USS Caldwell (DD-69)

USS Caldwell (DD-69)


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USS Caldwell (DD-69)

The USS Caldwell (DD-69) was the name ship of the Caldwell class of destroyers, and served at Queenstown and on experimental work during the First World War.

The Caldwell was named after James R. Caldwell, an US Naval officer who served in the Quasi-War with France and during the Barbary Wars, and was killed on 7 August 1804 during the US attack on Tripoli.

The Caldwell was launched at Mare Island on 10 July 1917 and commissioned on 1 December 1917 with Lt Commander B. McCandless in command. Her first executive officer was James Laurence Kauffman, who rose to flag rank. During the Second World War he commanded the US naval base on Iceland, the Gulf Sea Frontier, was senior member of the Allied Anti-Submarine Survey Board, commander of the Pacific Fleet cruisers, destroyers and frigates, and finally Commander, Philippine Sea Frontier under MacArthur.

The Caldwell was allocated to the Atlantic Fleet, and reached her base at Norfolk, Virginia on 8 January 1918. She was soon sent across the Atlantic, and reached Queenstown, Ireland, on 5 March 1918. During her trip across the Atlantic she visited the Azores, where on 27 February she took on fuel from the French tanker Quevilley, a rare example of a fully rigged sailing oil tanker.

She was used for patrols and convoy escort duties. In April-June 1918 the Caldwell steamed 21,231.5 miles, the longest steamed by any US destroyer in that period. She was under way for 1,319.4 hours and at sea on 55 days.

The Caldwell spent some of 1918 helping conduct experiments with underwater listening devices, some of the first attempts to detect German U-boats while they were under water.

After the end of the war the Caldwell was used to ferry troops to Brest. She also formed part of the escort for President Woodrow Wilson when he arrived at Brest on the transport USS George Washington.

Anyone who served on her between 28 February and 11 November 1918 qualified for the First World War Victory Medal.

The Caldwell operated with the Norfolk Division of the Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet, and with Destroyer Squadron 3 during 1919. She was placed in the reserve with a reduced crew in August 1920, and was based at Charleston and later Newport, Rhode Island. She was decommissioned at Philadelphia on 27 June 1922, didn't take part in the Coast Guard 'Rum Patrol' and was sold for scrap on 30 June 1936.

Displacement (standard)

1,120t (design)

Displacement (loaded)

1,187t

Top Speed

30kts at 18,500shp
30.20kts at 19,930shp at 1,192 tons on trial (Gwin)

Engine

2-shaft turbines
4 boilers

Range

2,500nm at 20kts

Armour - belt

- deck

Length

315ft 7in

Width

30ft 6in

Armaments

Four 4in/50 guns
Two 1-pounder AA guns
Twelve 21in torpedo tubes in four triple mounts
One Y-gun (DD-70 to DD-71)

Crew complement

100

Launched

10 July 1917

Commissioned

1 December 1917

Sold for scrap

30 June 1936

Books on the First World War |Subject Index: First World War


Greatest Warships from History

The Caldwell class destroyers were a transition upgrade from the Samson class destroyers, they had a length of 315 feet and could reach speeds of up to 30 knots. The crews consisted of 95 men and 5 officers. Caldwell class destroyers were also among the first class of ship to introduce flush decks.

Armed with four 4-nch guns in single mounts and two 1 pounder AA guns along with four triple mounted torpedo tubes, the USS Caldwell began her career on the 10th of July in 1917. Her namesake was Lt James R. Caldwell, a United States officer who served in the Quasi-War from 1798 to 1800. He died in 1804 at the age of 24.

She joined the Atlantic Fleet and would take part in patrols and convoy escort duties. Caldwell would survive the war and transported troops to Brest,France and assisted with escorting US President Woodrow Wilson who was onboard the SS George Washington.

In Popular Culture

The Caldwell (with a horrible skin) in Steel Ocean


USS Caldwell (DD-69) - History

USS Caldwell (Destroyer No. 69) off Mare Island Navy Yard in late 1917.

All but three flush-deckers had four stacks and two screws. DDs 71&ndash73, Gwin, Conner and Stockton (shown) had three stacks Conner and Stockton also had three screws.

