January 29 day 9 of year 1 - History

January 29 day 9 of year 1 - History


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January 29, 2017 Day 9 of the First Year

1:30PM THE PRESIDENT speaks with the King of Saudi Arabia, Salman bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud

Residence

2:00PM THE PRESIDENT speaks with Crown Prince of the United Arab Emirates, Mohammed bin Zayed

Residence

3:00PM THE PRESIDENT hosts movie screening

Family Theater

7:00PM THE PRESIDENT speaks with the Acting President of South Korea, Hwang Kyo-Ahn



History of Ethiopian New Year: What is Enkutatash?

Why is your friendly neighborhood historian writing about the Ethiopian New Year? A couple of years ago the Washington Post interviewed me for an article they were publishing on the subject. The Washington D.C. area has over 200,000 Ethiopian-Americans who celebrate the holiday this year on September 12.

A group of local Ethiopian activists and businessmen want to make the day, known as Enkutatash in Ethi­o­pia, a part of the American roster of holidays, in a way that is very similar to St. Patrick’s Day or Cinco de Mayo. Columbus Day, for example, was popularized out of Denver, CO back in the mid 19th century as a way of promoting Italian culture.

Meaning

Enkutatash is the name for the Ethiopian New Year, and means “gift of jewels” in the Amharic language. The story goes back almost 3,000 years to the Queen of Sheba of ancient Ethiopia and Yemen who was returning from a trip to visit King Solomon of Israel in Jerusalem, as mentioned in the Bible in I Kings 10 and II Chronicles 9. She had gifted Solomon with 120 talents of gold (4.5 tons) as well as a large amount of unique spices and jewels. When the Queen returned to Ethiopia her chiefs welcomed her with enku or jewels to replenish her treasury.

Celebration

The celebration is both religious and secular. Typically this is the end of the long rainy season and the countryside is covered with yellow daisies. The day begins with church services followed by the family meal. Young children will receive small gifts of money or bread after the girls gather flowers and sing and boys paint pictures of saints. Families visit friends and adults drink Ethiopian beer.

The Ethiopian calendar is a unique form of the Coptic or Alexandrian calendar, derived from the earlier Egyptian calendar which influenced the Julian calendar. On September 12, 2007, Ethiopia celebrated its bi-millennial or 2,000 years from the Annunciation of Christ. Why is their calendar 7-8 years different from the West’s Gregorian calendar?

In the West, the calendar was calculated around A.D. 525 by Dionysius Exiguus a Roman monk-mathematician-astronomer who based his calculations for the birth of Christ on an erroneous date for the death of Herod the Great. In the East, an Alexandrian monk named Panodorus (or Annias) did his calculations differently back around A.D. 400 for the Egyptian calendar.

Modern Day

As I mentioned in the article for the Washington Post, the availability of modern social media and Internet resources makes the promotion of this ethnic and cultural holiday more visible for this Diaspora of African and Caribbean peoples. Kickstarted by the Ethiopian African Millennium Group back in 2007 this effort to promote the holiday was sponsored by Starbucks Coffee Company and the African-American Civil War Museum as 30,000 people came to the Washington Monument. Other major American cities like San Jose and Seattle also celebrate Enkutatash.


January 2021: List of Important National and International Days

January 2021: It is the new start and symbolises new beginnings. Do you know how January got its name? It is named after Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings. This is the month of the new door of the beginnings of the new year with new things, possibilities and provides the ability to see all things past and future. Below the list of important days (National and International) in January 2021 is provided.

Important Days of January 2021

1 January – Global Family Day

It is celebrated as a day of peace and sharing. Its aim is to unite and spread a message of peace by considering and promoting the idea that Earth is one Global Family so as to make the world a better place to live for everyone.

On 6 January every year, World Day of War Orphans is celebrated to create awareness about the plight of the war orphans and to address the traumatic conditions faced by them.

