Cape Verde Human Rights - History

Cape Verde Human Rights - History


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CAPE VERDE

2009 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices

March 11, 2010

Cape Verde, with a population of approximately 508,600, is a multiparty parliamentary democracy in which constitutional powers are shared between the elected head of state, President Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires, and Prime Minister Jose Maria Neves. Pires was reelected for a second five-year term in 2006 in generally free and fair elections. The Supreme Court of Justice and National Electoral Commission also declared the 2006 nationwide legislative elections generally free and fair. Although civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security forces, there were some instances in which elements of the police forces committed abuses against detainees.

The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, problems were reported in some areas: police abuse of detainees, police impunity, poor prison conditions, lengthy pretrial detention, excessive trial delays, violence and discrimination against women, child abuse, and some instances of child labor.

RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom From:

a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life

There were no reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings.

b. Disappearance

There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.

c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

The constitution and law prohibit such practices; however, there were credible reports that in some instances police beat persons in custody and detention. In most cases, authorities took action against the abusers. However, there were credible reports that police failed to report to their superiors some of the abuses that occurred in police stations.

Prison and Detention Center Conditions

Prison conditions were poor, and facilities were severely overcrowded. Sanitation and medical assistance were poor; however, doctors and nurses were available, and prisoners were taken to public hospitals for serious medical problems. Psychological problems among prisoners were common.

During the year there were no known deaths in prison from adverse conditions. There were a total of approximately 1,300 prisoners and detainees in the country's eight prisons. The maximum capacity of Praia's prison is 800 prisoners.

In prisons juveniles were sometimes held together with adults in certain facilities, but pretrial detainees generally were held separately from convicted prisoners.

In December 2008 a fellow prisoner alleged to be a professional hit man hired by drug traffickers murdered a convicted drug trafficker who was collaborating with authorities. The case remained under investigation.

The 2005 prisoner riot case at the Sao Martinho Prison in the capital city of Praia in which one prisoner was killed and three persons (including a guard) injured was pending final resolution. The prison director, who left for another country after being formally accused of allowing the mistreatment of prisoners under his supervision, subsequently was sentenced in that country to three years' imprisonment for perjury related to his immigration status.

The government permitted formal visits by international human rights monitors to prisons and visits to individual prisoners. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and media representatives frequently visited the prisons and reported on prison conditions.

Each municipality has police stations capable of holding detainees until they are transferred to prison. There were no deaths as a result of adverse conditions in jails and detention centers, but separation of prisoners based on trial status, gender, and age was not always possible due to space limitations.

d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention

The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally observed these prohibitions.

Role of the Police and Security Apparatus

The Public Order Police are under the Ministry of Internal Administration and are responsible for law enforcement. The Judicial Police are under the Ministry of Justice and are responsible for major investigations. Logistical constraints--including lack of vehicles, limited communications equipment, and poor forensic capacity--limited police effectiveness. Corruption was not a significant problem.

Police abuses were investigated internally, and these investigations resulted occasionally in legal action against the perpetrators. During 2008 the government provided training to increase police effectiveness. Police impunity, however, remained a problem.

Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention

Police may not make arrests without a warrant issued by an authorized official unless a person is caught in the act of committing a felony. The law stipulates that a suspect must be brought before a judge within 48 hours of arrest. The law provides a detainee with the right to prompt judicial determination of the legality of his or her detention, and the authorities respected this right in practice. Attorneys inform detainees of the charges against them. There was a functioning bail system. Detainees were allowed prompt access to family members and to a lawyer of their choice and, if indigent, to one provided by the government.

Nonetheless, the length of pretrial detention was a serious problem. One concern arose from differing interpretations of the law authorizing extended pretrial detention in certain circumstances. Some courts have read this provision broadly, while others have opted for a narrower interpretation. This resulted in situations where detainees facing identical charges were held for different lengths of time based on the prosecutor's and the judge's interpretation of the law. At year's end no standard timelines had been set for pretrial detentions. The judicial system also was overburdened and understaffed, and criminal cases frequently ended when charges were dropped by the citizen before a determination of guilt or innocence was made.

e. Denial of Fair Public Trial

The law provides for an independent judiciary, and the government generally respected this provision in practice. However, the judicial system lacked sufficient staffing and was inefficient.