Their hulls were designed to remedy weaknesses in the previous raised-forecastle classes, resulting in a &ldquoflush&rdquo weather deck, sloping continuously from bow to stern. They retained the same freeboard forward and aft as the &ldquobroken deckers&rdquo (as did the standardized mass-production destroyers of the following Wickes and Clemson classes).

The six Caldwells were designed for 18,500 shp and 30 knots, but differed from one another in other respects: Caldwell, Craven and Manley had four stacks the others three. Conner and Stockton had three screws the others two.

CALDWELL CLASS, 1916&ndash1947

Their careers were also diverse. Keels were laid for four, beginning with Manley, in 1916. The other two were not laid down until after work had begun on the first Wickes-class ships. All were commissioned and served until 1922, when they were placed in reserve. Manley was recommissioned in 1930, while Caldwell and Gwin were stricken in 1936 and 1937 respectively.

The four surviving ships served in World War II. Manley became the first flush-decker converted as a high-speed transport (APD 1) The other three went to Britain in the destroyers-for-bases deal: Craven, her name having been dropped in 1935 in favor of a new Craven, was temporarily renamed Conway before entering service as HMS Lewes Conner as HMS Leeds and Stockton as HMS Ludlow.


USS Caldwell (DD-69) - History

James R. Caldwell was appointed a midshipman 22 May 1798 and commissioned a lieutenant in 1800. He served in the West Indies during the Quasi-War with France, and in Siren during the Barbary Wars. Lieutenant Caldwell was killed when Gunboat No. 9 blew up in action in Tripoli Harbor 7 August 1804.

(DD-69: dp 1,020 1. 315'G" b. 31'2" dr. 11'6" s. 32 k.
cpl. 100: a 4 4", 12 21" tt, cl. Caldwell)

Caldwell (DD-69) was launched 10 July 1917 by Mare Island Navy Yard- sponsored by Miss C. Caldwell, and commissioned 1 December 1917, Lieutenant Commander B. McCandless in command.

Ordered to join the Atlantic Fleet, Caldwell reached Norfolk, VA., 8 January 1918, and Queenstown, Ireland, 6 March. Alertness and skill marked her operations on patrol and convoy escort duty, which were interrupted when Caldwell aided in urgent experimental work on underwater listening devices to employ against the menace of German submarines. After the close of World War I, Caldwell transported troops to Brest, France, and while there joined the escort for President Woodrow Wilson in Washington as he entered the harbor,


DD-69 Caldwell

USS Caldwell, a 1125-ton (normal displacement) four-stack destroyer built by the Mare Island Navy Yard, California, was the name ship of a class of six destroyers that reintroduced the soon to be widely used "flush deck" hull form to the U.S. destroyer force. USS CALDWELL (DD 69) was the first destroyer with 12 21-inch torpedo tubes. This was the first standard 21-inch torpedo tube installation. The Caldwell class of destroyers served in the United States Navy near the end of World War I. Keels were laid for four, beginning with Manley, in 1916, the other two were actually laid down after work had begun on the first Wickes-class ships.

Built in 1917 and 1918, the 6 ships of the Caldwell class were flush-decked to remove the fo'c'sle break weakness of the preceding Tucker class. In 1915 the American designers carried the high freeboard of the bow throughout the length of the vessel, thereby producing what was known as the flush-deck type. The forward sheer of the Caldwell class was improved to keep "A" turret from being constantly washed out. The class had beam torpedo tubes and wing turrets, both flaws in design.

The later classes, 1915 to 1918, had a continuous flush main deck from stem to stern, but with considerable sheer the bow, while less conspicuously elevated than in the earlier classes, having decidedly more freeboard than the stern. The change from the high and cut away forecastle to the flush deck produced great improvement in seaworthiness, habitability, and all around efficiency. In the flush-deck type, the reluctance to turn into the wind still existed, but in a much less marked degree while the tendency towards excessive leeway, which is characteristic of all destroyers because of their necessarily shallow draft and the large area which they expose to the wind, is somewhat increased.

The earliest of the flush-deck type (Caldwell, Craven, Conner, Gwin, Stockton and Mauley) lacked the fine underwater body lines of the later vessels of their class, being decidedly flat-bottomed forward, as a result of which feature they pound heavily when being driven into a sea and list deeply when the rudder is put over at high speed.