8 January - African National Congress Foundation Day

South African Native National Congress (SANNC) was founded on 8 January 1912 by John Langalibalele Dube in Bloemfontein. Behind this, the primary motive was to give voting rights to black and mixed-race Africans or to unite African people and spearhead the struggle for fundamental political, social, and economic change.

NRI or Pravasi Bharatiya Divas observed every year on 9 January to mark the contribution of the overseas Indian community towards the development of India. This day also commemorates the return of Mahatma Gandhi from South Africa to Mumbai on 9 January, 1915.

He was the second Prime Minister of Independent India. He popularised the slogan 'Jai Jawan Jai Kisan' He actively participated in India's freedom struggle. Due to cardiac arrest, he died on 11 January, 1966.

12 January – National Youth Day

The birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda also called Swami Vivekananda Jayanti is celebrated every year on 12 January. He was born on 12 January, 1863. The government had decided to observe it as National Youth Day because the philosophy of Swamiji and the ideals for which he lived and worked could be a great source of inspiration for the Indian Youth. He had given a speech at the Parliament of the World's Religions in Chicago and glorified India's name.

15 January – Indian Army Day

Every year 15 January is observed as Indian Army Day because on this day in 1949 field Marshal Kodandera M Cariappa took over as the first Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army from General Sir Francis Butcher, the last British Commander-in-Chief.

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January, 1897 in Cuttack, Orissa. He was one of the most prominent Indian freedom fighters. His army was known as Indian National Army (INA) or Azad Hind Fauj. He also led an Indian national force from abroad against the Western powers during World War II.

On 24 January every year, National Girl Child Day is celebrated to highlight the inequalities faced by a majority of the girls in India, the importance of education, nutrition, legal rights, medical care and safety of girl children, etc.

Every year on 25 January National Voter's Day or Rashtriya Matdata Diwas is celebrated to encourage young voters to take part in the political process. In 2011 the first time this day was celebrated to mark Election Commission's Foundation Day.

Every year on 25 January National Tourism Day is celebrated in India to raise awareness and educate people about the importance of tourism and the role it plays in the Indian economy.

26 January- Republic Day

On 26 November, 1949 the Indian Constituent Assembly adopted the Constitution the supreme law of the land, and replaced the Government of India Act 1935. It came into effect on 26 January 1950 with a democratic government system. This day marks the largest parade that took place at Rajpath, Delhi every year.

26 January – International Customs Day

International Customs Day (ICD) is celebrated every year on 26 January by Custom Organisation to recognise the role of custom officials and agencies in maintaining border security. It also focuses on the working conditions and challenges that customs officers face in their jobs.

28 January- Birth Anniversary of Lala Lajpat Rai

Lala Lajpat Rai was born on 28 January, 1865 in Punjab. He was a prominent nationalist leader who played an important role in India’s struggle for freedom. He also earned the title of 'Punjab Kesari' or 'the Lion of the Punjab'. He initiated the foundation of Punjab National Bank. He died on 17 November, 1928, due to serious injuries. The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences in Hisar, Haryana is named after Lala Lajpat Rai.

30 January is celebrated as Martyr's Day or Shaheed Diwas every year in the memory of Mahatma Gandhi and the sacrifice of three revolutionaries of India. As, on 30 January, 1948, the 'Father of Nation' was assassinated. And on 23rd March 3 heroes namely Bhagat Singh, Shivaram Rajguru, and Sukhdev Thapar of the nation were hanged to death by the British.

30 January – World Leprosy Eradication Day

World Leprosy Day is observed on the last Sunday of January to focus on the target of zero cases of leprosy-related disabilities in children. As we know that disabilities do not occur overnight but happen after a prolonged period of undiagnosed disease.

So, these are the National and International important Days of January 2021 which may also help in the preparation for several exams and also enhance your knowledge.


National Puzzle Day dates

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January 29 day 9 of year 1 - History

June 17. Peter Salem and Salem Poor were two blacks commended for their service on the American side at the Battle of Bunker Hill.