The judicial system is composed of the Supreme Court of Justice (SCJ), which is the court of last resort and also handles administrative cases, and the regional courts. The National Assembly amended the constitution in February to increase the number of Supreme Court judges from five to seven with a view to expediting the resolution of cases. Of the seven Supreme Court judges, one is appointed by the president, two by the National Assembly, and four by the Superior Judiciary Council. Judges are independent and may not belong to a political party. Regional courts adjudicate minor disputes on the local level in rural areas. The civilian courts have jurisdiction over state security cases. Criminal courts handle violations of criminal law, including the electoral laws, while civil courts handle civil and commercial suits. There is also a military court; it cannot try civilians. The military court provides the same protections as civil criminal courts.

Trial Procedures

The law provides for the right to a fair and public nonjury trial. Defendants have the right to be present and to consult with an attorney in a timely manner; free counsel is provided for the indigent. Defendants are presumed to be innocent until proven guilty, have the right to confront or question witnesses against them, and have the right to present witnesses in their defense. Defendants also can present evidence on their own behalf. Defendants and their attorneys have access to government-held evidence relevant to their cases and can appeal regional court decisions to the SCJ. The law extends the above rights to all citizens.

Political Prisoners and Detainees

There were no reports of political prisoners or detainees.

Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies

The ordinary courts are impartial and independent, and handle civil matters including lawsuits seeking damages for, or an injunction ordering the cessation of, a human rights violation. Both administrative and judicial remedies are available for alleged wrongs.

f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence

The constitution and law prohibit such actions, and the government generally respected these prohibitions.

Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

a. Freedom of Speech and Press

The constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and of the press, and the government generally respected these rights. The independent press was active and expressed a variety of views without direct restriction.

Internet Freedom

There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitored e-mail or Internet chat rooms. Individuals and groups could engage in peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. According to International Telecommunication Union statistics for 2008, approximately 21 percent of the country's inhabitants used the Internet. Citizens in the cities had access to the Internet at cybercafes.

Academic Freedom and Cultural Events

There were no government restrictions on academic freedom or cultural events.

b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

The constitution and law provide for freedom of assembly and association, and the government generally respected these rights.

c. Freedom of Religion

The constitution and law provide for freedom of religion, and the government generally respected this right.

Societal Abuses and Discrimination

There was no known Jewish community, and there were no reports of anti-Semitic acts or discrimination against members of any religious group.

At the end of the year the SCJ had not issued a decision in the 2006 case against four Seventh-day Adventists accused of desecrating a Roman Catholic Church.

For a more detailed discussion, see the 2009 International Religious Freedom Report at www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf.

d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons

The constitution and laws provide for freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights in practice. The government cooperated with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and other humanitarian organizations in assisting refugees and asylum seekers.

The constitution and law prohibit forced exile, and the government did not employ it.

Protection of Refugees

The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status in accordance with the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 protocol, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country is also a party to the 1969 African Union Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of the Refugee Problem in Africa. The government grants refugee status and asylum when petitioned under the established system. In practice, the government provided protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

During the year the government provided temporary protection to 11 individuals who may not qualify as refugees under the 1951 convention and the 1967 protocol.

Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government

The constitution and law provide citizens with the right to change their government peacefully, and citizens exercised this right in practice through periodic, free, and fair elections held on the basis of universal suffrage.

Elections and Political Participation

In the 2006 legislative elections, individuals and parties were free to declare their candidacies. The ruling African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV) won 41 seats in the National Assembly with 52 percent of the vote; the main opposition party, Movement for Democracy (MPD), won 29 seats; and the Union for a Democratic and Independent Cape Verde won the remaining two seats. International observers characterized the elections as generally free and fair, despite some irregularities. Alleging fraud the MPD unsuccessfully contested the results by filing suit with the SCJ to annul the elections.