The destroyer of this type was of 1,100 tons displacement and 310 feet long. This vessel, a 30-knot boat, was the most advanced destroyer in use by the US Navy on the date of the declaration of war. When the United States entered the war in April 1917 there was already significant anxiety about a potential submarine threat off the East Coast. Further exacerbating this concern was the Navy's relative lack of first-line destroyers - approximately 50 in mid-1917 - and the decision to send most of those to Europe. A massive building program was already underway - it would lead to the eventual construction of 273 four-stack, "flush-deck" destroyers by 1921 - but for the rest of 1917, only two Sampson-class and the first three of the Caldwell class would be commissioned, and the need to escort troop convoys to France took top priority. As a stopgap, U.S. submarines were drawn increasingly into the anti-submarine campaign on the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts, and two divisions were even shifted from Hawaii and Puget Sound to bolster their ranks.

All served until 1922, when they were placed in reserve. USS Caldwell was decommissiond in late June 1922 and laid up at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Pennsylvania. She was sold at the end of June 1936.

USS Manley (Destroyer No. 74) decommissioned at Philadelphia 14 June 1922. The destroyer recommissioned 1 May 1930 for service as an experimental torpedo-firing ship at Newport, R.I. On 19 August 1930 she joined the Scouting Fleet in battle practice along the eastern seaboard and in the Caribbean. Manley's high-speed destroyer transport (APD) conversion, removing her forward stacks and boilers, gave her the capacity to lift 200 Marines and four 11m (36') Higgins assault boats. Reclassified a miscellaneous auxiliary 28 November, she was redesignated AG-28. Manley was outfitted as a troop transport in the New York Navy Yard by 7 February 1939. She saw action at Guadalcanal and Kwajalein.

Throughout the growing crisis over the summer of 1940, as France and the Low Countries fell swiftly to the Nazi and British troops came back wet and bedraggled from the near-miraculous evacuation of Dunkirk, Churchill held firm to ensuring that America remained a reliable supplier of war materials to Great Britain. By the late summer of 1940, Great Britain was well along towards acquiring thousands of American aircraft to fulfill a variety of roles ranging from training and air combat to strategic bombing and maritime patrol.

Destroyers were more difficult, a "colossal political risk" for Roosevelt. Although the destroyer loan at first appeared unworkable, Roosevelt and his advisors, particularly the Secretaries of the Navy and War Departments, Frank Knox and Henry Stimson, labored over the summer of 1940 and were able to arrange a "destroyers for bases" deal that satisfied the requirements of wartime neutrality laws yet meet Britain's need for ships. By September 1940 the United States had negotiated a Destroyers-for-Bases deal with Great Britain, securing strategic military bases in British possessions in the Atlantic and Caribbean in exchange for fifty overage destroyers. Three entered Royal Navy service under the Destroyers for Bases Agreement as the Leeds-class. Leeds provided cover at Gold Beach on 6 June 1944 her sisters served as convoy escorts. All survived the war, two being sunk as targets and one scrapped, postwar.


USS Caldwell (DD-69) - History

1. V. Albers, Passive Acoustic Torpedoes, (U), ORL Report 7958-128, Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, 1 March 1949 (SECRET).

2. "Evolution of the Torpedo: Newport Torpedo Station's Role in the Development of the U.S. Navy Torpedoes," vol. VI, Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

3. "Notes on Movable Torpedoes," U.S. Navy Publication, 1873 (UNCLASSIFIED).

4. Bucknell, J. T., "Submarine Mines and Torpedoes," Engineering, London, 1889 (UNCLASSIFIED).

5. "Principles and Application of Underwater Sound," NAVMAT P-9674, Naval Material Command, Washington, D. C., 1968 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Armstrong, G. E., Torpedoes and Torpedo Vessels, Bill & Sons, London, 1896 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Beggs, J. M., and T. H. Campbell, Jr., "Underseas Missiles at Westinghouse," Missiles and Rockets (UNCLASSIFIED).