November 1. The African Free School of New York City was opened.

December 31. George Washington reversed previous policy and allowed the recruitment of blacks as soldiers. Some 5,000 would participate on the American side before the end of the Revolution.

July 13. The Continental Congress forbade slavery in the region northwest of the Ohio River by the Northwest Ordinance.

September. The Constitution of the United States allowed a male slave to count as three-fifths of a man in determining representation in the House of Representatives.

March 14. Eli Whitney obtained a patent for his cotton gin, a device that paved the way for the massive expansion of slavery in the South.

September 20-24. The first National Negro Convention met in Philadelphia.

July 28. The Fourteenth Amendment was passed. It made blacks citizens of the United States.

Tennessee passed a law requiring segregation in railroad cars. By 1907 all Southern states had passed similar laws.

1922 1929

October 2. The first working, production-ready model of a mechanical cotton picker was demonstrated on a farm near Clarksdate, Mississippi.

August 29. Congress passed the Voting Rights Bill of 1957, the first major civil rights legislation in more than 75 years.

April 15-17. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee was founded in Raleigh, North Carolina.

June-August. Civil rights protests took place in most major urban areas.

August 28. The March on Washington was the largest civil rights demonstration ever. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech.

March 12. Malcolm X announced his split from Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam. He would be assassinated on February 21, 1965.

July 18-August 30. Beginning in Harlem, serious racial disturbances occurred in more than six major cities.

August 11-21. The Watts riots left 34 dead, more than 3,500 arrested, and property damage of about 225 million dollars.

October. The Black Panther Party was founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California.

August 7. There was a shootout during an attempted escape in a San Rafael, California, courthouse. Implicated in the incident, Angela Davis went into hiding to avoid arrest. Davis would be acquitted of all charges on June 4, 1972.

October 16. Maynard H. Jackson was elected the first black mayor of Atlanta.

July 1. The largest single gift to date from a black organization was the $132,000 given by the Links, Inc., to the United Negro College Fund.

June 22. The state legislature of Louisiana repealed the last racial classification law in the United States. The criterion for being classified as black was having 1/32nd Negro blood. November 2. President Ronald Reagan signed the bill establishing a federal holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr.

August 30. Guion (Guy) S. Bluford, Jr. was the first black American astronaut to make a space flight on board the space shuttle Challenger

November 4. Bill Cosby announced his gift of $20,000,000 to Spelman College. This is the largest donation ever made by a black American.

November 7. David Dinkins was elected mayor of New York, and L. Douglas Wilder, governor of Virginia.

May 13. George Augustus Stallings became the first bishop of the African-American Catholic Church, a breakaway group from the Roman Catholic Church.

November 1. Ebony magazine celebrated its 45th anniversary.

June 18. Wellington Webb was elected mayor of Denver, Colorado.

August 3. Jackie Joyner-Kersee was the first woman to repeat as Olympic heptathlon champion.

September 12. Mae C. Jemison was first black American woman in space on board the space shuttle Endeavor.

November 3. Carol Moseley Braun of Illinois was the first black woman ever elected to the United States Senate.

October 7. Toni Morrison was the first black American to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.

November 8. Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Colin Powell, ends months of speculation by announcing that he will not run for the U.S. presidency in 1996.

December 9. Kweisi Mfume is unanimously elected as president and chief executive officer of the NAACP.

October 25. Black American women participated in the Million Woman March in Philadelphia, focusing on health care, education, and self-help.

January 18, 1998. Now an annual observance, the New York Stock Exchange closed, for the first time, in honor of the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

September 21. Track star Florence Griffith Joyner died at the age of 38. In the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games, Griffith became the first American woman to win four track and field medals — three gold and one silver — in one Olympic competition.


