunete Offensive.

Figure 1. Organization of the XV IB.

Each of the six battalions in the two regiments had a similar organization. Each nominally possessed a company-size headquarters, three infantry companies, and an MG company. The Plana Mayor included the battalion’s staff and supporting sustainment and combat support elements (see Figure 2). Each battalion included:

  • Battalion Scouts conducted reconnaissance forward of the battalion’s main body during tactical movements.
  • Quartermaster and Kitchens provided sustainment to the Plana Mayor and subordinate companies.
  • Armory- provided ordnance support supplying ammunition and small arms maintenance.
  • Battalion Transport provided maintenance and drivers for the Battalion’s rolling stock.
  • Signals, in Spanish Transmisiones, established and maintained the battalion’s communication with its companies.
  • Runners carried messages to higher headquarters, subordinate elements and other Brigade units. This duty was particularly hazardous as it, at times, required moving rapidly under fire to deliver messages.
  • Topographers obtained, drew, copied and distributed maps for the brigade headquarters and subordinate units.
  • Medics, in Spanish Sanidad, provided health support and combat casualty care to the battalion.

Figure 2. Typical battalion formation

While on paper the brigade was in excellent shape, it had significant shortcomings. Chief among them was the limited time the brigade had to train after the long trench vigil at Jarama. Due to the static nature and demands of trench warfare, it was impossible for leaders to train at greater than platoon level at any one time. Life in trenches also left the men ill-prepared physically for the demands of mobile operations. The George Washington Battalion, though lacking combat experience had a longer training period than any previous international infantry unit and was in the best shape for mobile warfare.

The new group/regimental structure also presented issues. Because it was formally instituted just before the brigade went into action, staffs had little time to become cohesive. They also lacked time to integrate their staff work within the brigade and the newly formed 15 th Division.

XV IB leadership tried to compensate by issuing daily training programs to help the commands brush up on their combat skills. Very little time was allotted to maneuvering at the battalion level and it is debatable whether the units strictly adhered to the schedules.[ii]

General Janos Gal commanded the 15 th Division.[iii] The 15 th division was composed of the XIII and XV IBs. The command structure of the XV BDE is depicted below.

XV International Brigade[iv]

Chief of Staff, Teniente Coronel, Hans Klaus[vii]

Chief of Operations, Mayor George Nathan[viii]

Chief of Information Section

Special Staff

Captain Luis Garcia Marquez in charge of three new sections

Liaison to 15 DIV HQ

Armory and Munitions

Teniente Roberto Rinaldo (20 May)

Commander, Teniente Andre Dugue (20 May)

Adjutant, Teniente Jose Melchor (20 May)

Service Sanitario

Chief, Capitan Dr. Alex Langer (20 May)

Intendencia

Engineer Company

Transmissiones

Vigilancia Militar

Cavalry Squadron

Commander, Captian Tommaso Allocca (20 May)

Adjutant, Teniente Robert Dallier (20 May)

Brigade Anti-Tank Battery

First Group/Regiment

Commander, Major Gabriel Fort[xi]

Battalion 24, Spanish Voluntarios

Commander, Gabriel Martinez Esclapez

Commissar, Emilio Fronteriz

Adjutant, Teniente Migal Ivare (20 May)

Battalion 14, Dimitrov

Commander, Captain Michel Tsapajiev aka “Chapiev”[xii]

Commissar, Steve Tabakov (speculative)

Adjutant, Teniente Louis Mate (20 May)

Battalion 15, 6 th of February

Commander, Captain Maurice Blin

Adjutant Teniente Marcel Lantez (20 May)

Second Group/Regiment

Commander, Major Jock Cunningham[xiii]

Adjutant, Captain Martin Hourihan[xv]

Battalion 16, British

Commander, Captain Fred Copeman[xvi]

Adjutant Teniente Charles Goodfellow (20 May)[xviii]

Battalion 17, Abraham Lincoln

Commander, Teniente Oliver Law[xix]

Battalion 19, George Washington

Commander, Captain Mirko Markovics[xxii]

[i] The English Battalion’s MG company was No. 2 Company.

[ii] RGASPI Fond 545, Opis 3, Delo 426, ll.195-196, Orders of the day for June 28 and June 29 include instructions for all subordinate units to practice company and battalion movements. Time allotted for this practice.

[iii] Galicz, Janos. b. 1890 in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. In Spain he went by the nom de guerre General Gal. Galicz was a soldier in the Austro-Hungarian Army in WWI and was captured by the Russians on the Eastern Front and subsequently joined the Red Army. He served in Bela Kun’s Soviet Republic in Hungary and was an exile in the Soviet Union after the republic was crushed.

Galicz was the first commander of the XV IB before being promoted to division command. Gal was recalled to Russia in 1939 and was likely executed during the purge.

[iv] This incomplete list of commanders and units for the XV IB is compiled from two main sources: ORDEN DEL DIA 3 de Julio de 1937 [this order of the day lays out the two groups/regiments], RGASPI Fond 545, Opis 3, Delo 426, ll. 207 and RELACION DUPLICADA DE LOS JEFES Y OFICIALES DE LA EXPRESADA QUE SE FORMULA EN CUMPLIMINEO DE LA ORDEN GENERA DEL C. de E. NUM. 63 DE FECA 20 DE MAYO DE 1937. [A list of all officers in the brigade, this list does not include commissars and reorganizations may have occurred after this date individuals identified in through this document are followed by “(20 May)”] RGASPI Fond 545, Opis 3, Delo 452, ll. 10-15.

[v] Copic, Vladimir. b. March 8, 1891 in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. A Croatian he served in the Austro-Hungarian Army during the First World War. He was captured by the Russians on the Eastern Front and subsequently joined the Red Army. He was a leader in Yugoslavian Communist Party and was a student in the Lenin School in Moscow during the 1930s.

Copic came to Spain and was appointed Commissar for the newly created XV IB. When Janos Galicz was promoted to command the 15 th Division Copic was promoted to command the XV IB. Copic led the brigade from February 1937 into April 1938. Copic was recalled to Russia and was imprisoned

[vi] Aitken, George Sutherland. b. 1894 in Airdrie, Scotland. Aitken was the XV IB Commissar during the Brunete Campaign. A WWI veteran he joined the CPGB in 1920. Aitken served as a party organizer and was a member of the Amalgamated Engineering Union. He was also an alumin of the Lenin School in Moscow. He volunteered to serve in the International Brigades and arrived in Spain in late January 1937. He replaced Douglas Springhall as Commissars of the British Battalion and served at Jarama. He was promoted to Brigade Commissar before Brunete. He was one of five leading British officers recalled to Britain in the late summer of 1937. Harry Pollit decided to keep Aitken in Britain.

[vii] Klaus, Hans. Served in WWI in the German Army. He joined the CP in 1927 and after the Nazis came to power he went into exile in France. He arrived in Spain in the first weeks of the civil war. He served as the chief of Staff under Gal and later Copic.

[viii] Nathan, George Montague. b. circa 1895 (or 1897). Nathan was an instinctive soldier. He joined the British Army during the First World War and rose through the ranks receiving a field commission into the Warwickshire Regiment in 1917. Post war he tried several vocations including a stint in Canada as a farmer without success. He attempted to rejoin the Army but was discharged after brief terms of service. Nathan also served with the notorious Black and Tans in Ireland.

In 1936 Nathan volunteered to serve in the International Brigades. He led the No. 1 British Company and briefly commanded the Marseillaise Battalion in early 1937. Nathan transferred to the British Battalion as a staff officer and served at Jarama. Hethen served as a staff officer with the XIV IB. In the spring of 1937 he was selected to serve as the Chief of Brigade Operations. Nathan was killed during an aerial bombardment on July 16, 1937 at Brunete. Nathan is remembered as a resourceful, brave, and effective leader.

[ix] Dunbar, Ronald Malcolm Lorraine. b. February 12, 1912 in Paignton, Devon, England. Dunbar was a Cambridge graduate and a journalist. He arrived in Spain in early January 1937 and joined the British Battalion. Dunbar served as a group leader at Jarama and was wounded in the arm in February and after recovery attended the Officer Training School (OTS) at Pozo Rubio. Dunbar was selected as the commander of the newly formed Anti Tank Battery and served with it through the Brunete Campaign until he was wounded a second time on July 23, 1937. He later served as the XV IB Chief of Staff. During WWII he joined the British Army in 1940 as a Sergeant.

[x] Slater, Humphrey Richard Hugh. b. June 7, 1906, Carlisle, Cumberland, England. Slater was a Journalist and member of the CPGB from 1929 when he volunteered for service in Spain. He arrived in May 1937 and was selected as the Political Commissar for the newly formed Anti Tank Battery. Slater took command of the battery after Dunbar was promoted. Slater rose through the ranks and served on the Brigade Staff. He was repatriated in October 1938.

[xi] Fort, Gabriel. Fort commanded the first group/regiment. He was a French Socialist, a WW I veteran and Reserve officer in the French Army. Prior to moving up to regimental command he was the Commander of the 6 th of February. He was wounded during the Brunete Campaign losing an eye. Despite the severity of the wound he returned to the Brigade.

[xii] Szalvay, Michael “Chapaev”. b. August 23, Budapest, Austria-Hungary. Was a day laborer and brick layer before WW I. During WWI he served in the Austro-Hungarian Army on the Italian Front. After the war he joined the CP in Hungary and served in the Red Army during Bela Kun’s short-lived Communist Regime. He was arrested and sentenced to 15 years. He escaped from prison in April 1920 and later lived clandestinely in Vienna, Brussels and Paris eaking out a living as a manual laborer. In 1936 he volunteered for the International Brigades. He rose to command the Dimitrov Battalion. After the war he crossed into France and was interred in a series of French concentration camps in Gurs, Vernet and in Africa in the Djelfában camp. In 1943 he went to the Soviet Union and served in the Soviet Red Army before travelling to Yugoslavia where he served in Tito’s headquarters and later participated in the liberation of Belgrade. After the war he served in the Hungarian Army receiving increasingly important commands, by 1954 he was a general and commanded the Unified Officers School. Szalvay died in Budapest on November 21, 1955.

[xiii] Cunningham, Jock. (Cunningham, Joseph Wallace) b. December 20, 1902 in Glasgow, Scotland. He joined the British Army and was arrested after leading a mutiny of the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders in Jamaica against unacceptable conditions circa 1920 (1928/1929). Sentenced to six years’ incarceration, Cunningham served more than two years in the military prison in Aldershot. After his release he joined Communist Party of Great Briton. The CPGB lobbied for his freedom while Cunningham was incarcerated. In the years before the SCW broke out he worked as a miner and laborer and was an active organizer for the National Unemployed Workers movement.

Cunningham arrived in Spain in early October 1936 and served in the Machine gun Company of the Commune de Paris attached to the XIth International Brigade (IB). In December he led the British No. 1 Company in the XIV IB during the fighting around Lopera. Cunningham along with the survivors of No.1 Company transferred into the British Battalion of the XV IB and he took command of the battalion after the disastrous first days of battle. In March he was seriously wounded leading a bombing party during the Dead Mule Trench battle.

After recovering from his wounds Cunningham returned to the XV BDE serving on the staff. He was selected to command the second group/regiment and led the unit during Brunete. After the death of George Nathan he served as acting Chief of Operations. Cunningham was recalled to Britain in late summer of 1937 along with Brigade Commissar George Aiken, Battalion Commissar Bert Williams, Battalion Commissar Wally Tapsell and Battalion Commander Fred Copeman. Harry Pollitt decided not to send Cunningham, Williams or Aitken back to Spain. Cunningham resigned from the CPGB in protest. He died on February 22, 1969 in Renfrewshire, Glasgow, Scotland.

[xiv] Haywood, Harry. b. Haywood Hall on February 4, 1898 in South Omaha, Nebraska. Haywood was one of the top ranking African American volunteers in the Spanish Civil War. After serving in the US Army in France during WWI with the African American 8 th Illoise Regiment, Illinois National Guard, Haywood entered left politics. In 1922 he joined the Young Communist League and three years later the Communist Party. Haywood rose through the ranks of the CP, attending the first the Communist University of the Toilers of the East followed by the International Lenin School in Moscow. While in the Soviet Union he developed his thesis that African Americans constituted an oppressed race in the South. On his return to the United States Haywood served on the American Party’s Central Committee as an alternate member and to the Politburo.

Haywood arrived in Spain in April 1937 and was appointed to the XV IB staff. When the brigade instituted the group/regimental system he was appointed regimental commissar for the 2 nd group/regiment. After Brunete Haywood returned to the US arriving in October 1937.

During WWII he joined the Merchant Marine. After WWII he wrote among other works Negro Liberation (1948) and his memoir Black Bolshevik : Autobiography of an Afro-American Communist (1978). Haywood died on January 4, 1985 in New York City.

[xv] Hourihan, Martin William. b. October 13, 1907, Towanda, Pennsylvania. Hourihan an Irish American who served six years in the US Army was the third commander of the Lincoln Battalion. After leaving the military he became a seaman and later a teacher. Hourihan had a long background in the left, initially as a member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and later in the Communist Party. In February 1937 he arrived in Spain and joined the Lincoln Battalion. He was a section leader and company commander at Jarama in February and took over command of the Battalion in early March 1937 from the Belgian Van der Bruge. In late June 1937 Hourihan moved up to the Brigade staff and was selected as the Adjutant commander for the second group/regiment in July 1937. On the first day of the battle of Brunete, Hourihan was wounded in action after moving forward to extricate the Lincoln Battalion who were pinned down in the field outside Villanueva de la Canada. His wounds prevented him from returning to service and after a long period of recuperation he was repatriated. Hourihan returned to the US on June 24, 1938 aboard the Washington. He later broke with the CP. Hourihand died on December 4, 1995.

[xvi] Copeman, Fred. b. circa 1907 in East Suffolk, England. Copeman was born into poverty and spent his formative years in a workhouse and a Children’s home. At age twelve Copeman was enrolled in the Watts Naval School in Norfolk and after two years training entered the British Navy. In 1931 he was a leader in the Invergordon Mutiny and was dismissed from the Navy. While serving in the Navy Copeman learned to box and won numerous prize bouts as a heavy weight. After leaving the Navy Copeman became an active member of the National Unempolyed Worker’s Movement and joined the CPGB. He served several stints in prison for leading marches and protests.

Copeman left for Spain on November 26, 1936 and joined the British Battalion of the XV IB. He was wounded in action during the Battalion’s first action. Copeman a tough leader who was not afraid to use his fists to gain compliance rose through the ranks and took command of the British Battalion after Jock Cunningham was wounded in March 1937. Copeman was wounded in action during Brunete. He later commanded the BN at Teruel where complications from an old wound forced him to return to England.

After Spain Copeman he was appointed to the executive committee of the CPGB before breaking with party. During WWII he helped organize civilian shelters for protection against German air raids. He remained active in politics and worked as a union organizer and at one point served as a Labor Party councilor on a Borough Council. Copeman died in 1983.

[xvii] Williams, Albert “Bert”. B. 1885 in Wales. Williams made his living as a miner until he became a party functionary in the CPGB. He joined the party in 1922 and was an alumi of the International Lenin School in Moscow. He was a Midlands CP leader when he volunteered for service in Spain. Williams replaced George Aitken as British Battalion Commissar when Aitken was promoted to XV IB Commissar. During the Brunete Campaign Williams was forced to leave the front due to a heart condition, and was replaced by Wally Tapsell. He was one of five British leaders recalled to Britain. He faced charges of being an ineffective commissar. Williams was not allowed to return to Spain. He died on December 8, 1958.

[xviii] Goodfellow, Charles D. Was 37 when he volunteered to serve in Spain. A WW I veteran and miner he was an active member of the CPGB (1921) and a member of the National Unemployed Workers Movement (NUWM). He arrived in Spain in Late December 1936. He commanded Company 1 and was promoted to Battalion Adjutant. Goodfellow was killed in action at Brunete on July 8, 1937.

[xix] Law, Oliver. b. October 23, 1900, Texas. Law served in the US Army from 1919 to 1925 in the 24 th Infantry. After leaving the service he pursued several vocations including driving a taxi, and running a restaurant. He settled in Chicago and entered left politics joining the CP and working as a party functionary. Law’s activities led to arrests by the Chicago Police Department’s notorious Red Squad.