Beloshitskiy, V. P., and Y. M. Baguisky, Underwater Weapons, Military Publishing House, Moscow, 1960 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Bethell, P., "Development of the Torpedo," Engineering, London, 1945-1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Blair, C., Jr., Silent Victory, Lippincott & Co., New York, 1975 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Bliss-Leavitt 5.2 m x 45 cm Torpedo Mk VII and U.S. Navy Torpedo 12 ft x 45 cm Type D, OP 436, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., January 1914 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Bradford, R. B., "History of Torpedo Warfare," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1882 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Bureau of Ordnance Demonstration of Phase A Rocket-Assisted Torpedo, (U), NAVORD Report 4979, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 2 September 1955 (CONFIDENTIAL).

Cavanaugh, C. C., The Evolution of the U.S. Navy Torpedo Exploder Mechanism, (U), Torpedo Station Consecutive Report 62, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 7 March 1946 (CONFIDENTIAL).

"Chronological Record 1869-1945," vol. I, Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Coggeshall, W. J., and J. E. McCarthy, "History of the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I. (1858-1925)," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., circa 1925 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Destroyers in the United States Navy, Naval History Division, Washington, D. C., Government Printing Office, 1962 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Ellis, W. A. "Torpedoes," A List of References in the New York Public Library, circa 1917 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Evaluation of the Petrel Missile, (U), Final Report on Project OP/V181/X11, Commander Operational Development Force, 23 April 1956 (SECRET).

Final Report on the Development of the Torpedo Mk 42, (U), NAVORD Report 2050, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 17 August 1943 (CONFIDENTIAL).

Gray, E., The Devil's Device, Seeley, Service, and Co. Ltd., London, 1975 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Howell Torpedo, Honeywell, Inc., circa 1972 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Inventory Notes, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 17 July 1913 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Kiby, G. J., "History of the Torpedo," Journal of the Royal Scientific Service, circa 1973 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Maxwell, F. H., "Torpedo Propulsion Systems," Journal of American Rocket Society, December 1949 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Miklowitz, G. D., "Physical and Operational Characteristics of Torpedoes Mk 13 Through Mk 43X," (U), NOTS Technical Memorandum 571, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 1 October 1951 (SECRET).

Morison, S. E., Two-Ocean War, Ballantine Books, Inc., New York, 1972 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Mueser, R. E., "Tabulation and Description of 84 American and Foreign Torpedoes," (U), ORL Technical Note 9.0000-12, Ordnance Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, 7 October 1947 (SECRET).

"New Designation for Torpedoes," BuOrd Document 21622-(G)-6/28 (revision of Ordnance Pamphlet No. 316), Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 18 June 1913 (UNCLASSIFIED).

"The Newport Torpedo Station's Role in the Development of U.S. Navy Torpedoes, Electric - Chemical - Aircraft Torpedoes Exploders," vol. VII, Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Norlin, F. E., Evolution of the Torpedo, Torpedo Station Consecutive Report 99, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 30 September 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Pawlowski, G. L., Flattops and Fledglings, Cusette Books, New York, 1971 (UNCLASSIFIED).

"Plates of Whitehead Torpedoes, Torpedo Directors, and Above-Water Launching Apparatus," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1901 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Preston, A., Submarines, Octopus Books, Ltd., London, 1975 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Report of the Bureau of Ordnance Committee on Torpedo Research and Development, (U), NAVORD Report 1760, part II, sec. 8, Naval Ordnance Systems Command, Washington, D. C., 29 December 1950 (CONFIDENTIAL).

Report on Technical Phase of BuWeps/Optevfor Concurrent Evaluation of ASROC Weapon System, (U), NAVWEPS Report 7595, NOTS T2585, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 21 November 1960 (CONFIDENTIAL).

Roscoe, T., On the Sea and in the Skies, Hawthorne Books, Inc., New York, 1970 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Rowland, B., and W.B. Boyd, U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance in World War II, Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1953 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Sleeman, C. W., Torpedoes and Torpedo Warfare, Griffin & Co., Portsmouth, England, 1880 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Sleeman, C. W., Torpedoes and Torpedo Warfare, Griffin & Co., Portsmouth, England, 1889 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Stockard, J. M., "Torpedo Scrap Book," Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., circa 1910 (UNCLASSIFIED).

"Summary Report on the Present and Probable Development of Torpedoes," Prepared by the Torpedo Survey Panel of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, under assignment to the Navy Department, NAVEYOS P-416, Government Printing Office, 1946 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Surface-Borne, Thrown Torpedo Anti-Submarine Weapon, (U), Evaluation and Analysis Staff Report 165, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 23 November 1953 (CONFIDENTIAL).