“This is 9-1-1. What is your emergency?”: A history of raising the alarm

At 2 p.m. on February 16, 1968, a special red telephone rang at the police station in Haleyville, Alabama. Rather than a police officer, U.S. Congressman Tom Bevill answered the call. On the other end of the line was Alabama Speaker of the House Rankin Fite, calling from the mayor’s office (actually located in another part of the same building). Bevill’s simple answer of “hello” may not rank alongside Samuel Morse’s “What hath God wrought,” but it ushered in an important part of daily life, one that has saved countless American lives over the past 50 years. The call marked the first use of the emergency number 9-1-1, a technological answer to a life-and-death question—how do you get help quickly in the event of an emergency? Americans wrestling with the problem have experimented with many innovative solutions over the years.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, getting to the scene of a fire as quickly as possible was the best defense against a damaging conflagration. Just as today, time was of the essence. Watchmen would alert the populace with wooden rattles and raise the alarm by shouting through the streets (sometimes known as “hallooing fire”). Citizens and volunteer firefighters alike would grab leather buckets, hooks, axes, and other necessary equipment and head in the direction of the clamor. A simple fire pumper might be drawn by hand to the scene as well. But finding a fire fast, especially in a warren of urban streets, could be difficult.

A wooden alarm rattle like this one would have been standard equipment for watchmen patrolling city streets in late-18th and early-19th-century America.

The citizens of Philadelphia tried one solution when they restored the steeple of the Pennsylvania State House (better known as Independence Hall) in 1828. They hung a new bell and put a watchman on duty to keep a lookout for fires. Franklin Peale, son of painter Charles Willson Peale, suggested an alarm system for the new bell that would direct fire companies to the scene of a blaze. In the event of a fire near the State House itself, the bell in the steeple was rung continuously. One peal at regular intervals indicated a fire to the north, two peals meant a fire to the south, three to the east, four to the west, and so on. This system is preserved in the decoration on the top of a fire hat from Philadelphia in the museum collections. A compass rose, with a bell at the center, displays the alarm code. Bell codes were used in other cities as well, like New York. In Boston, the city was divided into fire districts, and church bells would peal the number of a district where a fire was discovered. However, the 19th century saw American cities growing in size and population, and a better system was needed to pinpoint the location of an emergency.

This fire hat, worn by a member of Philadelphia’s Taylor Hose Company, has the bell code for the city painted on its crown, in the form of a compass rose. The marks stand for the number of peals of the bell that corresponded to each direction, with Independence Hall as the center point.

William F. Channing and Moses Farmer were both obsessed with the potential for electromagnetism and telegraphy. Specifically, both believed it could be harnessed to create a reliable and near-instantaneous fire alarm system throughout the city of Boston. The two collaborated to lobby city officials to fund “the Application of the Electric Telegraph to signalizing Alarms of Fire” (as their presentation was titled) and received $10,000 to develop and establish their system.

After running nearly 50 miles of wire throughout the city, connected to dozens of alarm boxes and bells, Channing and Farmer’s system was ready in the spring of 1852. If someone opened an alarm box and turned a small crank, the special-purpose telegraph would send out a pulsating electric current to electromagnets that pulled and released the bell clappers, producing alarms both at the scene of the emergency and at the central station, where the location was recorded. The first attempt by the public to use the system was on April 29, 1852. Unfortunately, the helpful citizen cranked too fast, such that the message could not be read, and the man had to run to the central signal office to alert them of the fire in person. Nevertheless, Channing and Farmer would continue to refine their system, and within months it proved a reliable tool in raising the alarm in Boston.

Channing and Farmer made a joint application for a patent for their system, and a patent was issued on May 19, 1857 (Patent No. 17355). Their patent model resides today in the Electricity Collections here at the museum, along with earlier prototypes.

This is the original patent model for William Channing and Moses Farmer’s “Electromagnetic Fire Alarm Telegraph for Cities.” Patent No. 17355 was issued on May 19, 1857. It consists of a wooden base supporting an upright board that has two fire alarm transmitting stations operated by a crank and one alarm station, powered by two battery cells at the back.