Law arrived in Spain in February 1937 and enrolled in the Lincoln Battalion. He rose through the ranks initially as a section leader and later commander of the machine gun company. Law was selected as Martin Hourihan’s adjutant and after Hourihan moved up to brigade staff, Law was selected as the acting commander for the Lincolns. In early July his appointment was confirmed and he led the Battalion in action at Brunete. He died leading his men during an assault on Mosquito Hill on July 9, 1937.

Law was officially confirmed as commander of the Lincoln Battalion in Order of the Day for June 26, 1937. RGASPI Fond 545, Opis 3, Delo 426, ll. 188.

“El Teniente Oliver LAW, se hará carga del mando del Batallón Lincoln N°17 por enfermedad del Comandante del mismo, Capitán Martiin HOURIHAN, y mientras dure la ausencia de éste. “

[xx] Nelson, Steve. b. Stevan Mesaros on December 26, 1903 in Subocka, Croatia which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Nelson moved to the US in 1922 and soon entered the left political field joining the CP in 1923. He worked as a carpenter and auto worker before becoming a full-time organizer and party functionary. In 1931 Nelson studied at the International Lenin School in Moscow and briefly worked for the Comintern. He returned to the US in 1933 and settled in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. When the International Brigades were formed Nelson volunteered but was told to wait. In early March Nelson was allowed to proceed to Spain. Nelson’s group was intercepted by a French intervention patrol as they attempted to sail from Marseilles to Spain in the hold of an old fishing vessel. The group was jailed, then tried, sentenced to be expelled from France and released. Nelson then crossed into Spain on foot.

In Spain Nelson was appointed commissar of the Lincoln Battalion. He soon won the respect of the men. After the death of Law at Brunete and his dismissal of Vincent Usera, Nelson commanded the Lincolns until they merged with the Washington BN. He served as the commissar of the combined Lincoln-Washington Battalion through the end of the Brunete campaign. He was promoted to Brigade Commissar and served in there at Quinto and Belchite. During the street fighting in Belchite he was severely wounded and returned to the US on November 9, 1937.

Nelson was imprisoned during the 1950s under the Smith Act for his party activities. He wrote his memoir The Volunteers (1953) and The 13 th Juror: The Inside Story of My Trial (1955). In 1957 Nelson left the Communist Party. He remained active in the Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade serving as the Commander until shortly before his death in November 1993.

[xxi] Usera, Vincent. b. December 10, 1908, Ponce, Puerto Rico. Usera was a non-political volunteer who served as the Adjutant commander of the Lincoln Battalion at Brunete. He was an insurance agent living in Washington, DC when he volunteered to serve in the International Brigades. Usera was accepted as a volunteer because of his military experience. He fought in Nicaragua as a Marine receiving a battlefield promotion. Saul Wellman, who later served as the commissar of the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion, was ordered to chaperon Usera from the US to Spain. He arrived in Spain at the end of May and joined the Washington Battalion as a company commander. Just before the Brunete campaign he was promoted to the adjutant position with the Lincoln Battalion. On July 15, 1937 Steve Nelson relieved Usera and he was sent back to Albacete. Usera contacted the American consulate in Barcelona in an attempt to find passage back to the US. International police arrested him and he was taken to Camp Lukas. Captain Johnson freed him and Usera was transferred to the American Training Base where his military experience could be put to use. In February 1938 just before the start of the Retreats he was sent to the front in command of 800 recruits. Usera was placed in charge of a company but promptly deserted and this time successfully made his way out of Spain. Usera returned to the US in June 1938. During WWII Usera joined the National Guard before transferring to the US Army Airforce. During the war he was promoted from First Lieutenant to Major. After the war he remained on active duty accepting a demotion to Captain. Usera retired as a Colonel. He died on January 21, 1982 in Washington, DC.

[xxii] Mirko Markovics. (Jose Porra Spolea, Markovicz Markowitz), b. 1907, Stijene, Podgorica, Montenegro. Markovics was a Serbian leftist and and a leader in the Yugoslavian Communist Party. He joined the CP in Yugoslavia in 1923 and transferred his membership to the Soviet Union in 1926 when he enrolled in the KUNMZ Military Academy. He received a Doctorate in Economics and was commissioned as a Commissar in the Red Army with the Rank of Lieutenant,. In 1936 he was ordered to head the CPUSA’s Serbian Section and the Yugoslav Coordinating Bureau. He travelled to Spain from the US arriving in April 1937. He was appointed Captain and commander of the George Washington Battalion in training. Markovics supervised the training and led the unit in its first and only action the Brunete Campaign. Due to heavy casualties the Lincoln and Washington battalions were merged and Markovics commanded the joint unit. He was relieved from command by LTC Hans Claus for refusing to order his troops into what he considered an exposed position, Markivics later served as a staff officer with the 129 th IB.

After the end of the war he returned to the US and was held at Ellis Island before being deported to Cuba. He later returned to the US before returning to Yugoslavia after WWII. In Yugoslavia Markovics taught Economics at the University of Belgrade. In 1949 he was imprisoned for supporting an anti-Tito resolution. Markovics died in 1988 in Yugoslavia.

[xxiii] Dave Mates. (Metropolitain), b. April 12, 1907 in Russia. Mates arrived in Spain in April 1937 and was appointed commissar of the newly forming Washington Battalion. After the Brunete Campaign he worked in the Brigade headquarter before returning to the US in January 1938. Mates died on March 16, 1977 in San Francisco, California.

[xxiv] Trail, Robert. Trail initially commanded the 2 nd Company, Anglo-American, in the 20 th Battalion of the 86 th Brigade before being promoted to the Battalion headquarters. Trail is remembered as a university trained linguist who had been working in Moscow. He was originally from Cardiff. Trail was appointed BN Adjutant for the Washington Battalion and was wounded in action at Brunete and died in the hospital.


Vladimir Bonifatevich Antonovich

Born Feb. 18 (Mar. 2), 1834, in Makhnovka, Berdichev District, Kiev Province died Mar. 8 (21), 1908, in Kiev. Ukrainian historian, archaeologist, and ethnologist. One of the founders of Ukrainian bourgeois historiography.

From 1863 to 1880, Antonovich was chief editor of the Temporary Commission on Examining Ancient Documents in Kiev, and in 1878 he became professor of Russian history at the University of Kiev. He was director of the publication Archives of Southwestern Russia and published several volumes with introductory monographs (part 3, vols. 1 and 2&mdash The Cossacks part 3, vol. 3&mdash The Haidamak Movement Part 5, vol. 1&mdash The Cities). He published his research on the history of the Ukraine and of the Lithuanian-Russian state in a separate collection: Monographs on the History of Western and Southwestern Russia (vol. 1, 1885). His works on the archaeology of the Ukraine are Antiquities of the Southwestern Region: Excavations in the Land of the Drevliane (1893), Archaeological Maps of Kiev Province (1895), and Archaeological Maps of Volynia Province (1900). He published, jointly with M. P. Dragomanov, Historic Songs of the Little Russian People (vols. 1&ndash2, 1874&ndash75). Antonovich interpreted social history from the point of view of idealist philosophy and analyzed it in terms of abstract principles&mdashcommunal principles and those of the princely retinue and the princes. He made a sharp distinction between the Ukrainian and the Russian peoples, idealized the cossacks, and elaborated a nationalistic theory to the effect that the Ukrainian people are classless and &ldquodemocratic.&rdquo


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Jarama Series: Pingarrón

In the Jarama Series, The Volunteer Blog will present a series of articles examining the experiences of volunteers in the Abraham Lincoln Battalion from its formation to the Brunete Offensive in July 1937. Articles will focus both on the battalion’s formation as well as on the individuals who served. These articles are intended to provide the reader with a better appreciation of the men and women who made up the first American combat formation in Spain.

Jarama Series: Pingarrón

After making its first attack on February 23, 1937, the Abraham Lincoln Battalion continued to take casualties in the days leading up to their next assault. Despite reorganizing and receiving reinforcements, they were ill-prepared for their next battle. On February 27, 1937, the attack on Pingarrón left the Lincoln Battalion as a hollow shell.

A Rude Awakening

On February 24, Jack Lenoris and George Jacobs woke up in no-man’s-land about 30 yards from the enemy trenches they charged the previous night. They lay huddled behind a small tree in a depression that they scraped out during the night. The two somehow missed the order to retire. Shortly after dawn they realized that they were all alone and exposed. Recognizing that they needed to fall back, they crawled and made short dashes between cover, slowly making their way toward friendly lines. Nationalist riflemen and machine gunners fired at them whenever they showed themselves. Alerted by the Nationalist fire, the remainder of the Lincolns attempted to provide covering fire. Despite their best efforts, Lenoris was cut down by machine gun fire. Jacobs eventually made it back, sprinting the last fifty yards and jumping into the trench. Exhausted and wearing a uniform tattered by bullets, Jacobs was sent to the rear.[i]

Nationalist snipers continued to take their toll on the Americans. After assisting with the evacuation of Company One Commander John Scott the night before, Joe Gordon, was hit by a sniper during the morning of February 24. He was blinded in one eye and evacuated to a hospital. Other soldiers were less fortunate.[ii]

Later that morning the cookhouse sent up tubs of coffee to the front lines. Robert Webster Norwood, a 27-year old volunteer from Maine, dipped his cup in and stood up. “Come on boys, dig in. I’ve got mine” he said. “This is my last cup.” Moments later a sniper’s bullet pitched him face first into the coffee.[iii] A sniper claimed Alonzo Watson the Quartermaster for Company One the following day. Watson was hit crossing a section of paved road that that intersected the trench line. The waist-high wall of sandbags constructed on the road provided insufficient protection. Watson, a WWI veteran, was the first African American volunteer to die in Spain.[iv]

Reorganization

The Battalion leadership required reorganization after the assault on February 23. Stephen Daduk the Battalion Adjutant “cracked up” and was sent to a hospital.[v] Merriman shifted Douglas Seacord from command of the Machine Gun Company into the Adjutant slot. The Connolly Column’s William Henry, who assumed command when John Scott was killed, was confirmed as Commander of Company One. John (Eamon) McGrotty was appointed as Company One Adjutant.[vi] Andrew Royce continued to command Company Two with Sidney Levine as his Adjutant.[vii] The Machine Gun Company was under the command of another Irish volunteer William James Tumilson.[viii]

Reinforcements

Seventy-three, rudimentarily trained reinforcements arrived on February 26. The reinforcements included Sidney Levine, Robert Klonsky, Charles Nusser and John Lenthier.[ix] Having arrived in Spain no more than two week earlier those who survived learned to be soldiers through on-the-job training and mentoring by earlier volunteers. Years later, Charlie Nusser, who volunteered at the VALB office, noted that he only fired three rounds through his rifle before going into combat. He jokingly accused Moishe Brier, one of the first volunteers and fellow VALB office volunteer, of being “overtrained.” Brier along with the first group of Lincolns had fired five rounds into a hillside before reaching the Jarama Front.[x]

Lieutenant Colonel Vladimir Copic the commander of the XVth Brigade brought his battalion commanders together before dawn on February 27, to brief the plan to take Pinigarrón and drive the Nationalists back across the Jarama River. The attack would begin at 7 AM with an aerial bombardment and strafing of the enemy trenches. An artillery bombardment would begin when the aircraft departed. These actions would pin down the enemy. Tanks would then lead the assault providing covering fire and crushing the wire. The 24 th Spanish Brigade would leave its trenches and begin advancing. Once the Spanish troops reached the Lincoln’s front line they would leave their trenches. The Spanish were to provide flank support for the Americans who would push forward and capture the enemy trenches. Republican reserves would consolidate and secure the heights of Pingarrón.[xi] Merriman believed the plan was sound based on the briefing and was a “good use of all arms.”[xii]

The plan began to unravel from the beginning. Bad weather pushed the start time to 10 AM. Merriman recalled that the artillery started at “9:50 and the 24 th Brigade started to go forward” probably encouraged by the appearance of two tanks that fired a few rounds before pulling back. The 24th Brigade took heavy casualties and fell back to their trenches.”[xiii] The Lincolns initiated a firefight with the opposing trenches to provide covering fire for the 24th Brigade. The volume of Nationalist return fire suppressed the Lincolns.

Merriman called Brigade Headquarters and asked where the promised air and tank support was. Copic gave “vague responses” suggesting the attack was delayed. He then asked if the Lincolns had deployed an aviation signal. Merriman was instructed to put out a signal on the nearby road.[xiv] Two men volunteered to emplace the signal. Joseph Streisand and Robert Pick dashed into the road and laid out the signal a large T pointing toward the enemy lines. They were cut down by machine gun fire before they could return to the safety of the trenches.[xv]

Copic called the Lincolns to ask why they had not advanced. He told Merriman that the 24 th Brigade had passed the Lincolns and required support. Merriman could clearly see that the 24 th were still in their trenches and told him so. Copic ordered Merriman to begin the assault. Merriman prepared to lead the attack in person. Two brigade staff officers arrived at that moment with order to remove Merriman from command if he failed to order the attack.[xvi]

Merriman blew a whistle and clambered out of the trench followed by his men. It was approximately 12 noon. Just steps out of the trench, he was smashed backward by a bullet and pulled back into the trench. Merriman whose shoulder was broken in five places told a runner to inform Seacord that he was now in charge. Seacord was already dead along with many other volunteers caught in no-man’s-land by the enemy machine gunners.[xvii]

The Lincolns were too green to realize they should have taken cover or retreated. Section leader Robert Taylor recalled seeing the crisscrossing tracers from Nationalist machine gun’s interlocking fire and watching volunteers being cut down as they advanced unknowingly into the stream of bullets. Lincolns wounded and dead from the first company, covered the battlefield. The second company left the trenches and met the same fire. Survivors soon realized that further advance was impossible and men took whatever cover they could find. Dutch stretcher bearers who attempted to help the wounded were shot down.[xviii] Some of the new recruits went over the top carrying their packs. One, John Lenthier an actor from Boston, was shot down and lay “like a turtle” as he bled out.[xix]

A rain shower in mid-afternoon probably saved many lives as the Nationalist snipers had trouble identifying additional targets. Eventually darkness fell and survivors, including the wounded who were able to move, climbed back into the trenches. Survivors began to venture out into no-man’s-land to look for wounded. The dead remained in the field. The dead would be recovered over the next few weeks. The body of Milton Rappaport was never recovered. He was reported to have been the only volunteer to reach the enemy wire.[xx]

On the morning of February 27 the Lincolns numbered 263 men. The following morning only about 150 were still in the trenches. Most of the Lincoln’s command staff was among the dead and wounded. David Jones who started the day on February 27 as a commissar became the acting battalion commander during the battle. When notified of his battlefield promotion he exclaimed, “I don’t know about military things a f**k.” Jones was fortunate that the Nationalist did not launch a counter attack because he was hard pressed to man his section of the trench.[xxi]


Vladimir Ćopić

Vladimir Ćopić rodio se 8. ožujka 1891. godine u Senju. Bio je sin Jovana i Amalije (rođ. Lončarić). [5] Po istraživanjima etnografa Stjepana Pavičića Ćopići su bili iz Like, Srbi po nacionalnosti. [5] Jovan Ćopić, rođen 1845. godine u Suvaji (kotar Donji Lapac), doselio je iz Like u Senj i tu se priženio u kuću Amalije Lončarić, Hrvatice, rođene 1855. godine. [5] Jovan Ćopić najprije radio je kao financijski namještenik te kao krojač a kasnije je obavljao posao crkvenjaka u senjskoj pravoslavnoj crkvi. [6] Vladimirova sestra Jelena tvrdi kao je u njihovoj obitelji bilo četrnaestero djece, no o svima nema podataka u matičnim knjigama. U to vrijeme djeca iz mješovitih brakova krštena su u dvije crkve te je i u obitelji Ćopić jedan dio djece upisan u katoličke crkvene knjige rođenih a drugi u pravoslavne. [7] Vladimir Ćopić upisan je u pravoslavne crkvene knjige rođenih. [8] Gimnaziju je završio u rodnom gradu, a pravo apsolvirao u Zagrebu. Do Prvog svjetskog rata pripadao je pravaškoj organizaciji Mlada Hrvatska. Mlada Hrvatska je bila frankovačka omladinska skupina. [9] Tada je mobiliziran u austrougarsku vojsku. Godine 1915. zarobili su ga ruski vojnici na Karpatima. Godine 1916. stupio je u Srpski dobrovljački odred, a zatim u Srpsku dobrovoljačku diviziju. Odbio je položiti zakletvu srpskom kralju, pa je 11. svibnja 1916. godine isključen iz divizije i vraćen u zarobljeništvo. [10]