"Swedish Torpedo, 100 Years, 1876-1976," (Torpedem 100 ar 1976), Royal Swedish Navy, 1976 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Thrown Torpedo Program Technical Progress Report Summary to 30 April 1954, (U), NOTS Report 60, Naval Ordnance Torpedo Station, Pasadena, Calif., 1954 (CONFIDENTIAL).

Torpedo and Mine Warhead Characteristics, OD 3823, Second Revision, Naval Ordnance Systems Command, Washington, D. C., 19 March 1951 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Torpedo Mk VIII Mods 4 and 5, OP 321, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., circa 1913 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Torpedo Mk 18, OP 436, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., circa 1943 (UNCLASSIFIED).

Torpedo Register Number Assignment Records, Naval Underwater Systems Center, Newport, R. I., 1978 (UNCLASSIFIED).

"Torpedoes - United States Navy," Ordnance Pamphlet 320, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., Government Printing Office, October 1915 (UNCLASSIFIED).

"Undersea Thunder," General Electric Review, General Electric Corp., March, May 1958 (UNCLASSIFIED).

"Underwater Ordnance Data Book, (U)," (U), Naval Underwater Ordnance Station, Newport, R. I., 1960 (SECRET).

U.S. Navy Torpedo General Data, OP 1604, Bureau of Ordnance, Washington, D. C., 15 October 1945 (UNCLASSIFIED).

U.S. Navy Underwater Weapons Operational Characteristics and Tactical Data, (U), OD 16086, Naval Underwater Systems Center, Newport, R. I., 1 January 1973 (CONFIDENTIAL).

Watts, A. J., Allied Submarines, ARCO Publishing Co., Inc., New York, 1977 (UNCLASSIFIED).

"Whitehead Torpedo, U.S.N., 3.55 m x 45 cm Mk I, Mk II, Mk III, and 5 m x 45 cm Mk I, Mk II," Torpedo Station Publication, Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., 1901 (UNCLASSIFIED).

CHRONOLOGY OF SIGNIFICANT EVENTS

Throughout this report the identities of the participating activities are those which existed at the time of the particular event. Many changes have occurred in both the Naval establishment and industries. The following cross-reference list is provided to relate the former identities as noted in the report to the current identities where the change was radical. Intermediate changes in identities are omitted unless germaine to the report.


Inhaltsverzeichnis

Die 1916 und 1920 gebauten Zerstörer waren die ersten Glattdecker. Diese Konstruktion war eine Reaktion auf die konstruktive Schwäche im Vorschiff der vorher gebauten Tucker-Klasse. Der vordere Deckssprung wurde verbessert, um zu verhindern, dass das vordere Geschütz ständig überkommender See ausgesetzt war. Die Anordnung ihrer Torpedowaffen sowie die rhombenförmige Aufstellung der Geschütze waren eine Schwachstelle des Entwurfs und waren auch bei den Nachfolgeklassen (Wickes und Clemson) zu finden. Die beiden Folgeklassen wurden im Serienbau schneller hergestellt als die sechs Prototypen. [1]

Als die USS Manley (DD74) von den Bath Iron Works im Oktober 1917 als erstes Schiff der Klasse abgeliefert wurde, waren schon viele Zerstörer der nachfolgenden Wickes-Klasse, aber auch schon einige der Clemson-Klasse im Bau. Die Fertigstellung der Klasse erfolgte in der zwei Losen: Es folgten bis zum Januar 1918 die beiden Dreischornsteiner Conner und Stockton von Cramp und die Caldwell mit wieder vier Schornsteinen vom Mare Island Navyyard als Typschiff der Klasse. Mit den Vier-Schornsteinern Craven vom Norfolk Navy Yard im Oktober 1918 und der Gwinn von Todd in Tacoma mit wieder drei Schornsteinen im März 1920 wurden dann die letzten Zerstörer der Klasse ausgeliefert. Die sechs Zerstörer wurden bis 1922 von der USN genutzt und kamen dann in die Reserve. [1]

Caldwell und Gwin wurden 1936 bzw. 1937 wegen der Vertragsbindungen aus der Londoner Konferenz von 1930 ausgesondert, als die USA ihre Zerstörerzahlen anpassen musste, um ihr Neubauprogramm fortzuführen. Ähnliches erfolgte auch bei der Royal Navy, die ebenfalls eine Vielzahl von Zerstören abwracken ließ, was kaum genutzte Zerstörer der V- und W-Klasse und vorrangig der S-Klasse betraf.