It was at a Smithsonian Institution lecture in March 1855 that emergency alarms took another step. At that lecture, William Channing described the details and merits of the Channing and Farmer system, humbly noting theirs was “a higher system of municipal organization than any which has heretofore been proposed or adopted.” Despite this lofty claim, both men had failed to sell their system to other cities and municipalities, and Channing was falling into debt.

Attending the lecture was John Nelson Gamewell, a postmaster and telegraph operator from Camden, South Carolina. Seeing an opportunity, Gamewell raised the funds to buy the rights to market the Channing and Farmer system. Beginning in 1856, he sold the system to several American cities, including New Orleans, St. Louis, and Philadelphia. By 1859 Gamewell obtained the full rights and patents to the system and was on the verge of creating a fire alarm empire when the Civil War broke out. The U.S. government seized the patents from the Confederate Gamewell, and John Kennard, a fire official from Boston, bought them on the cheap in 1867.

After the war, Gamewell moved north and partnered with Kennard to create a new company to manufacture and sell fire alarms. Building on their success, Gamewell established the Gamewell Fire Alarm Telegraph Company, and its logo—a fist holding a clutch of lightning bolts—would soon be found on alarm boxes throughout North America. By 1890 Gamewell systems were installed in nearly 500 cities in the United States and Canada.

An example of a Gamewell fire alarm box, with the company’s innovative Peerless 3 Fold mechanism still inside. This unit dates to the mid-1940s. By the early 20th century, Gamewell had over 90% of the market share in the United States these fire alarm boxes would have been a common feature in nearly every American town and city.

While Gamewell boxes became a common sight on public streets and buildings in the early 20th century, more and more Americans were installing a new device in their homes and businesses: the telephone. Before the advent of rotary dial phones (ask your parents, kids), all calls went through with operator assistance, and emergency calls could be directed to the appropriate party. With dial service, a person with an emergency had to call direct to their local police station, hospital, or fire department. Experiments with a universal emergency number in the UK in the 1930s prompted the National Association of Fire Chiefs to recommend such a system for the United States in 1957. On January 12, 1968, after a decade of study and debate and presidential commissions, the Federal Communications Commission and AT&T announced the selection of 9-1-1 as a national emergency number. One FCC member boasted at the time that 911 would be better remembered than 007.

The number was indeed easy to remember, quick to dial when needed, particularly on rotary phones (did you ask?), and difficult to dial in error. AT&T had already established special three-digit numbers—4-1-1 for directory assistance and 6-1-1 for customer service—so the new emergency number fit the existing system.

Some 2,000 independent phone companies in the United States had been left out of the decision, many preferring “0” as the standard number. Nevertheless, one such company decided get behind 9-1-1 in a big way. Bob Gallagher, the president of the Alabama Telephone Company (ATC), decided his company would beat “Ma Bell” to the punch. ATC staff picked Haleyville as the best location and worked after hours to design and implement the infrastructure. Almost exactly one month after AT&T’s announcement, Speaker Fite and Congressman Bevill spoke over the first dedicated 9-1-1 line. Nome, Alaska, would debut a 9-1-1 system about a week later.

The phone from the first 9-1-1 call, on display in Haleyville, Alabama. Photo courtesy of Mayor Ken Sunseri, Haleyville, Alabama.

It would take time for the system to grow in the United States, so publicity like that which surrounded the Haleyville call helped to spread the idea. Twenty years later, only half the U.S. population had access to a 9-1-1 system. By the end of the last century, that number had grown to well over 90%. Today an estimated 240 million calls a year are made to 9-1-1. Upwards of 80% of these calls now come from wireless devices, something almost impossible to consider 50 years ago, just as the watchman with a wooden rattle might not envision an alarm traveling over electrical wires.

Tim Winkle is the deputy chair of the Division of Home and Community Life and the curator of the Firefighting and Law Enforcement Collection.