Nakon Oktobarske revolucije priključio se boljševicima, djelujući kao agitator, novinar i prevoditelj s ruskog na hrvatski. [4] Bio je član Jugoslavenske grupe Ruske komunističke partije (boljševika) od svibnja 1918. godine, [11] njezin sekretar i predsjednik, jedan od osnivača Komunističke partije (boljševika) Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca te član njezinoga Centralnog izvršnog komiteta. [4]

Krajem studenoga ili početkom prosinca 1918. godine vratio se u Zagreb, prijavio se kod 31. lovačkog bataljona odakle je oko 20. prosinca 1918. godine otpušten i otputovao je u Senj. Po povratku u Zagreb, u siječnju 1919. godine, stanovao je kod svoga brata Milana u bolnici "Milosrdnih sestara". Po povratku osnovao je prve ilegalne komunističke ćelije i radio na radikalizaciji lijevog krila socijaldemokratskog pokreta. Policija je doznala za njegov povratak dosta kasno tek početkom 1919. godine. Ministar unutrašnjih poslova Svetozar Pribićević, 2. siječnja 1919. godine, javlja hrvatskome banu Antunu Mihaloviću, kako su iz Moskve poslani ljudi ". da u našim krajevima šire boljševizam. da radi u Zagrebu ili u Sarajevu. Osim toga je poslat u Novi Sad neki Mijatov, a u Zagreb, neki Ćopić, . " a 14. siječnja iste godine javlja u povjerenstvo unutrašnjih poslova u Zagrebu o skupini povratnika - komunista koju očekuju, u kojoj je među glavnima i ". Ćopić pravoslavni Hrvat iz Senja, predsjednik Jugoslavenske sekcije, . ". [12] U ožujku 1919. godine, izabran je u Izvršni odbor Jugoslavenskog revolucionarnog komunističkog saveza pelagićevaca. Na Prvom kongresu SRPJ (k) u Beogradu, koji je trajao od 20. do 23. travnja 1919. godine, kao delegat zagrebačke socijaldemokratske organizacije izabran je u Centralno partijsko vijeće Socijalističke radničke partije Jugoslavije (komunista) i za tehničkog sekretara. Na Drugom kongresu Komunističke partije Jugoslavije u Vukovaru ponovno je bio izabran u Centralno partijsko vijeće KPJ i za tehničkog sekretara. Na izborima za Ustavotvornu skupštinu, u studenom 1920. godine, izabran je za zastupnika KPJ za Modruško-riječku županiju. Bio je tajnik (sekretar) Komunističkog poslaničkog kluba, a od rujna 1923. godine tajnik Oblasnog sekretarijata Nezavisne radničke partije Jugoslavije (NRPJ) i KPJ u Zagrebu. Na Trećoj zemaljskoj konferenciji KPJ izabran je za člana Izvršnog odbora Centralnog partijskog vijeća KPJ.

Bio je delegat KPJ na Petom kongresu Kominterne, a radio je u kongresnim komisijama: organizacijskoj, za talijansko pitanje te za nacionalno i kolonijalno pitanje. Kao zastupnik u Skupštini zalagao se za radničku i seljačku državu i sovjetsku republiku na raspravama o prijedlogu ustava Kraljevine SHS. [4] Zbog revolucionarne djelatnosti suđeno mu je kao istaknutom komunistu na tri velika procesa: "Diamantsteinovom" 1919., "Vidovdanskom" 1922. (nakon atentata na regenta Aleksandra Karađorđevića, osuđen na dvije godine robije) [4] i "Svibanjskom procesu" 1925. godine (osuđen na 3 i pol godine robije ". po tačci 1, 2, Zakona o zaštiti države, zbog širenja usmene i pismene komunističke propagande." [13] 1 ). Nakon presude od 18. svibnja 1925. godine Ćopić je ostao u zatvoru Sudbenoga stola čekajući transport u Lepoglavu. Umjesto u Lepoglavu Ćopić je iz sudskoga zatvora odvezen u Bolnicu Milosrdne braće odakle je pobjegao i nakon toga emigrirao u Sovjetski Savez, gdje je studirao na Međunarodnoj lenjinskoj školi. Od 1930. do 1931. godine bio je instruktor Kominterne pri Centralnom komitetu Komunističke partije Čehoslovačke. Član Politbiroa Centralnog komiteta KPJ je bio od 1932. do 1936. godine, predstavnik KPJ u Kominterni 1934. i 1935. godine i član delegacije KPJ na Sedmom kongresu Kominterne.

Početkom 1937. godine otišao je u Španjolsku, gdje je bio politički komesar, a potom zapovjednik Petnaeste međunarodne brigade "Lincoln". Imao je čin potpukovnika Španjolske republikanske armije. U studenome 1938. godine povučen je u Moskvu, gdje je uhićen i ubijen 19. travnja 1939. godine. Posmrtno je rehabilitiran odlukom Vojnog kolegija Vrhovnog suda SSSR-a, 10. lipnja 1958. godine.

Vladimir Ćopić je surađivao u listovima Vsemirnaja revoljucija, Borba (jedno vrijeme 1924. godine bio je i urednikom lista), Proleter, Dimitrovac i drugima. Držao je predavanja na partijskoj školi u Moskvi i na Komunističkom sveučilištu nacionalnih manjina Zapada (KUNMZ). Preveo je djelo Vladimira Iljiča Lenjina Imperijalizam kao najnovija etapa kapitalizma (1917.), Početnicu političke ekonomije (1923.) Aleksandra Bogdanova, a s Josipom Brozom Titom 1938. godine prevodio je Kratki kurs Historije Svesavezne komunističke partije boljševika. [14]


Friday, 18 September 2009

Spanish Civil War

I am currently updating my Spanish Civil War page:

This includes a page on Marty Hourihan. He was made the new commander of the Abraham Lincoln Battalion by a committee of the soldiers. In Comrades and Commissars: The Lincoln Battalion in the Spanish Civil War (2007) Cecil D. Eby claims that "Party hard-wires distrusted the new Lincoln commander, a political maverick so defiant of the Party line that at times he seemed not even to know what it was."

Jason Gurney, the brigade observer, was impressed by his new commanding officer. "Marty, in his role of Commander, inevitably lived a rather lonely life he had to maintain absolute neutrality without any close friendships or favourites, but he was by nature a gregarious man and the friendship which we had formed for one another was very strong. He had a terrific sense of humour and, although he had little formal education, a very good mind and a superb sense of human sympathy. He never bore grudges or carried on feuds, he could be tough as hell in public, but there was much more of sorrow for human weakness than condemnation of wickedness in his outlook."

Marty Hourihan became completely disillusioned by the actions of the Political Commissioners in the Spanish Civil War. His close friend, Jason Gurney, became convinced that Steve Nelson was "responsible for the mysterious disappearances of a number of people from among our ranks and for the secret trials, for real or imagined offences, which caused so much fear and suspicion within the Battalion." Gurney later recalled: " The nobility of the cause for which I had come to Spain was clearly a fiction, and now the sudden and absolute conviction that life was an experience with no past and no future, merely ending in annihilation."

Hourihan shared Gurney's feelings about the behaviour of the Political Commissioners who were taking their orders direct from the Soviet Union. On 5th April 1937 Vladimir Copic told Hourihan to leave their trenches to attack the Nationalist forces at Jarma. Hourihan refused and Copic replied: "You're cowards! You don't perform your duties! You're not aggressive enough!" Hourihan later told Steve Nelson: "I'm not going to give any orders to the Battalion to climb out of the trench and get themselves slaughtered until there is some real support." Gurney commented that Nelson and Copic accepted this because he knew "the entire Battalion was sufficiently angry to mutiny, as it had done before."

On 6th July 1937, the Popular Front government launched a major offensive in an attempt to relieve the threat to Madrid. The main battle took place at Brunete. In the subsequent attack on the town Hourihan was hit in the leg by a sniper that resulted in his thigh bone being broken.

The medical board at Albacete ordered Hourihan to be repatriated as he was considered to be unfit for further military service. When he arrived back in the United States he resigned from the American Communist Party. As a result he was denounced by the Daily Worker as "an enemy of the working-class". Hourihan was also criticised for not having lost too many men during the attack on Nationalist forces on 27th February 1937. As the historian Cecil D. Eby pointed out, this was "proof for them that he had been more interested in saving lives (including his own) than in exterminating Fascists."

After the Second World War Hourihan obtained a teaching post in Greenlaw County. He also attended Huntingdon College, Alabama, graduating in 1959.

In 1967 Marty Hourihan was manager of a country club in Terra Haute, Indiana. The historian, Cecil D. Eby, who managed to find him later reported that: " Hourihan. made me promise never to divulge his whereabouts because he feared as a former Communist he would lose his job. To my surprise, he was not afraid of being denounced by the FBI but by the CP or VALB, as punishment for straying from the faith".


HRVATSKA POVIJEST

Sep. 9 About 100 Serbian soldiers arrived for the first time at the town of Vukovar and, among other misdeeds, confiscated boats loaded with grain on the Danube river.

Oct. 29 Croatian Sabor (Parliament) broke off all ties with the Habsburg Monarchy (Austria-Hungary).

November A number of leading Croatian intellectuals in Zagreb receive letters threatening to hang them on light poles. Many people were afraid to walk the streets at night. Among the arrested in Zagreb were: Ivica dr. Frank (people's representative), Aleksandar Horvat (people's representative),Ante Matasic (general), Mirko dr. Puk (lawyer), Pavao Rauch (former ban/viceroy of Croatia), and Drago dr. Safar (lawyer).

Among the arrested and then forced to retire were the High Court Judges: Milan Accuti, Mirko dr. Kosutic, and Josip Tarabochia.

Among those forced from Zagreb into hiding were Ljudevit dr. Ivancic (priest in Zagreb) and Lovro dr. Radicevic (priest in Zagreb)

Nov.8 Franjo Sarkotic (general in Sarajevo) arrested.

Nov.9 Zvonimir Vukelic (newsman in Zagreb) arrested.

Nov.16 Mihovil Mihaljevic (field Marshall) forced to retire.

Nov. 17 Izidor dr. Krsnjavi (univ. prof. in Zagreb) forced to retire. Ivan Malus (school supervisor in Zagreb) forced to retire. Milan dr. Sufflay (a leading intellectual and univ. professor in Zagreb) forced to retire. ? Heim (judge in Zagreb) forced to retire.

Nov. 21 Lacko Labas (provincial governor in Bjelovar) forced to retire.

Nov. 22 Antun Liposcak (general) arrested.

Dec. 1 Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes formed (renamed Yugoslavia in 1929).

Dec. 4 Zagreb newspaper "Hrvatska" banned.

Dec. 5 The gov. officials in Zagreb were ordered to declare this day a holiday with public celebrations in honor of the Serbian king Peter's "krsna slava." After the morning parade in honor of the king, Croatian soldiers stationed in Zagreb began a parade of their own, with their marching band. They protested unification with Serbia and demanded a democratic republic of Croatia. The marchers were met by force. On that day 9 Croatian civilians and 5 soldiers were killed, and 7 civilians and 10 soldiers were wounded. (It is estimated that over 100 people were hurt or killed but the newspaper were forbidden to write the truth.)

Among the killed were: Mato Gasparovic, Nikola Ivsa, Stjepan Juresa, Viktor Kolombar, Dragutin Kostelac, Josip Lupinski, Andro Martinko, Milos Mrse, Slavko Scukanac, ? Sentmartoni, Mijo Stanicer, Miroslav Svoboda, Antun Tasner-Juricic, and Ferdo Versec.

Among the arrested was the general Ante Matasic. Jailed over two months and then retired. Arrested again in 1929. After his release, his movements were restricted to the city of Zagreb.

Gendarme forces maltreated large number of peasants in Zdala, Severin, Raca, Popovaca, Grubisno polje, and other places. Many of them were striped naked and beaten.

Jan. 6 The following Croatians were sentenced in Zagreb because of the Dec. 5, 1918 demonstrations: Ivica Percic (soldier) to 10 years,Rudolf Cecelja (soldier) to 7 years, Josip Simatovic (soldier) to 7 years, Ivan Babic (soldier) to 3 and a half years, Janko Herceg (soldier) to 3 and a half years, Franjo Kovacic (soldier) to 3 and a half years, Dragutin Mort (soldier) 3 and a half years, Adolf Schwartz (soldier) to 3 and a half years, Blaz Barac (soldier) to 1 and a half years, Stjepan Crncec (soldier) to 1 and a half years, Franjo Gasparac (soldier) 1 and half years, Marko Koren (soldier) 1 and a half years, Marko Majsl (soldier) 1 and a half years, Mirko Milosak (soldier) to 1 and a half years, Janko Pomjan (soldier) to 1 and a half years, Tomo Potlacek (soldier) to 1 and a half years, Josip Ruklic (soldier)to 1 and a half years, Konrad Skrebin (soldier) to 1 and a half years, Stjepan Tresoglavac (soldier) to 1 and half years, Mirko Vragovic (soldier) to 1 and a half years, Mustafa Basagic (soldier) ?, Mirko Drobac (soldier) ?, and Andrija Fijan (soldier) ?.

March Two elected parliamentary representatives from the Croatian Party of [State] Rights/HSP, dr. Prebeg (lawyer) and dr. Pazman (university professor) arrested.

Military censorship of the press imposed in Croatia.

Mar. 8Croatian Republican Peasant Party/HRSS/ sent memorandum to the U.S. President Wilson and to members of the Peace Conference in Paris asking for self-determination of the Croatian people.

Mar. 25 President of the Croatian Republican Peasant Party (HRSS), Stjepan Radic, and two of its board members arrested. Although no charges were filed against him, Radic was held in jail without a trial untill Feb. 19, 1920. He was arrested again on March 22, 1920 and finally, he was released on Nov. 28, 1920, the day general elections, in which he and his party won an overwhelming majority of votes in Croatia.

May Josip Zrnek (worker) died in jail under torture.

July 13 Three people (a restaurant owner in Zagreb, his wife and a waitress) arrested by military authorities and badly beaten because the man said "This is not a Greater Serbia."

July 22 Spontaneous rebellion of soldiers in Varazdin.

August Army confiscated all the goods that Croat emigrants had brought with them returning from the USA.

Bartol Vukovic (peasant from Brodska Varos) killed by gendarmes.

September A Croat police officer in Zagreb beaten and maltreated by military authorities.

A "prominent citizen" in Zagreb 70 years old beaten, maltreated, and his dog killed on his own property by a military captain.

A group of "well-respected citizens" in Sisak arrested while eating in a restaurant, kept overnight in the local jail and maltreated because gendarme Lolic was drunk and he felt like doing it.

"Many peasants" beaten in the name of king Peter and forced to genuflect three times and give homage to the Serbian traditional military cap, known as "sajkaca."

A veterinarian in Petrinja, after being asked to come to the office of the local commanding army officer, was maltreated and beaten by the officer. After escaping, the veterinarian was beaten again the next day by the same officer.

February A man was killed by soldiers in Sisak. While his wife was crying over his dead body, the commanding colonel swore at her and gave her two hard blows.

Feb. 20 Nine peasants in Delnice badly beaten by soldiers. Their money was also taken.

Mar. 22 ? Teslic, a Serb and a former Austrian Colonel, attempted to kill Stjepan Radic during a public gathering of the Croatian Peasant Party in Sisak. When Radic was about to begin his speech, Teslic fired four shots at him. After escaping the assassination, Radic was arrested and finally released on Nov. 28, 1920, the day of general elections.

Apr. 16 All public meetings banned in Croatia.

July A military colonel took a boat from a Croat citizen in Petrinja. After his complaint, four soldiers were sent to bring the man to the military compound. They were unsuccessful. But the next day, the citizen was found, beaten, and maltreated.

August Soldiers attack a number of civilians in Zagreb.

September A "large number" of peasants were killed during the attempts of the gendarmes and the military to put down peasant rebellions in northern Croatia. "Many peasants" were killed in Kutina county. Two peasants killed in Ivanjska.

Sep. 5 Forced branding of large domestic animals.

Peasants rebel in Veliki Grdjavac.

Josip Sulicek (peasant) killed by gendarmes.

Sep. 6 A peasant from Sveti Ivan Zeleni killed by gendarmes.