Manley kam als einziges Schiff der Caldwell-Klasse ab 1930 im Frieden wieder in Dienst. 1938/39 wurde die Manley dann als erster der ``flush-decker`` zu einem Schnellen Transporter (APD) umgebaut. Es wurden die vorderen Kessel und Schornsteine entfernt und somit Platz für den Transport von 200 Marines und vier 11 m-Higgins-Sturmboote geschaffen. Ab Juli 1942 kam der Transporter dann im Pazifik zum Einsatz und wurde bei den Landungen auf Guadalcanal und Kwajalein eingesetzt. [2]

Einsatz durch die Royal Navy Bearbeiten

Die drei weiteren 1940 noch vorhandenen Zerstörer der Klasse wurden im Rahmen des Destroyers for Bases-Agreement an die Royal Navy abgegeben, die sie mit 47 Schiffen der Wickes-Klasse und der Clemson-Klasse als Town-Klasse in Dienst stellten.

Die USS Conner wurde in Halifax an die Royal Navy übergeben, die den Zerstörer in HMS Leeds (G27) umbenannte. Der Zerstörer verlegte Anfang November 1940 nach Großbritannien, wo Umrüstung für den Dienst in der RN vorgenommen wurden. Der Zerstörer wurde dem Rosyth Command zugeteilt und sicherte britische Küstengeleite in der Nordsee zwischen der Themse-Mündung und dem Firth of Forth und überstand dabei etliche Luftangriffe. Am 20. April 1942 unterstützte der Zerstörer die Cotswold nach einem Minentreffer und schleppte den Geleitzerstörer nach Harwich. In der Nacht zum 25. Februar 1944 konnte der alte Zerstörer den Angriff deutscher Schnellboote auf das von ihm gesicherte Geleit abwehren. Kurz vor dem Kriegsende in Europa wurde die Leeds wegen sich immer häufiger auftretender Defekte in Grangemouth der Reserve zugeteilt, aber erst im März 1947 zum Abbruch verkauft, der erst ab Januar 1949 erfolgte. [3]

Das Schwesterschiff USS Stockton wurde auch der Royal Navy übergeben, die den alten Zerstörer in HMS Ludlow (G57) umbenannte. Auch dieser Zerstörer verlegte Anfang November 1940 nach Großbritannien, wo Umrüstung erfolgen sollte und wurde an der britischen Ostküste eingesetzt. Bei der Landung am Gold Beach während der Operation Overlord am 6. Juni 1944 soll die HMS Ludloweingesetzt worden sein. [4] Nach dem Kriegsende in Europa wurde der Zerstörer außer Dienst gestellt und bei Broadsands nahe der Insel Fidra (North Berwick) im Juni 1945 verankert. Schon Anfang Juli 1945 wurde das Schiff zum Totalverlust erklärt und zum Abbruch vor Ort bestimmt. Dieser scheint nie erfolgt zu sein, da noch heute bei Niedrigwasser auf 56.03N 0.45W Reste des Schiffes erkennbar sind.

Die USS Craven war in der Reserve schon 1935 in Conway umbenannt worden, um den ursprünglichen Namen für einen neuen Zerstörer zu nutzen. In der Royal Navy wurde der Zerstörer in HMS Lewes (G68) umbenannt. Noch vor Abschluss der Umrüstarbeiten wurde der Zerstörer in Devonport bei einem Luftwaffenangriff auf die Marinewerft am 22. April 1941 schwer beschädigt und war daher erst im Februar 1942 einsatzbereit. Schon Ende des Jahres wurde der alte Zerstörer vom Konvoischutz wieder abgezogen und zum Zielschiff für Luftangriffe umgerüstet. Ab März 1943 verlegte der alte Zerstörer mit dem Konvoi WS 29 nach Simonstown. Im Januar 1944 soll sich die Lewes zeitweise in Casablanca befunden haben. Im August 1944 verlegte das Zielschiff zum Einsatz mit der Eastern Fleet dann nach Ceylon, wo es gelegentlich auch wieder zur Sicherung von Versorgungskonvois herangezogen wurde. Im Februar 1945 verlegte die Lewes dann von Trincomalee nach Fremantle zusammen mit dem Zerstörer-Tender Tyne. [5] Von April bis November 1945 wurde der alte Zerstörer aus Sydney als Trainingsziel für die Ausbildung von Trägerpiloten eingesetzt. Dann wurden noch brauchbare Teile vom Schiff entfernt und die Reste des Schiffes am on 25. Mai 1946 vor Sydney, New South Wales, Australia versenkt. [6]