January 29 day 9 of year 1 - History

  • National Bath Safety Month
  • National Blood Donor Month
  • National Braille Literacy Month
  • National Hobby Month
  • Hot Tea Month
  • National Oatmeal Month
  • National Soup Month

2nd Week Letter Writing Week

January 2021 Daily Holidays, Special and Wacky Days:

Winnie the Pooh Day - the Birthday of Winnie's author A.A. Milne

1. 2022 dates are available later in 2021.

2. Holiday Insights is one of the original holiday calendar sites. We are proudly one of very few who actually researches each holiday and special day prior to publishing them.

Holiday Insights, where everyday is a holiday, a bizarre day, a wacky day , or a special calendar event. Join us in the holiday fun each and every day of the year.

Note: If you are using the dates in our site for calendar or other publishing purposes, we recommend you double check with other sources. While we believe our dates to be the most accurate, each year, we find a number of holidays with conflicting dates.


When did the Roman republican calendar begin?

The so-called Roman republican calendar was supposedly introduced by the Etruscan Tarquinius Priscus (616-579 B.C.E.), according to tradition the fifth king of Rome.

The Roman republican calendar was a dating system that evolved in Rome prior to the Christian era. According to legend, Romulus, the founder of Rome, instituted the calendar in about 738 B.C.E. This dating system, however, was probably a product of evolution from the Greek lunar calendar, which in turn was derived from the Babylonian. The original Roman calendar appears to have consisted only of 10 months and of a year of 304 days. The remaining 61¼ days were apparently ignored, resulting in a gap during the winter season. The months bore the names Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Juniius, Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December–the last six names correspond to the Latin words for the numbers 5 through 10. The Roman ruler Numa Pompilius is credited with adding January at the beginning and February at the end of the calendar to create the 12-month year. In 452 B.C.E., February was moved between January and March.

By the 1st century B.C.E., the Roman calendar had become hopelessly confused. The year, based on cycles and phases of the moon, totaled 355 days, about 10¼ days shorter than the solar year. The occasional intercalation of an extra month of 27 or 28 days, called Mercedonius, kept the calendar in step with the seasons. The confusion was compounded by political maneuvers. The Pontifex Maximus and the College of Pontiffs had the authority to alter the calendar, and they sometimes did so to reduce or extend the term of a particular magistrate or other public official. Finally, in 46 B.C.E., Julius Caesar initiated a thorough reform that resulted in the establishment of a new dating system, the Julian calendar.

He wanted the year to begin in January since it contained the festival of the god of gates (later the god of all beginnings), but expulsion of the Etruscan dynasty in 510 B.C.E. led to this particular reform’s being dropped. The Roman republican calendar still contained only 355 days, with February having 28 days March, May, July, and October 31 days each January, April, June, August, September, November, and December 29 days. It was basically a lunar calendar and short by 10¼ days of a 365¼ -day tropical year. In order to prevent it from becoming too far out of step with the seasons, an intercalary month, Intercalans, or Mercedonius (from merces, meaning wages, since workers were paid at this time of year), was inserted between February 23 and 24. It consisted of 27 or 28 days, added once every two years, and in historical times at least, the remaining five days of February were omitted. The intercalation was therefore equivalent to an additional 22 or 23 days, so that in a four-year period the total days in the calendar amounted to (4 x 355) + 22 + 23, or 1,465: this gave an average of 366.25 days per year.

Intercalation was the duty of the Pontifices, a board that assisted the chief magistrate in his sacrificial functions. The reasons for their decisions were kept secret, but, because of some negligence and a measure of ignorance and corruption, the intercalations were irregular, and seasonal chaos resulted. In spite of this and the fact that it was over a day too long compared with the tropical year, much of the modified Roman republican calendar was carried over into the Gregorian calendar now in general use.