Sep. 8 Ivan Likoder (peasant from Repusnica) killed by gendarmes.? Pintaric (peasant from Repusnica) wounded by gendarmes. Ivan Vraznic (peasant from Repusnica) wounded by gendarmes. Gabor Uroic (peasant from Repusnica) wounded by gendarmes. ? Alapic (peasant from Gracanica) wounded by gendarmes.

Sep. 9 ? Gunjak (peasant) arrested and on the road from Osekova to Kutina killed by gendarmes. ? Pokaz (peasant) arrested and on the road from Osekova to Kutina killed by gendarmes.

Sep. 10 30 peasants in Petrinja badly beaten by the gendarmes in front of other citizens.

Sep. 16 3 peasant huts with all possessions burnt by gendarmes in Novoselce near Zagreb.

Filip Halic (79-year old peasant from Novoselce near Zagreb) killed by gendarmes in front of a hut in his vineyard.

Oct. 4 City Mayor of Vinkovci publically attacked by Serb military officer.

Nov. 28 Elections for the Constitutional Assembly. Croatian Republican Pleasant Party/HRSS/ received majority of votes in Croatia. Its leader, Stjepan Radic, released from jail on the election day.

Dec. 5 Croatian youth organization "Sokol" banned.

Dec. 12 Anti-Croatian demonstrations in Ruma/Srijem. Croatian businesses and homes attacked. All public signs written in Latin script demolished. Military authorities in the town were protecting the attackers.

Dec. 15 Mirko Marcinko arrested and severely tortured.

Dec. 20 Vinko Zugcic (peasant from Novoselce near. Zagreb) arrested and killed by gendarmes.

Vid Zavolic (peasant from Novoselce near Zagreb) wounded by gendarmes.

Dec. 22 A major strike by miners in Husino near Tuzla, Orasje, Breza, and other mining places in Bosnia. Gendarmes, "People's Guards" (Serbian volunteers), and army unites put down the strike. 32 miners and peasants were killed and many more seriously wounded. Robbery, rape, and expulsion from homes followed. Croatian settlements were special targets because the desire was to portray the Croats as Communist sympathizers.

Dec. 29Government in Belgrade issued a document, "Obznana", by which the Communist Party was banned in the country. Persecutions intensified.

Dec. 30 Stjepan Supanc (worker) killed in Vukovar.

Jan. 4 Anka N. (Postal clerk in Vukovar) attacked by soldiers, maltreated, and arrested.

Jan. 26 The following Croats arrested in Zagreb. Trial began on June 12, 1921. On August 6, 1921 sentenced to:Pavao See 12 years, Rudolf Vidak 4 years, Milan dr. Sufflay to 3 and a half years, Jakov Petric to 3 years, Franjo Skvorc to 3 years, Dragutin Taborsak to 3 years, Josip Spoljarec-Drenski to 2 years and 4 months, Ivan Havelka to 8 months, Milan Galovic to 6 months,Ivan Kovacic to 6 months, Gabrijel Kruhak to 6 months, Ivo dr. Pilar 2 months, Andrija Medar freed, Antun Pavicic freed, and Florijan Stromar ?. Feb. 16 18 mineworkers in Tuzla condemned to death by hanging.. One of the condemned miners was Jure Kerosevic.

June Vladimir Copic arrested and sentenced on Feb. 2, 1922 to 2 years.

June 29 Unsucccesful attempt to assassinate king Aleksandar in Belgrade. Excuse to attack sympathizers of the Left and other opponents of the regime. It is estimated that about 10.000 people were arrested in the country and maltreated.

June 28 Centralist Constitution for the newly unified country approved by 233 votes 35 delegates voted against, and 161 representatives were absent in Belgrade Parliament. July 2 150 workers arrested and maltreated in Split and sentenced from 3 to 8 months.

July 21 ORJUNA (Organizacija Jugoslavenskih Nacionalista/ Organization of Yugoslav Nationalits) attacked and seriously injured four "communists" in Split.

ORJUNA attacked and damaged the house of Mr. Jelaska in Split. ORJUNA demolished the house of Mr. Pinto in Split.

ORJUNA attaked and demolished the house of dr. Vrankovic in Split. July 22 ORJUNA attacked offices of Zagreb papers "Obzor," "Hrvat," and "Jutarnji list." It led violent anti-Croatian demonstration in Zagreb.

ORJUNA attaked "Radnicki dom" (Workers' Hall) in Osijek.

July 24 Rudolf Horvatic (civil servant in Zagreb) wounded by a railroad police, Dusan Kruzica, while riding a train from Sesvete to Zagreb.

Ivan Kosanda wounded togather with Rudolf Horvatic.

Zlatko Arnold (bank clerk) killed by a railroad policeman, Dusan Kruzica, while riding on Sesvete-Zagreb train.

August Catholic religious congress in Split attacked by ORJUNA.

A Catholic religious procession in Sinj attacked by gendarmes.

Aug. 2The Law for the Protection of the State was approved by Belgrade Parliament. Persecutions intensified.

Aug. 9 Drago Gizdic (worker in Dubrovnik) killed by ORJUNA.

Aug. 16 King Peter died. Because the Zagreb's city council did not send a special delegation to the funeral, it was dissolved.

Dec. 11 The "Croatian block" won the municipal elections in Zagreb. But the elected representatives were not allowed to govern. A special city Commissar was appointed be Belgrade.

Newspaper "Hrvatski Glas" banned.

Equipment belonging to youth organization "Croatian Sokol" in Ogulin confiscated and given to the "Yugoslav Sokol." During a public gathering of the "Yugoslav Sokol" that followed in the same town, several leading Croats jailed.

About 400 Croat teachers and professors were dismissed from their jobs.

Jun. 8 King Aleksandar married Romanian princess Mariola. Croatians not welcomed at the wedding. The wedding costs were over 65 million dinars.

Jan. 29 A large number of peasants, including women and children, were attacked and mercilessly beaten by 14 gendarmes in the village near Topusko. Many were incapacitated for a long time because of the harsh beatings.

Feb. 21 ORJUNA attacked members of "Croatian workers union." Army intervened on the side of ORJUNA.

Feb. 23 Ivan Colovic arrested and sentenced to 2 years. Spent 7 months in jail before the trial.

Djuro Salaj arrested and sentenced to 2 years. Spent 7 months in jail before the trial.

March A number of Croatians were attacked by ORJUNA members who were armed by pistols given to them by the military authorities.

? Snidarsic (Zagreb lawyer) shot by ORJUNA members. There was no investigation.

ORJUNA members attacked the house in Zagreb where retired Croatian military officers were having a private party.

June ORJUNA undertook major attacks throughout Zagreb.

June 4 A large number of the "Croatian Sokol" children and their escorts, mostly women, from Karlovac, Jastrebarsko, Ogulin and other towns attacked by local Serbs during the Sokol's field trip to Plitvice Lakes. A number of people injured, investigation was not permitted and no one was punished.

June 14 All chapters of the organization "Croatian Woman" banned and its property comfiscated because they participated in organizing a pilgrimage to the tomb of Ante Starcevic three days earlier.

Women's organization "Katarina Zrinski" also banned because of the pilgrimage to the grave of Ante Starcevic.

Zagreb chapter of the "Croatian Sokol" banned and posessions confiscated because they made a pilgrimage to the tomb of Ante Starcevic three days earlier.

July ? Rozic killed in Zagreb.

Dec. 9 Franjo Vrtat (Novigrad near Koprivnica) jailed for organizing HRSS meetings.

At an ORJUNA meeting attended by the Minister of the Interior an open discussion on assassinating Stjepan Radic (the leader of the Croats) too place.

January During the pre-election campaign, a young man in the village of Kras (Dobrinjstina) was killed after a HRSS public meeting. During the same period, a man was killed in each of the following places: Crikvenica, Otocac, and Vrginmost .

Three HRSS representatives from the region of Sibenik were jailed.

Four members of the HRSS Main Board were jailed.

Three HRSS representatives from Cepin (Osijek) were jailed.

ORJUNA attacked Croatian Sokol members in their hall in Gospic. Because of the attack, the local Sokol organization was deprived of the hall.

Armed ORJUNA members clashed with Croatian youth in a coffee shop in downtown Zagreb. Eight people were wounded.

Jan. 28 ORJUNA members broke up a Croatian Republican Peasant Party (HRSS) gathering in Vinkovci.

February ORJUNA attacked political gatherings organized by Prof. Kerubin Segvic in Split.

ORJUNA attacked two followers of the HRSS in Drnis.

ORJUNA assaulted Dr. Vandekar, son in law of Stjepan Radic, in the town of Metkovic.

ORJUNA attacked a public meeting of the HRSS in Tuzla.

Feb. 3 Public meeting of the HRSS in Kostajnica broken up by ORJUNA members and their simpatizers. Those attending were attacked and more than 30 of homes were damaged.

Feb. 4 Six people seriously, and 18 lightly wounded by ORJUNA members in Crikvenica. One of the wounded died next day.

Feb. 5 Offices of the "Hrvatski list," newspaper in Osijek, raided and vandalized by ORJUNA. A bomb was thrown into the main office.

Feb. 8 ORJUNA members placed a bomb in the hall of the Croatian workers union in Dubrovnik. Local government officials in the region of Dubrovnik banned public gatherings of Croatian political parties.

March Marko Grsic Filipovic wounded by a bullet in the head in the town of Senj.

A Zagreb Croat who stated that he would vote for Radic was forced by a gendarme to kiss the picture of Nikola Pasic, the leading Serbian politician at the time and a symbol of Greater Serbianism.

In Koprivnica, gendarmes opened gun fire on Croatian peasants.

In Split, any one who cried out "Long live Radic" received a 30- day jail sentence.

Gendarmes attacked a peasant from Cerje Tuzno and robbed him of his possessions.

Mar. 4 Peasants from the village of Cukovac (Ludbreg) were fired upon because they prepared a welcoming celebration for the HRSS leaders, including Stjepan Radic. Those who fired on the peasants were not punished. Instead, a peasant from Cukovac, a sympathizer of Radic, was sentenced to a one day jail term for not voting "properly."

ORJUNA and its sympathizers attacked a public meeting of the HRSS in Otocac. Two peasants were wounded and a 14 year old boy was killed.

Mar. 18 After police attacked and dispersed a crowd gathered in Zagreb, OJUNA members opened fire on those running from police. A 16-year old boy was seriously wounded and a 20- year old man and a woman received lesser injuries.

Mar. 18 Second general elections held in the KSHS. The HRSS received an overwhelimg vote among the Croatians (420,000 votes and 69 Deputies).

April Jurije Soce (Sarajevo) killed by ORJUNA members.

June Kerubin Segvic on trial. He wrote in an article that ORJUNA was helped by the government.

Jul. 21 Stjepan Radic, President of the HRSS left the country and visited London, Vienna and Moscow looking for international understanding of the Croatian cause.

Mime Rosandic (forestry engineer) arrested and maltreated.

April ORJUNA member attacked Jewish properties in Zagreb.

Aug. 1 Stjepan Radic, leader of the HRSS returned from abroad to Zagreb. It became clear that the outside world did not want to hear about "the Croatian question."

November A gendarme attempted to assassinate August Kosutic, a leading politician in Croatia in Kastel Stari. Treated for head wounds in gendarme station. Jailed right after his return to Zagreb. Soon after, he took a long trip to the USA in order to avoid physical attacks or even assassination.

The Minister of education, S. Pribicevic, retired 3 leading professors (supporters of HRSS) at the Zagreb University. One of the three was Dr. Ladislav Polic. Dec. 23 Declaration to ban the Croatian Republican Peasant Party/HRSS because it joined the Socialist International. Its public meeting and all its publications were banned. The law of public order and protection of state to be implemented against the HRSS, all its archives to be confiscated, and its leadership arrested.

January Police harassed leading Croatian politicians, among them Dr. Josip Lorkovic, Dr. Albert Bazala, Dr. Stjepan Skrulj, Dr. Stjepan Buc, Dr. Krajac, and others.

Seven peasants from Kustosija (near Zagreb) arrested because they displayed a Croatian flag.

The HRSS and Communist representatives in the Osijek city council were stripped off their political positions.

Jan. 1 The Law for the Protection of State, originally passed against the Communists, extended to the Croatian Republican Peasant Party/HRSS/. Criminal procedures were undertaken against its leadership.

Jan. 2 Police searched apartments and offices of all leading HRSS politicians in Zagreb and throughout the country. Many of them were arrested and released after a short detention. But the following were arrested and kept in jail for 6 months: Dr. Vladko Macek, Dr. Juraj Krnjevic, Dr. Stjepan Kosutic, Augustin Kosutic, Josip Predavec. A few days later, the secretary of the HRSS, Serif Kuzmic, was also arrested.

Offices of Osijek newspaper "Hrvatski list" raided and editors maltreated.

The house of Ivan dr. Loncarevic (lawyer in Mitrovica) raided and vandalized.

Jan. 3 600 peasants from Sibenik region arrested, taken to Sibenik, and about a half of them were jailed.

A number of Croats in Sibenik jailed. Among them were: Marko Berovic, Augustin Bujan (priest), Josip Drezga, Dr. Miho Jernic (dentists), Mate Kalmeta, Sime Zenic, Ivan dr. Krnic (former gov. high official). Next day, he was taken to Ogulin. Three Croatian homes in Susak/Rijeka raided.

Jan. 4 Ten members of the HSS in Imotski arrested.

Prof. Pavao Brkic arrested.Dr. ? Cuzzi (Split) arrested. Josip Paf (Sinj) arrested.Prof. Kerubin Segvic (editor of "Croatian Review" in Zagreb) arrested.Dr. ? Sokol (Split) arrested. Pavao Vucic (Sinj) arrested.Dr. Mile Vukovic (Imotski) arrested.

Jan. 5 Stjepan Radic, President of HRSS, arrested. Rudolf Bicanic (economist in Zagreb) - his apartment raided. Dragan Devcic (merchant in Djakovo) jailed for 14 days. Stjepan dr. Hefer (lawyer) jailed for 14 days. Ivo dr. Majcan (lawyer) arrested. ? Mirtejic (in Djakovo) jailed for 14 days.

Pavle Radic (leading man in the HRSS and Croatian representative in Belgrade parliament)- his apartment in Belgrade raided.

Viktor Tomlinovic (priest in Nasice) jailed.Djuro Turkalj (in Djakovo) jailed for 14 days.

All school teachers members of the Croatian Peasant Party dismissed from their jobs.

Jan. 6 Gendarmes opened fire on a crowd of Croats in Ozelj near Karlovac. One peasant killed and two wounded.

Jan. 7 "Croatian Sokol" youth organizations in Velika, Mihaljevac, and Brestovac near Pozega banned.

Jan. 8 Offices of the "Srijemski Hrvat," Vukovar paper, raided and vandalized.

Seven peasants in Ceric near Vukovar arrested.

Dr. Ivan Majcen (Donji Miholjac) jailed for 6 days.Matijevic (president of the HSS in Bogdanovici) jailed with a number of other HSS members.

All HSS representatives and their secretaries in Donji Miholjac jailed for 5 days.

Jan. 9 In the village of Ladjevac, a local priest (Rev. Mikan) was arrested.

Jan. 13 "Hrvatski List," Osijek newspaper, banned. After changing the name into "Hrvatska Zora" it was banned also. Jan. 13Rude Bacinic, a leading HRSS representative from Dalmatia, arrested in Belgrade.

Jan. (mid)The president of the local election committee and a member of the HRSS, Prof. Josip Hager, was arrested. He was accused of insulting the king and the regime. Besides being suspended from teaching, he was arrested again at the end of the month and sentenced to a 10 day jail term.

Jan. 25"Hrvatski Branik," Vinkovci newspaper, banned.

Jan. 31 Djuro Zivic, a HRSS sympathizer, from Novo selo (Varazdin) was arrested, kept in jail till Feb. 8, 1925, and the case against him dragged on till 1927.

Jan. (end) Dr. Milovan Zanic was arrested.

The secretary of the HRSS Zagreb branch arrested

Police in Varazdin attempted to prevent the HRSS from handing to the local court the election lists and harassed the leading HRSS officials in the city, Dr. Ursic and others.

Nikola Separovic, a baker from Vela Luka living near Delnice, arrested. Accused of insulting the Belgrade regime. Feb. (beg.) Gendarmes beat up four peasants in the village of Lukavac. Two of them were seriously hurt.

Feb. 8 The day of elections, police, gendarmes, and even military forces were employed throughout Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to intimidate the non-Serb electorate. Many members of local election committees were harassed and/or arrested. There were numerous clashes between the voters and the gendarmes, and a number of people were injured and even killed.