USS Caldwell (DD-69)

USS Caldwell (DD-69) amerykański niszczyciel, okręt główny typu Caldwell będący w służbie United States Navy w czasie I wojny światowej. Nazwa okrętu pochodziła od Lieutenant Jamesa R. Caldwella (?–1804).

Okręt zwodowano 10 lipca 1917 w stoczni Mare Island Naval Shipyard, matką chrzestną była C. Caldwell. Jednostka weszła do służby 1 grudnia 1917, pierwszym dowódcą został Lieutenant Commander B. McCandless.

Niszczyciel został przydzielony do Floty Atlantyku. Do Norfolk dotarł 8 stycznia 1918, a do Queenstown w Irlandii 5 marca. Bazując w tym ostatnim porcie pełnił służbę patrolową i eskortową. Została ona przerwana gdy "Caldwell" został przydzielony do eksperymentalnych prac nad urządzeniem przeznaczonym do wykrywania okrętów podwodnych. Po zakończeniu I wojny światowej niszczyciel przewoził żołnierzy do Brestu. Gdy przebywał w tym porcie eskortował transportowiec "George Washington" na którego pokładzie przybył na konferencję w Wersalu prezydent Stanów Zjednoczonych Woodrow Wilson.

"Caldwell" wrócił do normalnej służby w Dywizjonie Norfolk Sił Niszczycieli Floty Atlantyku (ang. Norfolk Division, Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet). Wraz z 3 Eskadrą Niszczycieli (ang. Destroyer Squadron 3) pełnił służbę wzdłuż wschodniego wybrzeża USA w czasie 1919. Został umieszczony w rezerwie w sierpniu 1920 i operował ze zredukowaną obsadą z Charleston i Newport.

Został wycofany ze służby w Philadelphia Navy Yard 27 czerwca 1922. Został sprzedany 30 czerwca 1936.


Contents

United States Navy [ edit | edit source ]

Stockton spent the last year of World War I assigned to convoy escort and antisubmarine duty, operating out of Queenstown, Ireland. During that time, she engaged an enemy U-boat on at least one occasion. On 30 March 1918, she and Ericsson were escorting the troopship St. Paul on the Queenstown-Liverpool circuit, when Ericsson opened fire on a German submarine. The submerged enemy launched a torpedo at Stockton almost immediately thereafter, and the destroyer narrowly evaded the "fish." The two destroyers dropped patterns of depth charges, but the U-boat managed to evade their attack and escaped. Later that night, Stockton collided with Slieve Bloom near South Stack Light. The destroyer had to put into Liverpool for repairs and the merchantman sank.


[DIPLOMACY] Rio De Janeiro to Washington D.C. and London

The Brazilian government has nearly reached the end of its budget year, and there is still a huge surplus in the defense budget. The last attempt to buy armaments unfortunately fell short of our goal. We wish to make some purchases before the year is out.

Naval Purchases

[HMS Hermes]( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Hermes_(95) we would like to place a bid of $40,000,000

Army purchases

ItemPrice
USS North Dakota$250,000,000
USS Birmingham & USS Salem$65,000,000 each
USS Caldwell, USS Craven, USS Gwin, & USS Conner$22,000,000 each
50 3-inch m1918$225,000
100 150mm howitzer m1918$1,500,000
50 M116 howitzer$175,000

Brazil would like to purchase this equipment and these ships. The only exception is the USS North Dakota. We do not have the funds to purchase it at this time. The total for the other purchases should come to $219,900,000. We will pay this over the course of the delivery period, which should be within the year if the United States finds that acceptable.


Watch the video: dd 69