[1] [1a] [1b] [1c] poll, The Australia Institute, December 2017 (1,417 surveyed Australians)
[2] '10 things you should know about January 26', SBS/NITV 21/1/2017
[3] 'Captain James Cook's landing and the Indigenous first words contested by Aboriginal leaders', ABC News 29/4/2020
[4] [4a] [4b] 'Why I turned down an Australia Day award', The Guardian 29/10/2013
[5] [5a] [5b] 'Protest vow to fight on', Koori Mail 519 p.39
[6] [6a] 'Australia Day celebrations leave a bad taste for Indigenous Australians', SBS News 23/1/2016
[7] Zelda Quakawoot, personal email, 28/10/2014
[8] Personal email, 10/2/2011
[9] 'Australia Day is a time for mourning, not celebration', The Guardian 26/1/2014
[10] 'Multiple choices on Australian values', Sun Herald 8/1/2017
[11] aboutface.canopeia.com, chapter 3, retrieved 26/12/2012
[12] [12a] 'For Mick Dodson, the work goes on', Koori Mail 468 p.21
[13] Koori Mail 468 p.26
[14] [14a] [14b] 'Council's 'invasion' decision divides', Koori Mail 505 p.9
[15] 'The Fritz Files', Sun Herald 3/7/2011 p.2
[16] 'Offensive date that must be changed', Koori Mail 518 p.23
[17] [17a] 'Most don't care when Australia Day is held, poll finds', 17/1/2018
[18] ''Music is the medicine': Archie Roach on how song saved his soul', SMH 2/11/2019
[19] 'We shouldn't move Australia Day, but we must change the tone of the day', Dale Hughes, SMH 15/1/2017
[20] SMH 19/8/2017
[21] [21a] [21b] 'Almost half oppose campaign to change Australia Day date: poll', SMH 24/1/2021
[22] 'Australia Day: Five years ago, Flinders Island community quietly axed celebrations', ABC News 14/1/2018
[23] 'Statement from the Mayor of Fremantle Brad Pettitt on council's vote for a #FireworksFreeFreo on January 26 in 2017', WGAR News 25/8/2016
[24] 'Fremantle council backs down over Australia Day citizenship ceremony', The Guardian Australia 9/12/2016
[25] 'Yarra council stripped of citizenship ceremony powers after Australia Day changes', The Guardian Australia 16/8/2017
[26] 'Second Melbourne council votes to cancel Australia Day ceremony and celebrations', The Guardian Australia 21/8/2017
[27] [27a] 'Moreland City Council keeps citizenship ceremony, dumps Australia Day', The Age 14/9/2017
[28] 'Triple J's Hottest 100 is moving to a new date and here's why', ABC/Triple J, 27/11/2017
[29] 'Byron Shire Council’s Australia Day ceremony to be held on 25 January', Byron Shire Council, media release 20/9/2018
[30] 'Scott Morrison attacks Cricket Australia for decision to drop term 'Australia Day' from BBL promotions', ABC News 21/1/2021
[31] 'Columbus Day', Wikipedia, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbus_Day, retrieved 20/1/2017
[32] https://prideorpain.org.au/#fact-1 retrieved 25/1/2018
[33] 'Eight alternative days to celebrate Australia Day that are not January 26', SBS News 20/3/2016
[34] [34a] 'Change the date: When should Australia Day be held?' News.com.au, 26/1/2017
[35] 'Here's a date that Governor Phillip and Bennelong might call Australia Day', SMH 25/1/2020
[36] 'NACCHO Aboriginal health and January 26 debate: What does Australia Day mean for our mob?', nacchocommunique.com, 24/1/2014, retrieved 25/1/2014
[37] 'Here are the lyrics to the 'Change the Date' track', NITV 24/1/2017

Harvard citation

Korff, J 2021, Australia Day - Invasion Day, <https://www.creativespirits.info/aboriginalculture/history/australia-day-invasion-day>, retrieved 22 June 2021


January 29th, 2023 is a Sunday. It is the 29th day of the year, and in the 4th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 2023 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 1/29/2023, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 29/1/2023.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


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