In a clash between the gendarmes and the voters in Veliko Trgovisce a peasant was killed, and two gendarmes were wounded. Next day, 20 peasants were arrested and, after long tortures, 11 were released and 9 put on trial.

In the village of Stajnica (Lika) four peasants were killed (including an 80 year old woman) and many were wounded by the gendarmes. Stajnica was a stronghold of the HRSS party.

The mayor of the town of Susak (near Rijeka) was suspended from his functions and deprived of his salary because he was not supporting the Serbian Radical party.

In the village of Straznjevac (Varazdin) gendarmes arrested more than 10 peasants accused of displaying a flag with a slogan: "Faith in God and Peasant Solidarity" and of preventing the gendarmes from arresting the HRSS committee-men. After being maltreated and kept in jail for a while, they received from one to four months prison terms.

After the election results were announced, the HRSS supporters were prevented by police, gendarmes, and the military throughout Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina from celebrating the victory.

Feb. 8 General elections - HRSS gained total victory among the Croats.

Feb. 11 "Hrvatski List," Osijek daily newspaper, banned again.

Feb. 17 "Hrvatski Glas," Osijek daily newspaper and successor to "Hrvatski list" banned.

Mar. 22 Dr. Albert Bazala (leading intellectual and people's representative) physically attacked by Serbian members of parliament.

May 25 "Novi List," daily newspaper in Susak/Rijeka, banned.

July 18 Stjepan Radic was released from jail. He and his party joined the government in Belgrade. His party's name from now on is simply Croatian Peasant Party /HSS/ the adjective Republican is abandoned.

May Attempt to assassinate Stjepan Radic (leader of the HSS) in Srijemska Mitrovica

January On the island of Krk, displaying of the Croatian flag was banned and civil servants and school teacher came under special pressure because the local elections were coming up. (Jan. 23, 1927). In Varazdin, the city council and the city mayor were removed, and a government official (a gendarme officer) took control of the city.

In Osijek, a communist election leaflet stating "Long live the Republic" was banned.

On the island of Korcula, the HSS candidates were arrested.

In the provinces of Backa and Baranja, the HSS candidates and supporters were under great pressure to abandon their loyalty to their political party. Jan. 4 The ban against the HSS activities (imposed at the end of 1924) was abolished.

Jan. 23 On the day of local elections, about 2000 HSS members were coming to greet Radic at his home in Zagreb. Police dispersed the crowd and injured a number of people.

Aug. A regional representative of the Serbian Democratic Party from Vrelo near Korenica was arrested and sentenced to a 14 day jail term. The Serbian Democratic Party in Croatia came under pressure because its leader, S. Pribicevic, abandoned his policy of Serbian unitarism and became a federalist.

Aug. 28 In Sv. Jakov (near Crikvenica) gendarmes dispersed a HSS meeting and arrested one participant.

Sep. (beg.) In the village Krivi Put (Lika) the president of the local HSS was arrested and sentenced to 14 days of prison.

In Ludbreg, two HSS members were sentenced to a 14 day jail term each. Spt. 11Parliamentary elections. During these election there were no major eruptions of violence but voting manipulation by the regime was worse than in previous elections.

June 20 Serbian Parliament representative, Punisa Racic, opened fire in Belgrade Parliament on Croatian deputies. Stjepan Radic mortally wounded (died on Aug. 8,1928), Dr. Djuro Basaricek killed, Pavle Radic killed, Dr. Ivan Pernar wounded, and Ivan Grandja wounded.

June 20-22 Massive demonstrations in Zagreb. 5 people killed 50 wounded, more than a hundred arrested.

Dec. 4 Zagreb students demonstrated. Several killed and wounded by the gendarmes. 1929

Jan. 6 King Aleksandar assumed all power in the country, dismissed Parliament, suspended Constitutions, and banned all political parties.

April 30 Djuro Djakovic and Nikola Hecimovic, after being arrested and tortured, were led to the country border and shot.

May Dr. Milovan Zanic (lawyer and a former representative in parliament from Nova Gradiska) sentenced to 6 months for suggesting that king Aleksandar should be asked to return civil rights to the citizens. He had been arrested also in previous years.

June 28 The leader of the Serbs in Croatia, Svetozar Pribicevic, once right-hand man of the Belgrade regime, was confined to a small village in Serbia for his cooperation with the Croat political leaders. From 1931 till his death in 1936, he lived in exile.

July 17 Dr. Ante Pavelic (Zagreb lawyer and representative in Belgrade parliament) condemned to death in absence and his property is confiscated.

Gustav Percec condemned to death in absence and his property is confiscated.

Oct. 3 Displaying of Croatian flag is banned. Oct. 31 The following Croats were arrested and sentenced on June 30, 1931. Marko Hranilovic (student, 20 years old) condemned to death by hanging plus 20 years jail term!! Matija Soldin condemned to death by hanging plus 20 years jail term. Hung on November 25, 1931..

Stipe Javor (from Brinje/Zagreb merchant ) to 20 years. Because of beastly tortures he died in jail on March 27, 1936. Stipe Javor's wife and two daughters were also arrested and maltreated in order to force him to talk. Antun Herceg (newsman) to 20 years. Dragutin Kriznjak (peasant) to 18 years. Stjepan Horvatek (merchant's helper) to 15 years. Pavao Glad (hospital clerk) to 15 years. Milan Siladi (blacksmith from Busevac) to 6 years. Antun Vezmarovic (forest guard) to 5 years. Luka Markulin (peasant from Odra) to three years. Mijo Bizik (craftsman) to 18 months. Marija Hranilovic (Marko's sister secretary) to 18 months. Gabrijel Kruhak (office clerk in Zagreb) to 18 months. Janko Kruhak (craftsman) to 18 months. Mirko Kruhak (office clerk in Zagreb) to 18 months. Stjepan Markulin (peasant from Odra) to 18 months. Mile Starcevic (office clerk) to 18 months. Luka Cordasic freed. Josip Knoblehar freed. Stjepan Kopcinovic freed. Stjepan Novacic freed. Cvjetko Stahan freed. Mijo Babic escaped the country and condemned in absence. Zvonimir Pospisil condemned in absence. Mladen Lorkovic (Zagreb lawyer) avoided the arrest by escaping the country .

Dec. Blaz Djogic (peasant from Siroki Brijeg) killed by gendarmes

Dec. 5 King Aleksandar banned the "Croatian Sokol" that had over 40,000 members.

Dec. 19 Vilko Begic (military colonel) arrested. Freed on June 14, 1930.

Jaksa Jelasic (professor in Zagreb) arrested and sentenced to 3 years plus the loss of civil rights for 4 years.

52 Zagreb students arrested together with Begic and Jelasic.

Dec. 29 The following Croats were arrested, tried in Belgrade, and on June 14, 1930 sentenced: Ivan Bernardic (merchant's assistant from Barilovic) to 15 years, expulsion from Zagreb for 3 years, and the loss of civil rights for life. Stjepan Matekovic (craftsman from Kostajnica) to 10 years. Filip Paver (state clerk in Zagreb) to 10 years. Martin Franekic to 8 years the loss of civil rights for life.Ivan Skrtak to 6 years and permanent loss of civil rights. Cvjetko Hadzija to 5 years and the loss of civil rights for 5 years. Ante Stefanac to 4 years and the loss of civil rights for 4 years. Velimir Mocnaj (book store owner in Karlovac) to 3 years and the loss of civil rights for 3 years. Ivan Prpic (lawyer from Jastrebarsko) to 2 years. Ivan Ban (merchant's assistant from Kresevo) to 1 year and loss of civil rights for 3 years. Franjo Veselic to 1 year. Ljubomir Kremzir to 6 months. Pavao Margetic to 6 months. Bozo Arnsek freed. Mirko Debanic freed. Albin Gasparac freed. Franjo Kuntic (restaurant owner) freed. Ivan dr. Lebovic (lawyer) freed. Milan Levnajic freed. Antun Stefanic freed.

Ivan Rosic jailed 14 days for placing a wreath on the grave of Stjepan Radic. Jan. 4 Dr. Vladko Macek (leader of the HSS) arrested, tried in Belgrade and freed on June 14, 1930. Seven Croatian prisoners that were acquitted together with Macek at the trial in Belgrade and four of their lawyers were celebrating their release. That was considered a crime and all were sentenced to a 30 days prison term.

May Over 100 Croats arrested. Accused of planning to place an explosive under the train taking a delegation to see the king in Belgrade. Among them were: Antun Budrovac - later sentenced to a jail term. Franjo Canic - later sentenced to a jail term. Franjo Carevic - later sentenced to a jail term. Antun Herman (shoemaker in Djakovo) - later sentenced to a jail term. Zeljko Klemen - later sentenced to a jail term. Karlo Kovacevic - later sentenced to a jail term. Sime Mikic - later sentenced to a jail term. Ivan Ruskan - later sentenced to a jail term. Luka Stjevic - later sentenced to a jail term. Anka Sultajs (woman) - later sentenced to a jail term. Andrija Tilman (postal clerk in Djakovo) - later sentenced to a jail term.

June Josip Predavec (Vice President of the HSS) condemned to 2 and a half years of prison.

During the year "a number of Croats" killed by Chetniks and/or gendarme forces.

Zvonimir Topilnik (bank clerk in Livno) died in jail under torture.

Dr. Dragutin Toth arrested and tried with 13 more members of the HSS.

Ivan Jedlicka tortured and died in Virovitica prison.

Jan. 14 Obrad Pavlovic (Croat from Backa) killed near Italian border.

Feb. ? Bosnjakovic (craftsman in Djakovo) died in jail under gendarmes' torture.

Josip Poropat (young man from Zagreb) killed by gendarmes and his body was thrown from the 3rd floor into the courtyard.

174 Croats arrested in Zagreb

Feb. 17Djuka Ilijanic (peasant) died in Zagreb under torture.

Feb. 18Dr. Milan Sufflaj (a leading Croat intellectual) assassinated.

April Ante Pavelic (peasant from Bosanski Brod) arrested and severely tortured. After his release, escaped to Austria and soon died of complications caused by tortures.

May Josip Nadj (merchant from Ferdinandovac) died in jail under torture

May 4 Trial of 22 Croats began in Zagreb. Among the 22 volunteer defending counsels was Dr. Vladko Macek, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party who a year earlier was himself tried and acquitted in Belgrade. (See Oct. 31, 1929)

May 23 In Belgrade, 3 Croats were sentenced to death, one of them in absence. 11 others received a total of 126 years jail terms. Two were sentenced to 20 and 15 years, but they escaped the country. One of the accused was acquitted.

June Milka Hranilovic (a woman) jailed because of her son's activities.

June 31 Ante Crvic, Ignac Domitrovic, and Mijo Seletkovic were condemned in absence.

July 12About 12,000 people attending the Eucharistic Congress in Omis. Gendarmes opened fire on the masses. Two people killed and many wounded.

July 23 Six months after their arrests, a group of Croats tried in Belgrade and sentenced. Among them, Ivan Rosic (shoemaker's assistant) to death by hanging (hung).

Aug. 1 man (peasant from Lencak near Lasinja) killed by gendarmes. Aug. 10Ilija Petrovic (Nova Gradiska) died under prison torture in Zagreb.

Aug. 11The following Croats were sentenced: Ivan Ljevakovic (father's name Matin from Lipak streetcar controller in Zagreb) to death. Later commuted to life imprisonment. Ivan Ljevakovic (father's name Franjo peasant from Lipak) to 15 years. Adolf Miler sentenced in Belgrade to 15 years. Ivan Saub to 10 years. Petar Nozaric to 2 years. Stjepan Papac to 2 years. Ignac Terihaj to 10 months. Milan Lukac (from Nova Gradiska) freed. Josip Miklausic - cooperated with prosecution. Martin Nagy - cooperated with prosecution. Hung himself in jail. Supposedly suicide.

Dec. 8 Chetniks in the country of Benkovac terrorized Croats who did not participate in the elections. Five peasants killed and many wounded. 1932

Villages in Lika region were terrorized and possessions confiscated after the Lika rebellion.

129 Croats were tried for verbal "insult of the king's name" in the regions of Petrinja, Bjelovar, Zagreb, Ogulin, and Varazdin alone.

Pastor of the Catholic parish in Krasna/Lika arrested because of his "provocative" sermon. A number of Croats in Pazariste/Lika were severely beaten by gendarmes. Among them were: Joso Alivojdic, Petar Dasovic (75 years),

Ilka Hodak (24 year woman), Tomo Marinkovic (beaten daily for 10 days), Jerko Rukavina (70 year), ? Smiljcic (14 years), Manda Stimac (older woman), Jure Zivkovic - his skull was broken and the gendarmes left him for dead.

23 people (from 23 to 92 years of age) severely beaten by gendarmes force in Brusani/Lika. Among them were: Sule Devcic (92 years old) and Mican Lisac (73 year old)

Ivan Domitrovic (peasant from near Imotski) killed by the Chetniks in his home.

Jozo Olujic (Opanci/Imotski) killed by the Chetniks.

Towards the end of the year, a group of Croats were arrested and sentenced in Jan. 1933. Among them: Franjo Furlan to 7 years, Stjepan Tomljenovic 7 years, Sime Balen to 4 years, Nikola Busljeta to 2 years, Mile Sikic 6 months, Antun Balen freed, and Jakov Kubretovic freed.

Five Croats killed on the border to Italy and to Hungary.

Towards the end of the year, 121 people (mostly peasants from Prijedor region) brought to trial in Banja Luka.

Feb. 18 Ive Dusevic (20 years old man from Ljubac/Zadar) killed by Chetniks.

Feb. 20 A peasant in Bosanski Brod killed by gendarmes.

March Blaz Savic (peasant in Benkovac region) deprived of any assistance because of his nationality and political beliefs- died of hunger.

Mara Troskat (a woman in Banjevac/Benkovac) deprived of any assistance because of her nationality and political beliefs - died of hunger.

Nikola Zrilic (Sopoti/Benkovac) deprived of job and social assistance because of his nationality and political stands - died of hunger.

Mar. 4 Many peasants from Lisani/Tinja arrested and held in jail for a long time while their children had no food.

Mar. 6 Students at the University in Zagreb display 3 Croatian flags many of them arrested and maltreated. Branko Buzjak (student in Zagreb) seriously wounded by police.

Mar. 25 ? Aljinovic (truck driver in Ston/Peljesac) killed by Chetniks

April 4 The Government led by General Petar Zivkovic, known for his harsh rule, forced to resign. Hops were high that the new Government would be less oppressive, but such hopes did not materialize.

April 24 About 200 peasants expressed their disatisfaction by marching to the city of Ludbreg. March crushed by gendarmes, leaders arrested and punished.

Apr. 30 Jakov Peraic (peasant in Polaca/Zadar) killed and robbed by a Serb border guard.

May A large number of people maletreated, beaten, arrested or punished by other means in Suska/Rijeka, Bjelovar, Ogulin and other places.

May 12-14 About 600 peasants peacefully demonstrated demanding removal of the local administration in Kosinj/Lika. Gendarmes crushed the protest in blood.

May 15 Gendarmes crushed spontaneous political demonstrations in Senj. Many people were injured, arrested, and punished.

May 26 Gendarmes used a brutal force to crash demonstrations in Split. A large number of people arrested and maltreated.

June Tomislav Corak (peasant from Brdari/Sanski Most) killed by gendarmes.

Ivan Eres (peasant) killed by gendarmes near Hungarian border.

June 7 An attempt to assassinated Dr. Mile Budak, a well known Croatian writer, takes place in Zagreb.

June 14 Attempted murder of two men in Zagreb by members of Young Yugoslavia.

June 20 Commemorations for the Croatian victims shot in Belgrade parliament in June 1928. Arrests, beatings, and shootings by gendarmes take place in many parts of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Secretary of HSS in Bosanski Brod arrested. Gendarmes open fire on the crowd gathered in front of the local jail.Twenty people wounded and many more arrested.

Stjepan Matkovic (Bosanski Brod) killed by gendarmes. A peasant (Bosanski Brod) killed by gendarmes. A peasant woman (Bosanski Brod) killed by gendarmes.

June 20-21 A large number of peasants from Draganic/Karlovac arrested and maltreated.

June 29Gendarmes opened fire on a Catholic religious procession in Stubica/Zagorje. One man and one woman were killed. Numerous people wounded. Many were maltreated and jailed after the event.

July Ivan Kajda and Pavao Lukac (peasants from Virovitica) killed by gendarmes. Aug. Two peasants in Donja Stubica/Zagorje killed by gendarmes.

Aug. 16 Gendarmes attacked the village of Braslovlje/Samobora. A few peasants were killed and several wounded.

Sept. After the "Lika Rebellion" many Croatians jailed and most of them, after being beaten and tortured, where released. Twelve of them taken to Glavnjaca jail near Belgrade where they were maltreated and spent 9 months before they were tried. Andrija Artukovic, Marko Dosen, Josip Tomljenovic, Ivan Saric, and Nikola Oreskovic escaped from the country.

"A few dead and several wounded peasants" (in Oroslavlje/Zagreb region). Gendarmes used violence because Croatian flag was hoisted.

Pasko Kaliterna (merchant in Split) and Fabijan Plazinic (Split) jailed, tried in Belgrade, and freed on March 14, 1933.

Sept. 14 Stipe Devcic (peasant in Jadovno, Lika) killed by gendarmes.

Sept. 21 Djuro Kemfelja (peasant from Stubica Gornja) jailed and sentenced to 18 months in Belgrade on March 14, 1933.

Petar Posaric jailed and sentenced to 8 months in Belgrade on March 14, 1933.

Oct. Viktor Kosutic jailed sentenced to 10 months in Belgrade on March 14, 1933.

? Pecnikar (railroad official in Zagreb) died as a consequence of police tortures.

Oct. 5 Dr. Ivan Pernar (leading Croat politician) jailed and sentenced on March 14, 1933 to 1 year of jail term.

Oct. 17 Dr. Vladko Macek, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party, arrested on account of an interview printed in an English newspaper.

Nov. Luka Devcic (peasant from Lika) died in jail under gendarmes' torture.

Nov. 20-28 Three peasants from Nin county killed by gendarmes.

Dec. ? Frkovic (craftsman in Benkovac) died under gendarmes' torture. Sime Grgic (Nin) died in jail under gendarmes' torture.

Mile Kordun (peasnat from Mumici/Nin) killed by gendarmes.

? Misura (tavern owner in Benkovac) died as a consequence of gendarmes' tortures.

Dec. 5 "About 100 students and city people" arrested and tortured because of an explosion that took place in Zagreb on Dec. 1, 1932. Dec. 9 Miro Perkovic (peasant from Ljubac/Nin) killed by gendarmes.

98 people were tried for verbal "insult of the king's name" in the regions of Petrinja, Bjelovar, Zagreb, Ogulin, and Varazdin alone.

"At the beginning of the year," 8 people were jailed from 10 to 14 days in Podravina.

Ivan Borac (peasant from Razanci/Zemunik) mortally wounded by a Chetnik in front of the church right after the church service.

Ante Dobrila (post-office clerk in Senj) sentenceed to 14 years.

Marko Dosen (merchant from Lika) escaped from the country because of persecutions. His family was also persecuted and their business license suspended in May of 1933.

Sime Dusevic (peasant from Asin near Nin) killed by gendarmes Milivoj Cumic. He also killed P. Grgic and was decorated with the "Medal of St. Sava" for special merits.

Ivan Gabaj (peasant from Hlebine) is arrested, severely tortured and then shot to death by gendarmes.

Franjo Mraz (peasant from Hlebine) tortured and killed by gendarmes.

Pavle Perkovic (peasant from Perkovici near Sl. Brod) killed by Chetnik Rusic.

? Rasic (peasant from the region of Sl. Brod) killed at a public meeting by Chetniks.

? Rupcic (from Senj) sentenced to 3 years of jail.

Vladimir Secko (merchant's helper in Senj) sentenced to 18 years of jail.

About 600 large animals were confiscated by gendarmes and 48 houses and barns were torched in northern Dalmatia and Lika, especially in Podgorje and Devcici.

? Stojilovic (peasant from Oreskovica) killed on the day of local elections by Zivot Radivojevic. Drago Vlahovic (clerk in Senj) sentenced to 8 years of jail.

Blaz Vukutin (peasant from Pakostani) died because of tortures suffered in jail.

Jan. 60 peasants from Djelkovac, Koprivnica, and other villages in the area were led barefoot to Prlog jail where they were maltreated and tortured.

The following peasants were jailed and gravely tortured: Antun Babat, ? Dretar, Josip Havajic (Tortured to the point of death. Last minute medical intervention kept him alive.), Josip Jurasin, Franjo Makar, ? Petkovic, ? Stancin, Pavao Turek, and Ignac Zlatar. Sandor Trajber killed by gendarmes near Donja Lendava.

Jan 21 Dr. Valdko Macek (Leader of the Croatian Peasant Party/HSS) jailed. Charges filed against him in March. He is transferred to state security jail in Belgrade. Sentenced to 3 years of jail term on April 29, 1933.

Vladimir Bogovic (clerk in Karlovac) commited suicide because of persecutions.

Feb. 15 Josip Silobrcic (pharmacist in Biograd near Zadar) jailed and tortured.

40 peasants from the region of Sibenik arrested and taken to the city. All accused of anti-state activities. After 185 days of solitary confinement, Silobrcic and 10 others were taken to Belgrade and declared innocent on December 20, 1933 because the charges were brought against them "arbitrarily."

Mar. 11 Antun Ivanov (peasant from Preko/Zadar) tortured to death while in jail.

Mar. 14 Cvjetko Nizic (from Preko/Zadar) tortured to death while in jail.

April Ruzica Knezevic (peasant woman from Perusic) died because of the beatings she suffered at the hands of gendarmes.

April 18 A group of peasants from Recice were taken to Karlovac jail and tortured. One of them, Andrija Pavlic suffered terrible tortures.

April 24 Gendarmes used force to suppress students' demonstrations in Zagreb.

April 29 Gendarmes used force to stop student demonstrations in Zagreb. May About 200 students in Zagreb jailed and terrorized for displaying Croatian flag.

Josip Kostelac (student in Zagreb) jailed and greatly tortured. Sentenced in December 1933.

? Bekavac (peasant from Prolozac/Benkovac) killed by a Serb member of the Sokol organization.

Sime Dijan (Lika) sentenced to 6 months because he did not report suspected nationalists to gendarmes.

Petar Grgic (Murvice/Zadar) killed by gendarme Milivoj Cumica.

Andrija Nadnicic (Lika) sentenced to life imprisonment.

Five others tried with Nadnicic received sentences from 3 to 8 years.

May 20 The following peasants and former HSS parliamentary representatives from the region of Garasnica were jailed: Tomo Madjeric, Misko Racan, TomoVojkovic, At the same time, many peasants from the region were terrorized by gendarmes and taken to Zagreb prison in order to reveal a presumed "great plot" against the state.

July A woman killed in an attack on a Catholic religious procession in Split.

More than 50 Croats accused of belonging to Ustasha movement were tried in three groups in Lika. Among them the following were sentenced: Josip Cacic to life imprisonment, Stjepan Mabasa to life imprisonment, Milan Silhovic 10 months, and others in the group received jail terms from 6 to 15 years.

July 10 After spending 9 months in the notorious Glavnjaca jail near Belgrade, the following Croats were sentenced: Jure Rukavina (forcefully retired officer) condemned to death. Tortured so much that he had to be carried on a stretcher to the court. It was expected that he would succumb to the tortures and die, the king commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. After the king's assassination the sentence was commuted to 20 years. Jerko Sudar to "eternal servitude" (after king's assassination the sentence was commuted to 20 years). Leopold Super (peasant from Brusani) to 20 years. Ivan Abramovic (a young craftsman) to 15 years. Jure Gazic to 15 years. Antun Super (shoemaker from Brusani) to 15 years. Josip Baric (peasant from Brusani) to 12 years. Josip Vukic (merchant's helper from Tribalj/Crikvenica) 10 years. Ivan Rukavina (peasant from Pazariste Donje) to 3 years. Dane Babic (peasant from Brusani) to 9 months. Josip Super (from Brusani) freed. Pavao Baric (peasant from Brusani) freed. A week later, the third group of suspected "Ustashe" was tried in Lika.

July 14 J. Predavec murdered.

July 24 Mirko Neudorfer (former gov. minister and HSS representative) murdered at Ladislavac/Zlatara.

Aug. Augustin Franic (peasant from Sukosani/Dalmatia) killed by Chetniks.

Sept. 9 Ivo dr. Pilar (59 year old well known intellectual and opponent of the regime) officially committed suicide but it is believed that he was murdered.

Sept. 27-28 A large number of students in Zagreb jailed and/or terrorized.

Oct. A terrorizing expedition into the village of Vinice and the surrounding area takes place. This resulted into: Josip Krobot (peasant from Gornje Ladanje/Varazdin) killed. A few hundreds of peasants severely beaten and terrorized.

Dec. 1 Post-office clerk (Selska cesta) killed for singing Croatian patriotic songs.

Dec. 16 King Aleksander in Zagreb. Failed plot to assassinate him discovered.

Dec. Massive arrests (more than 1000 people) and maltreatments in Zagreb. Many of them highschool students. Others expelled from the city.

"Many peasants" arrested in Koprivnica region. Among them the following were sentenced to life inprisonment, later commuted to 15 years: ? Horvatinovic (from Gola), ? Novak (from Gola), ? Posezi (from Gola), ? Suboticanec (from Gola), Janko Varga (from Novacka Gola), ? Pavlic (from Djelkovac), ? Petak (from Djelkovac), ? Sabol (from Djelkovac), ? Vuljak 1 (from Djelkovac), ? Vuljak 2 (from Djelkovac), ? Vuljak 3 (from Djelkovac), ? Sijak (from Grbasevac), and ? Vutuc (from Grbasevac).

"About 100 peasants, workers and students" in Zagreb arrested and maltreated. About 20 people severely tortured.

Ivan Saric (peasant from Zemunik) beaten so badly by gendarmes that he died of the injuries received.

Jan. 11 Ivan Varga (peasant from Dubrave/Medjimurje) killed by gendarmes. In July 1934, his son received a bill to pay 13.15 dinars for the five bullets by which his father was killed.

Mar. 13 Trial of eight Croats begins in Belgrade. They are sentenced on March 21, 1934: Stjepan Pizeta (peasant from Gornje Ladanje/Varazdin) condemned to death. Franjo Zrinski (peasant from Gornje Ladanje/Varazdin) condemmned to death. Tomo Kelemen (mason from Gornje Ladanje/Varazdin) "perpetual servitude." Mijo Kalaman 1 (mason from Gornje Ladanje/ Varazdina) to 1 year. Mijo Kelemen 2 (peasant from Gornje Ladanje/ Varazdina) to 1 year. Marko Krobot (peasant from Gornje Ladanje/Varazdin) to 5 months. Josip Petkovic freed. Milja Brodar (woman) freed.

Mar. 29 Josip Begovic (student in Zagreb) condemned to death by hanging. Petar Oreb (worker from Vela Luka/Korcula) condemned to death by hanging. Hung on May 12, 1934. Antun Podgorelec (masonary apprentice from Suhopolje/Vinkovci) condemned to death by hanging later commuted to life. After spending three months in jail where they were tortured, a group of eighteen people were sentenced: Nikola Murkovic (lawyer from Gospic) to 2 years, Ante Vlajnic (merchant in Perusic) to 20 months, Martin, Dosen (Licki Osik) to 12 months, Dr. Fran Binicki (pastor in Licki Osik) to 10 months, Mile Butkovic (merchant from Perusic) to 10 months, Nikola Kolacevic (merchant from Kaniza) to 8 months, Mate Zalovic (peasant from village of Vuksice) jailed eight months, Nada Kolacevic (housewife from Gospic) to 6 months, Nikola Polic (pastor in Gospic) to 6 month, Andrija, Brkljacic (Gospic) to 5 months, Ante Brkljacic (Gospic) to 5 months, Mate, Brkljacic (peasant from Kaniza) to 5 months, Josip Matijevic (student from Kaniza) to 5 months, Nikola Matijevic (student) to 5 months, Ivan Stilinovic (peasant from Gopsic) to 4 moths, Marko Smolcic (student under age from Karlobag) sent to a home for delinquent youth, Ivica Murkovic (a retired military officer from Gospic) to ?, and Mime Rosandic (forestry engineer from Gospic) freed but kicked out from work.

Mar. 30 Mato Keselic - (peasant) ambushed and killed by gendarmes near Vrpolje.

Apr. Villagers in Sv. Kriz (Krapina) openly protested against terror of the local gendarmes. Repraisals followed and over 50 villagers were jailed and maltreted.

Apr. 12 About 100 Zagreb Croats arrested and maltreated.

Apr. 20 Two peasants in the village of Lanusa near the Italian border killed.

May 30 Trial of eight Croats began. They were sentenced on June 4, 1934: ? Zindric was aquited. Josip Katusic (permanent residence in the U.S.A.) to death. Ivan Barakovic (civil servant in Osijek) to 15 years of prison. Others received received from 6 month to 10 years jail terms, including Stjepan Crnicki (civil servant in Zagreb).

Aug. Valentin Rosulja - (peasant) killed by Chetnik brothers: Jovan, Milan and Nikola Djurcic.

Josip Sabov - killed by chetniks in Horgac, Backa.

Aug. 1 Ivan Kovacevic - (peasant) killed in Otocko near Bosanski Brod.

Sept. Four political trials: Two people condemnd to death, five received life sentences, and others received sentences from one to 15 years.

Ivan Lucic - (worker) died in Susak(Rijeka) jail while being tortured.

Sept. 11 The following were sentenced in Zagreb from 10 to 24 months of prison terms because of an "anti-state" leaflet: Vinko Begic, Juraj Horvat,Andrija Hrsak, Ljudevit Ivekovic, Dr. Ivan Pernar - lawyer (30 months), Andrija Raspor, Karlo Sejkot, Lenka Stimac (woman),

Sept. 20 The following were sentenced: Stjepan Sever (peasant from Podravina) to 12 years. Ivan Kraljic (people's representative from Podravina till Jan. 6, 1929) to 8 years. Stjepan Prvcic (peasant from Podravina) to 8 years. Blaz Badalec (peasant from Podravina) to 6 years. Ivan Glavak (peasant from Podravina) to 3 years. Marija Glavak (peasant woman from Podravina) to 3 years. Ivan Ostriz to (peasant from Podravina) 2 years. Ivan Horvatinovic (peasant from Podravina) to 2 years. Marija Badalec (peasant from Podravina) to 1 year.

Oct. 9 King Aleksandar assassinated in Marseilles.

From January 1935 to January 1936, 96 people were killed by gendarme forces.

Members of the "Catholic action" maltreated throughout Croatia just because they belonged to a Catholic organization.

A number of the members of the Catholic organization "Zrinski" in Djurdjevac were arrested. They were severely beaten in Pitomaca, on the way to prison, and again while investigated in jail. Teenage boys in the village of Djurdjevac had their hands beaten by gendarmes so hard that they were disabled for a lengthy period.

A number of villagers were hid in the nearby woods out of fear of the gendarmes and they were afraid to come back home. The whole village lived in fear.

A number of peasants beaten up by gendarmes in Mala Erpenja, the region of Krapinske Toplice. Among them were: Stjepan August, Florijan Belin (60 years old), Makso Golubic, Rudolf Golubic, Slavko Golubic, Juraj Juranic, Makso Juranic, Mirko Juranic, Andro Kordej,Franjo Kos (50 years old), Janko Mihel (20 years old), Josip Mihel (70 years old), Vilim Mihel (40 years old), Franjo Rusek (35 years old),Otokar Sostaric, Viktor Sostaric (merchant), Vjekoslav Stengl (25 years old), Makso Svecnjak, and Stjepan Svecnjak.

A "multitude of peasants" beaten up by gendarmes in Zabok. Among them: ? Sepec (beaten by five gendarmes while plowing his land), Marko Bivol, and Ivan Borovcak.

Peaceful peasants terrorized by gendarmes in Vojni Kriz near Cazma. Among the most severely beaten were: Franjo Ciglencki, Franjo Krivacic, and Danijel Magdic.

14 peasants beaten up by gendarmes in Sesvete near Ludbreg.

In Bizovac (Valpovo) gendarme supervisor Vasilije Dinic, arbitrarily arrested Stjepan Kis and beat him severely while in jail. The same officer beat Andrija Perosevic, who ended up in the hospital because of the severe beating.

In Adolfovac near Osijek workers, Luka Vukovic, Antun Gurdel, and Milan Grgic, were arrested, and beaten to unconsciousness. Vukovic's teeth knocked out had to be taken to Osijek hospital Grgic's breast bone was broken. From the local gendarme station they were dragged to Osijek prison and beaten severely.

Janko Simatic (peasant from Adolfovac) severely beaten by gendarmes.

Ivan Krelo (peasant from Kravice near Osijek) on the way home from work arrested, taken to gendarme station, and severely beaten. As a consequence he lost hearing on one ear.

Ilija Kereman and Josip Gorzan (peasants from Laslovo) severely beaten by gendarmes.

20 peasants beaten up by gendarmes in Korodje near Osijek. The most severely beaten were: Tobi Arpadz, Marko Mihalj, Mihalj Miskolic, Danijel Pozar, Feri Sabo, and Janos Sosaj.

200 people from Zitnik and Klanac/Lika walked to Gospic to protest the stealing of voting registration lists. They were ambushed by gendarmes using military rifles. Bozo Markovic (76 years old) was first seriously wounded and then a gendarme used a bayonet to finish him off. Martin Starcevic (38 years) was also killed first shot and then his skull was smashed by a gendarme. Joso Lulic (58 years) was seriously wounded. Stipe Markovic (36 years) was hit by four shots in the back. Also were wounded: Nikola Milinkovic ( 28 years), Ivan Snjaric (40 years), Ivan Zupan (30 years), and 28 other people.

Gendarmes attacked peasants in the village of Dobranje near Metkovic, maltreated them and killed Ivan Devija.

Group of peasants returning from Starigrad (island of Hvar) to the village of Vrbanj were attacked by gendarmes and severely beaten. A day after, gendarmes beat up 39 villagers.

Rev. Blaz Tomljenovic (pastor in Smiljan/Lika) sentenced to pay 500 dinars because of a Sunday sermon.

Rev. Ivan Ilijic (pastor in Dubasnica/Krk) sentenced to pay 500 dinars for having another well known priest from nearby Krk, Rev. Milan Defar, help him during the Easter holidays. He is charged with sheltering an "unknown person"!

Rev. Milan Defar (priest from Krk) arrested on false charges and later banned from teaching catechism in the local highs chool.

Rev. Janko Medved (priest in Novalja/Pag) chained and taken by boat to the town of Rob, publically humiliated, and sentenced to 8 days jail term.

Rev. Ivan Condic (pastor in Rascani/ Imotski) arrested while in Sinj, led to Zagvozd. While there, the local gendarme commander, Ilija Gajic, cursed his "Catholic God," called him swine, criminal, and other names, and knocked him to the floor and maltreated him physically over two hours. A day after, Condic was sentenced to 12 days of jail and to pay a 1000 dinars fine.

? Pavlinovic (a merchant from Imotski region) arrested together with Rev. Ivan Condic, maltreated by gendarme commander in Zagvozd and sentenced to 12 days of jail and a 1000 dinars fine.

Gendarmes killed "several people" and injured many others in Primosten near Sibenik.

Feb. 19-20 Gendarmes killed 15 and injureed many Croatian peasants in Sibinj and Slavonski Brod.

May 4 Msgr. Ivan Mrakovcic, chancellor of the Krk diocese, arrested. In order to humiliate him, he is led through town by a group of gendarmes as the worset criminal.

May 5 General elections held.

In the village of Vid, near Metkovic, gendarmes maltreated peasants including children on election day, and positioned two machine guns in the village threatening the population.

On election day, Rev. Mate Rahelic, pastor in Hreljina, arrested at 11 P.M., taken to Susak/Rijeka jail, and held without being charged.

May 11 Franjo Sostaric (peasant from Selnice/Zlatar) shot and killed by gendarmes.

May 19 Gendarmes opened fire on a crowd of local peasants in Kravarsko near Zagreb after a Church celebration. As a result: Djuro Virek and Antonija Jambris (woman) were killed, and Franjo Kanceljak, Stjepan Cekovic, and Franjo Virek (Djuro's son) were seriously wounded. A number of other peasants were injured.

June 23 Chetniks attack Croatian guests in a well-known restaurant in Zagreb.

Aug. 23 After 11 months of imprisonment and torture, trieal of 37 Croats started in Sarajevo. They were: Antun Alaupovic, Ivan Brcic, Jelisaveta Car (woman), Josip Car, Mate Coric, Stefica Erbic (woman), Tugomir Gelic (Franciscan priest), Mijo Grgic, Antun Hladnik, Leopoldina Hladnik (woman), Marija Hladnik (woman), Tereza Hladnik (woman), Nikola Jarak, Dragutin Juric, Vjekoslav Juric, Vjekoslava Juric (woman), Ante Kacic, Franjo Kolumbic, Augustina Korac (woman), Filip Korac, Miron Kozinovic (Franciscan priest), Blaz Lorkovic,Ela Lorkovic (woman), Josip Milinkovic, Ana Pecek (woman), Emil Pecek, Franjo Pecek, Rafo Prusina (Franciscan priest), Petar Puljic, Ana Sef (woman), Donko Surjan, Petar Surjan, Augustin Tomic (Franciscan priest), Ivanka Trampus (woman), Augustina Ungerman (woman), Franjo Ungerman, and Jozefina Ungerman (woman). Sentences were given on September 17, 1995.

Dec. 11 A few gendarmes were forcfully entering many houses in the village of Djurdjanci/Djakovo and empting them of all posseasions. The official excuse was tax collection. After the peasnts' resitence to this terror, over 20 more policmen arived at 2:00 A.M. next morning and a large number of peasnats were taken to the local gendarme station. Half-naked, cold, and hungry they were severly beaten and maltreated for a few days. Among other tortures, they were forced to hit each other. Even those who came to village as visitors were beaten and arrested. Men from the village that were not arrested were in hiding in the woods for days. The real cause of the terror: some of the villagers participated in the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Croatian anthem in Djakovo on December 8, 1935.

The leading gendarme torturer was Avdo Kujundzic (stationed in Djakovo) and the local acuser was an ill-reputed Chetnik Andrija Separac.

Among the arrested and/or tortured were: Adam Begovic, Anka Begovic (maltreated) (woman), Antun Begovic, Bozo Bosnjakoic, Ana Bosnjakovic (woman on the run), Ilija Bosnjakovic (10 year olf boy), Ivan Bosnjakovic, Marko Carevic, Andrija Djakovic, Pavao Kovacevic,Andro Kusic, Nikola Lett (merchant), Mijo Lett (merchant), Pero Lovrenovic, Ivo Majanovic (the village elder), Ivo Majanovic, Damjan Marinovic, Kuzman Marinovic, Franjo Merc, Fabo Nikolic, Ivan Perkovic, Martin Prokopec (visiting the village), Pero Salic, Mate Saric, Pavo Saric, Pero Saric, Martin Sners (old man), Manda Spanjovic (attempt of rape) (woman), Marko Stojkovic (53 year old visiting the village), Stipe Trepsic, and Marko Vrtaric.

ADDITIONAL PARTIAL LIST OF CROATS WHO WERE IMPRISONED DURING MONARCHIST YUGOSLAVIA.

Asancaic, Nikola (merchant from Gospic) Bacic, ? (shoemaker from Senj) Bakovic, Pero (student in Zagreb) Balan, Sime (student from Jablanac) Baradic, Jako (peasant from Banjevci/Benkovca) Bedekovic, Vjekoslav (merchant's helper in Gospic) Begovic, Vaso (restaurant owner in Begovici) Bernobic, Pavle (lawyer in Virovitica) Bicanic, Rudolf (lawyer in Zagreb) Biljan, Marijan (sailor from Kuklica/Preko) Biljan, Tomo (type-setter in Kosinj) Bizik, Mijo (merchant's helper in Koprivnica) Bosnjakovic, Marija (peasant from Andijevci) (woman) Bozjak, Mate (peasant from Kraljev Vir) Bradic, Ante (peasant from Starigrad) Brcko, Franjo (peasant from Kraljev Vir) Brkljacic, Zivo (peasant from Kaniza) Budak, Ante (student in Zagreb) Budrovac, Antun (tailor in Budrovici) Bulat, Krizan (peasant from Banjevci/Benkovac) Busljeta, Nikola (worker from Starigrad) Buterin, Sime (peasant from Starigrad) Buterin, Vicko (restaurant owner from Starigrad) Butorac, Ivan (forest guard from Pazariste Donje) Butorac, Zorka (secretary from Senj) (woman) Cacic, Ivan (peasant from Klanc) Cacic, Josip (state employee from Gospic) Cacic, Martin (peasant from Pazariste Donje) Cacic, Nikola (peasant from Pazariste Donje) Cacic, Nikola Jr. (peasant from Pazariste Donje) Cacic, Vice (shoemaker from Buzina) Carevic, Franjo (office clerk from Djakovo) Cerovski, Bozo (office clerk from Zagreb) Cilovic, Djuka (electritian from Zagreb) Cudina, Marko (peasant from Pridraga) Dasovic, Stipe Peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Davidovski, Dragan (from Zagreb) Devcic, Dragica (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) (woman) Devcic, Ivan 1 (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Devcic, Ivan 2 (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Devcic, Ivan (called Jovo) (peasant from Likovo Sugarje) Devcic, Manda (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) (woman) Devcic, Marko (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Devcic, Martin (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Devcic, Nikola ((peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Devcic, Nikolica (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Devcic, Pavao I. (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Devcic, Pavao S. (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Devcic, Zorka (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) (woman) Dian, Drago (peasant from Sukosani) Dobrila, Ante (post-office clerk from Senj) Dosen, Ante (peasant from Rizvanusa) Dosen, Ivica (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Dosen, Jadre (restaurant owner from Gosipic) Dosen, Lovro (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Dosen, Martin (peasant from Licki Osik) Dosen, Martin M. (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Dosen, Milka (peasant from Rizvanusa) (woman) Dosen, Misko (peasant from Rizvanusa) Dosen, Stipo (peasant from Rizvanusa) Drazic, Ante (peasant from Sukosani) Ersetic, Feliks (merchant's helper from Vukovar) Faber, Stjepan (locksmith from Zagreb) Fehervari, Stjepan (bookstore clerk in Osijek) Ficke, Nijo (peasant from Imrovac) Filipovic, Ivan (tailor from Vinkovci) Fiocic, Franjo (worker from Gosipic) Francetic, N. (peasant from Licki Novi) Frkovic, Juraj (merchants helper from Gospic) Frkovic, Marko (harness-maker) Frkovic, Martin (harness-maker from Benkovo) Frkovic, Pero (peasant from Gospic) Frlen, Franjo (worker from Susak/Rijeka) Frlen, Senta (from Susak/Rijeka) (woman)? Furjan, Djuro (locksmith from Martinec/Cazma) Gajer, Mile (peasant from Udbine) Galovic, Josip (peasant from Desinec) Galovic, Mate (peasant from Perusic) Gasparovic, Josip (from Brod na Kupi) Gasparovic, Stjepan (mason's helper from Crikvenica) Glavak, Ivo (peasant from Fercec) Glojnaric, Mirko (newsman??) Vidi Gmaz, Milan (peasant from Oroslavlje) Goric, Jure (peasant from Novigrad) Gradicek, Matija (merchant from Oroslavlje) Gradicek, Mijo (peasant from Oroslavlje) Gross, Aleksandar (cabinet-maker'shelper from Djakovo) Gruhek, Gabrijel (clerk from Zagreb) Grzan, Ivan (cabinet-maker from Pazariste Donje) Gutic, dr. Viktor (lawyer from Banja Luka) Gvozdic, Ivan (cabinet-maker from Soljani) Harapinac, Miso (peasant from Spisic/Bukovica) Hecimovic, Luka (lawyer from Perusic) Herceg, Antun (newsman from Zagreb) Horvat, Franjo (harness-maker from Zagreb) Horvat, Jurica (printer from Zagreb) Horvat, Vlado (printer from Zagreb) Horvatic, Vid (clerk from Zagreb) Hronic, Franjo (peasant from Trnik) Hronic, Mijo (peasant from Trnik) Hronic, Stjepan (peasant from Trnik) Ivanovic, Josip (peasant from Markovci) Jandric, Imbre (peasant from Trnik) Japundzic, Josip (clerk from Gospic) Jedvaj, Stjepan (restaurant owner from Bistra) Jelic, Ivan (clerk from Brezine) Jelic, Pasko (merchant's helper from Knin) Jelkovic, Mijo (peasant from Recica) Juretic, Filip (peasant from Sibinj) Jurisic, Ivan (Peasant from Perusic) Jurisic, Ivan 2(Peasant from Perusic) Jut, Vjekoslav (shoemaker from Perusic) Kapovic, Mira (from Visi?) (woman) Karcic, dr. ? (lawyer from Ruma) Karlic, Stipe (peasant from Slatnik) Kartela, Andrija (peasant from Puticani) Katalinic, Vlado (student from Senj) Kirhmajer, Mile (barrel-maker from Djakovo) Klanac, Juko (peasant from Posedarje) Klemen, dr. Zeljko (lawyer from Osijek) Knez, Ferdo (clerk from Srijemska Mitrovica) Kolacevic, Ivan (bookshop owner from Gospic) Kozarcanin, Ivo (writer and poet from Zagreb) Kraljevic, Andrija (peasant from Banjevci/Benkovac) Kraljic, Ante (restaurant owner from Zagreb) Krekovic, Dane (peasant from Perusic) Kruhak, Mirko (shoemaker from Konjscina) Kugler, Bojan (clerk from Zagreb) Lamesic, dr. Marko (lawyer from Ruma) Lanec, Juliusk (locksmith's helper from Senj) Lenac, Franjo (house-painter from Senj) Levacic, Mijo (peasant from Merhatovec) Levaic, Tomo (merchant from Sibenik) Ljevakovic, Ivan (policman from Lipik) Ljevakovic, Ivan (peasant from Lipik) Lucic, Kazimir (merchant from Slavonski Brod) Magus, Mato (restaurant owner from Senj) Malbasa, Stjepan (clerk from Dugopolje) Mandusic, Sime (worker from Rupe) Marinac, Antun (cabinet-maker from Pazariste Donje) Marinkovic, Marko (peasant from Banjevci/ Benkovac) Markovic, Ivan (peasant from Perusic) Markulin, Mara (peasant from Odra) (woman) Markulin, Petar (peasant from Odra) Markulin, Stjepan Jr. (Peasant from Odra) Martinovic, Josip (sailor from Kuklica) Martinovic, Tomo (peasant from Kuklica) Matijas, Josip (clerk from Trogir) Matonicki, Djuro (student from Virje) Menjaka, Ivan (peasant from Kosut) Micek, Ivan (worker from Batin) Micurin, Tomo (peasant from Trnik) Mihovilic, Ivan (truck-driver from Senj) Mikic, Jure (mechanic from Djakovo) Mikic, Simun (merchant from Djakovo) Miklauzic, Josip (worker from Zagreb) Miler, Adolf (peasant from Sirac/Daruvar) Milinkovic, Vinko (merchant from Gospic) Milkovic, Mijo (shoemaker from Drenovci Brodski) Mirkovic, N. (Student from Gospic) Miskulin, Mate (merchant from Gospic) Mokrovic, Franjo (from Zagreb) Muhar, Ivo (peasant from Klanac) Muhar, N. (Peasant from Pazariste Donje) Murkovic, Ivan (peasant from Gospic) Nadinic, Fudrija (peasant from Sukoisani) Nemec, Blaz (mason from Merhatovec) Nemerschmidt, Albin (upholster from Gospic) Niksic, Tomo (merchants helper from Gospic) Novak, Vinko (peasant from Novacka) Nozaric, Petar (shoemaker from Breznik) Oljica, Josip (peasant from Sukosani) Ozanic, Marko (waiter from Vrgin Most) Papac, Stjepan (printer from Krasno) Papista, Ivan (tailor from Zabok) Paricic, Roko (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pasaric, Pero (railroad clerk from Zagreb) Pavici, Roko (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pavicic, Ivica (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pavicic, Josip (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pavicic, Lovro (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pavicic, Marijan (sailor from Poljica) Pavicic, Martin (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pavicic, Pavao (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pavicic, Pavlica (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pavicic, Vid (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Pavlic, Josip (peasant from Djelkovac) Perkovic, Pero (peasant from Brinje) Peter, Stjepan (carpenter from Djelkovac) Petrovic, Stjepan (merchant's helper from Hlebine) Pill, Tomo (peasant from Ruma) Plese, Pavao (policeman from Ramljani) Pocrnic, Ivan (clerk from Perusic) Polegubic, Petar (peasant from Banjevci/ Benkovac) Polegubic, Tomo (peasant from Banjevci/ Benkovac) Poljak, Rok (peasant from Bistra) Prpic, Ivan (student from Senj) Prsa, Josip (post-office clerk from Oborovo Prvcic, Stjepan (peasant from Koprivnica) Pusic, Marija (house-maker from Zagreb) (woman) Radeljak, Stjepan (worker from Zagreb) Rajkovic, Nikola (clerk from Zagreb) Rancevic, N. (Court clerk from Senj) Reli, Franjo (barber from Osijek) Ribic, Ivan (sailor from Biograd) Rozman, Stjepan (peasant from Bistra) Rukavina, Juraj (retired officer from Perusic) Rupcic, Nikola (student from Licko Lesce) Ruskar, Ivan (merchant from Bernardovac) Rusko, Djuro (peasant from Gola) Sabic, Sime (mason from Sunja) Sabol, Stjepan (from Djelkovac) Saric, Karlo (peasant from Lukovo Sugarje) Saub, Ivan (merchant from Pakrac) Secke, Vlado (painter from Senj) Sepek, Franjo (butcher from Zagreb) Serzija, Marija (peasant from Banjevci/Benkovac) (woman) Sigecen, Misko (peasant from Martinec/Czama) Sijevic, Luka (peasant from Djakovo) Sikic, Mile Student from Jablanac) Siroki, Ivan (peasant from Novacka) Sjak, Rudolf (peasant from Grbasevac) Sjaus, Ivo (peasant from Tribalj) Sjaus, Mile (peasant from Tribalj) Skolic, Djuro (tailor from Zagreb) Skrlin, Josip (peasant from Bistra) Smolcic, Mato (peasant from Gospic) Smolic, Sime (peasant from Sukosani) Smolic, Slavo (peasant from Puticani) Sokac, Bartol (peasant from Stubica Donja) Sostaric, August (blacksmith from Zebovac) Spanic, Tom (peasant from Desinec) Spehanac, Ante (clerk from Karlovac) Starcevic, dr. Mile (professor from Zagreb) Starcevic, Ivan (peasant from Klanac) Starcevic, Josip (peasant from Pazariste Donje) Starcevic, M. (peasant from Klanac) Starcevic, Martin (peasant from Pazariste Donje) Starcevic, Mile (peasant from Pazariste Donje) Starcevic, N. (peasant from Pazariste Donje) Stilinovic, Milan (truck-driver from Kaniza) Stimac, Ivan (forest guardian from Perusic) Stimac, Lenka (peasant from Perusic) (woman) Stimac, Manda (peasant from Perusic) (woman) Strtan, Ivan (butcher from Zagreb) Subotinec, Babro (peasant from Novacka) Sucek, Djuro (peasant from Kraljev Vrh) Sucev, Valent (peasant from Kraljev Vrh) Sudar, Ljerko (peasant from Brusani) Suhan, Jakov (peasant from Knigora) Suletic, Grga (worker from Dubrovnik) Sultaj, Anka (secretary from Djakovo) (woman) Super, Dujo (peasant from Brusani) Svast, ? (clerk from Senj) Tomasic, Ivan (peasant from Djelkovac) Tomasic, Stjepan (peasant from Djelkovac) Tomljenovic, I. (from Novoselo) Tomljenovic, Ivan (student from Gospic) Tomljenovic, Stjepan (worker from Cavle) Tonkovic, Stjepan (peasant from Nebojane) Toret, Josip (merchant from Sisak) Troskat, Mate (peasant from Banjevci/Benkovac) Turk, Stjepan (peasant from Oroslavlje) Ujhari, Stjepan (worker from Sombor) Valic, Adam (merchant's helpeer from Jelenje) Varga, Janko (peasant from Otocka) Vedric, Stjepan (peasant from Novacka) Vezmanovic, Stjepan (forest-guard from Busevac) Vidak, Sarlota (from Zagreb) Vlahovic, D. (proprietor from Senj) Vukic, Kuzman (sailor from Triblja) Vuljak, Antun (peasant from Djelkovac) Vuljak, Stjepan (peasant from Djelkovac) Vutuc, Rudolf (carpenter from Koprivnica) Zajec, Drago (truck-driver from Zagreb) Zalec, Djuro (peasant from Mokrice) Zarek, Jandre (peasant from Perusic) Zarek, Josip (harness-maker from Perusic) Zarek, Mile (peasant from Perusic) Zeleznik, Ivka (tailor from Zagreb) (woman) Zelnik, Ignac (from Nasice) Zignic, Ivan (tailor from Zabok) Zniderec, Mijo (mason from Cakovec)

One of the most blatant terrorist acts of the Belgrade regime in Croatia took place in Senj on May 9, 1937. Gendarmes killed and wounded several young people just for displaying the Croatian flag and singing patriotic songs. The killed were: Katica Tonkovic (girl), Marko Smolcic, Franjo Jelaca, Nikola Bevandic, Tomo Niksic, and Petar Frkovic, and the wounded: Jakov Milkovic, Ante Dosen, Branko Milinkovic, Zlatko Vlahinic, Vladimir Nizija, and Mile Biljan. The above picture was taken during the funeral mass of the killed at St. John's Church in Gospic.

The picture on the right is a photocopy of the bill received by the son of Ivan Varga to pay 13.15 dinars for the five bullets by which his father was killed on January 11, 1934.


Post by Veronica » 11 Oct 2004, 23:54

Thank you for the information, just two questions:

Do you know if the book has an English version?

Is there a web page dedicated to the Chinese International Brigades?

Post by seawind » 12 Oct 2004, 13:25

I think the book has no English Version,it even has no simplified Chinese Version.

And it's very pity there have no English web page about Chinese International Brigades too.

I collected a Pic of Chinese International Brigades' flag,now I upload it for you.

Post by Veronica » 12 Oct 2004, 23:55

Thank you very much, it's amazing the banner is in chinese and in English and not in Spanish, I wonder why.

I understand that there is no web page in English about the IB but, is there a web page in chinese language?

By the way, where did you take the pics from?

Post by seawind » 13 Oct 2004, 13:34

oh,you are very thorough,I must acknowledge that I have never think over this question - why the banner is in chinese and in English and not in Spanish.

Firstly ,I must point out that the flag is a EMBROIDERY FLAG(or Tapestry Flag? We Chinese called it "jinqi锦旗".) and not a troop standard.
Secondly,the flag is a present of "Chinese Soviet Government",I wonder if there are any people know Spanish in YanAn at that time.(As I konw,many Chinese Communist are former student abroad in English/French/German/CCCP,and I have never heared any CCPs from Spain.)

I pick out the Pic form a folder named "Spanish Civil War" in my Computer , I cannot remember where I download it.

I also found two Chinese webpage involved Chinese IB in the folder, but they are not serious research articles and full of absurd mistake.

Very glad to meet a friend interested in Chinese IB,regards.

International Brigades

Post by Anak-KNIL » 15 Oct 2004, 10:39

The first two International Brigades

The organizing comittée (André Marty, Luigi Longo & Co) took up work in Albacete 10th Oct 1936.

On 14th Oct 1936 three Bns began forming with new volunteers:
1st Bn FRANCO-BELGE
2nd Bn AUSTRO-GERMAN
3rd Bn ITALO-ESPANOL

Followed 17th Oct by:
4th Bn POLISH-BALKAN

On 22th Oct 1936 IX.Brigada Móvil (IB 9) was formed. CO: Jean-Marie Francois, ex-NCO French Colonial Army.

On 25th Oct began forming:
5th Bn AUSTRO-GERMAN (II)

By this time a number of veterans from the Militias had arrived in Albacete and were used as Officers and NCOs.

On 1st Nov 1936 the IX.Brigada Móvil (IB 9) was redesigned XI.Brigada Mixta (IB 11). CO: Gen "Emile Klébèr" alias Manfred Lazar Stern-Feteke (Rum). At the same time XII.Brigada Mixta (IB 12) began forming. CO: Gen "Pavel Lukász" alias Maté Zalka Kemeny (Hung).

In the period 25th Oct - 6th Nov Bns were given names.

IB 11
1st Bn COMMUNE DE PARIS
2nd Bn EDGAR ANDRÉ
3rd Bn GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI
4th Bn JAROSLAW DABROWSKI written so - pronaunced Dombrowski

IB 12
5th Bn ERNST THÄLMANN

In 3rd Nov 1936 it was decided that 3rd Bn GARIBALDI - having no rifles -should join IB 12 as 5th Bn. Instead 5th Bn THÄLMANN became 3rd Bn of IB 11.

To Madrid Front

When the Bns on 4th Nov started moving to Madrid they were renumbered in the sequence they left Albacete Base Area. 3rd Bn THÄLMANN was not ready and was again transferred to IB 12.

IB 11
1st Bn EDGAR ANDRÉ
2nd Bn COMMUNE DE PARIS
3rd Bn JAROSLAW DABROWSKI

IB 12
4th Bn ERNST THÄLMANN
5th Bn GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI
6th Bn FRANCO-BELGE (II) - less 1 Coy. Began forming 7th Nov 36. Later named ANDRÉ MARTY.

Reorganization

On 29th Nov 1936 the Bdes were reorganized. Btns DABROWSKI and THÄLMANN changed places.

IB 11
1st Bn EDGAR ANDRÉ
2nd Bn COMMUNE DE PARIS
3rd Bn ERNST THÄLMANN

IB 12
4th Bn JAROSLAW DABROWSKI
5th Bn GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI
6th Bn ANDRÉ MARTY

So this was only the beginning. When the Bns had left Albacete the Base Depot on 11th Nov started to form another four Bns. But that is another story.

The Bns had mainly Spanish Mauser rifles M/1893 and surplus British/US Made rifles type P 14. The russian Mosin-Nagant type were issued during the Jan 1937 reorganization in Murcia.

P.S. The CENTURIA ANTIFASCISTA INGLÉSA TOM MANN was despite the name just a Grupo of some ten persons.

Names of Bns in Int Bdes

Post by Anak-KNIL » 15 Oct 2004, 13:58

Names of Battalions

1. Delete: Deba (Deda) Blagoiev. That was a name discussed but not accepted.

2. Add: Asturias-Heredia (Span) and Voluntario 24 (Span). There were two Madrid Btns, Madrid I and Madrid II.

3. Bns had full names - but usually first name not used.

Gheorghiu Dimitrov
Dure Dacovic (pronounced Djure Djakovic)
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Mathyas Rákosi
José Palafox
6éme Fevrier
Czapiaew (Tjapajev, Tschapaiew etc)
Neuve Naciones
Ernst Thälmann
12 Februar
Hans Beimler

Post by seawind » 15 Oct 2004, 14:57

So, the first two IB come into their first combat mainly with Spanish/Brithsh/US weapons,not with Russian weapons.

International Brigades Rifles

Post by Anak-KNIL » 16 Oct 2004, 09:39

The Russian type M/1891 Mosin-Nagant rifles were issued to the IBs in Jan 1937. Several of these were produced in USA by Remington for ther Czar-Army.

After the Russian Revolution USA sold these guns to Mexico. Mexico sent important numbers of those to the Spanish Republic.

In the IBs Nagant rifles were therefore called "Mexicanskis".

In 1936 the MGs used were mainly Spanish Colt "Potatoedigger" and Hotchkiss-Oveido plus some second-hand bought German Maxim m/1908.

In Jan 1937 brand new (made 1936) Soviet Maxim m/1910 were issued.

Post by seawind » 16 Oct 2004, 12:58

En, although I know Mexico sent some weapons to the Spanish Republic,I don't know they sent the weapons at the first time and IB used it.Thank you.

By the way,Mars said when the XI IB parade on the street of Madrid,there are some artillery with them,do you know detail about the artillery ?

11th International Brigade

Post by Anak-KNIL » 16 Oct 2004, 15:12

On 6th Nov 1936 XI.Brigada Mixta (IB 11) was organized and Brigade units added.

GOC Gen "Emile Klébèr" - Manfred Lazar Stern-Feteke (Rum)
COS Jean Marie Francois "Geoffrey" ex-NCO Fr Col Army replaced by Dr Ernst Adam (ex-Ger 1Lt WW 1)
Commissar Mario Nicoletti (It) replaced by Hans Beimler (Ger)

1 HQ/Signals Detachment
1 Artillery Bty
1 Engineers Coy

1st Bn "Edgar André" CO Cpt Hans Kahle (ex-1Lt Ger Inf WW 1)
2nd Bn "Commune de Paris" CO Cpt Jules Dumont (ex-Cpt Fr Inf WW 1)
3rd Bn "Jaroslaw Dabrowski" CO Stanislaw Ulanowski (ex-Cpl Pol Army) later Maj Tadeusz Oppman (Pol)
4th Bn "Ernst Thälmann" CO Cpt Ludwig Renn (ex-Cpt Ger Arty WW 1)

Arty Bty "Aleman" CO Cpt Agard (Fr) - later returned to Albacete to train more Btys

4th Bn was however retained in Albacete and transferred to IB 12.

On 11th Nov 1936 XII.Brigada Mixta (IB 12) was organized according to the same pattern.

GOC Gen "Pavel Lukacz" - Maté Zalka-Kemeny (Hung)
COS Richard Staimer "Richard" (Ger)
Commisar Luigi Longo "Gallo" (It)

4th Bn "Ernst Thälmann" - see IB 11
5th Bn "Guiseppe Garibaldi" CO Cpt Randolfo Pacciardi (It)
6th Bn "André Marty" - less 3rd Rifle Coy wich was not formed. Without CO - CO 4th MG Coy acting as Bn CO.

Forming IB 13 is more complicated will return to that subject later. Anyhow when ordered to Teruel front 7th Dec 1936 this Bde had 3 Arty Btys:

GOC Gen "Gomez" (Ger?)
COS Albert Schreiner "Schindler" (ex- 1Lt Ger WW 1)
Commissar Ferry (It)

1st Bty "Ernst Thälmann"
2nd Bty "Karl Liebknecht"
3rd Bty "Antoni Gramsci"

7th Bn "Louise Michel" (II) - the first dissolved 7th Dec 36 CO?
8th Bn "Czapiaew" CO Maj Klaus Becker (Ger)
11th Bn "Henri Vuillemin" CO Maj Robert Lhez (ex-Fr Sgt-Mjr WW 1)

IB 14 moved to Lopra front 28th Dec 1936 it had one Arty Bty but also a Cavalry Sqn (--) CO 1Lt Dallier (Fr)

GOC Gen "Walther" (Pol)
COS Morandi (It)
Commissar André Heussler (Fr)

9th Bn "Neuve Naciones" - a MG Bn - CO Maj Stomatov (Bulg)
10th Bn "Domingo Germinal" (name later) C= Cpt Rasquin (Belg)
12th Bn "Marsellaise" CO Cpt Gaston Delesalle (Fr)
13th Bn "Henri Barbusse" CO Cpt Joseph Putz (ex-Cpt Fr WW 1)

Arty Bty "Agard" CO Cpt Agard (Fr) 4-75 mm guns, 2-115 mm how
Eng Coy CO Cpt Klekker (Belg)

IB 15 formed 31 st Jan 1937.
GOC Col Janos Galic (?) "Gal" (Hung)
COS LtCol George Nathan (GB)
Commisar Vladimir Copic (Yugo)

16th Bn "Shapurij Saklatvala" (called Inglés or British) CO Cpt Tom Wintringham (GB) - formed 4th Jan 1937
15th Bn "6éme Fevrier" CO Mjr Gabriel Fort (ex-Cpt Fr WW 1) - formed 6th Feb 1937
18th Bn "Gheorghiu Dimitrov" CO Cpt Grebanereff (KiA 14th Feb 37)
17th Bn "Abraham Lincoln" CO Maj Robert Hale Merriman (US) - formed 5th Feb 1937

This Brigade had an Arty Bn "Ana Pauker" 3 Btys. CO Maj Walther Roman (Rum).

I cannot find my notes on the Artillery just now but after Guadalajara a Rumanian Arty Regt was formed.

Regarding IB 86, IB 150 and IB 129 I will first check out times and all these Bns merging with each other.

The International Brigades had three AA Btys with Soviet 7,62 AA guns. If I remember right
1st Bty "Argument Dimitrov"
2nd Bty "Klement Gottwald"
3rd Bty "Rosetti"