Presidential elections were also held in 2006, and individuals and parties were free to declare their candidacies. International observers characterized the conduct of the election as free and fair. The incumbent, President Pires, won a second term with 51 percent of the vote; MPD candidate Carlos Veiga obtained 49 percent of the vote. Veiga then petitioned the SCJ to annul the presidential election results, stating that the elections were not free or transparent. The SCJ ruled there were no legal grounds for annulment and confirmed President Pires as the winner.

Although the National Electoral Commission (CNE) and the SCJ declared the legislative and presidential elections generally free and fair, they also recognized some irregularities in both elections. The CNE noted that the electoral code needed to be amended to provide greater security and transparency. It also cited needs for stricter, more consistent voter identification and registration processes and the adoption of indelible ink on ballots.

There were 11 women in the 72-seat National Assembly, eight women in the 20-member cabinet, and three women on the SCJ.

Section 4 Official Corruption and Government Transparency

Official corruption carries a criminal penalty of up to 15 years' imprisonment. There were no new reports of government corruption during the year, but the World Bank's 2008 Worldwide Governance Indicators reflected that government corruption was a problem.

The law provides for freedom of access to governmental information without restriction, provided that privacy rights are respected. The government in practice frequently granted access.

Section 5 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights

A number of domestic human rights groups generally operated without government restriction, investigating and publishing their findings on human rights cases. Government officials generally were cooperative and responsive to their views.

There were several private, independent human rights groups, including the National Commission of the Rights of Man, the Ze Moniz Association, and the Alcides Barros Association.

The government has a positive attitude towards international NGOs. In November the International Labor Organization (ILO) sent an expert to provide training on constitutional obligations related to reporting requirements under ratified ILO conventions.

Section 6 Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, religion, disability, language, or social status; however, the government did not enforce these provisions effectively, and violence and discrimination against women and abuse of children were serious problems.

Women

Rape, including spousal rape, is a criminal offense, but the government generally did not enforce the law effectively. The penalty for rape is eight to 16 years' imprisonment. Penalties are higher if the victim is under the age of 16 or if the offender took advantage of job responsibilities in a prison, hospital, school, or rehabilitation center, or with persons under his or her authority.

Domestic violence against women, including wife beating, was widespread. The government and civil society encouraged women to report criminal offenses such as spousal abuse, which is punishable by two to 13 years' imprisonment; however, longstanding social and cultural norms as well as lack of shelter housing inhibited victims from doing so.

While there were mechanisms such as legal counseling, psychological care, specific police attention, and family courts to deal with spousal abuse, these mechanisms neither effectively prevented violence nor ensured the punishment of those responsible. Women claimed that police often ignored the legal complaints they filed against their husbands. Nevertheless reports to police of domestic violence continued to increase during the year. The police and judicial system sometimes delayed acting on abuse cases. Violence against women was the subject of extensive public service media coverage.

The government-run Cape Verdean Institute of Equity and Gender, the Women Parliamentarians Network, and local women's organizations with foreign diplomatic support promoted legislation to address gender-based violence.

Prostitution is legal, except for prostitution of minors, and the government generally did not enforce that prohibition. Sex tourism was a growing problem, and there are no laws to address it.

Sexual harassment was common and not culturally perceived as a crime. It is prohibited by law with a penalty of one year in prison, but the government did not effectively enforce this law.

The Civil Code grants all citizens the freedom to make decisions regarding the number, spacing, and timing of their children without discrimination, coercion, or violence. All citizens have access to contraception. Family planning centers throughout the country distribute some contraceptives free of charge to the public. These centers provide skilled assistance and counseling both before and after childbirth and in cases of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Women enjoy the same legal rights as men, including rights under family law, property law, and in the judicial system. Despite legal prohibitions against sex discrimination and provisions for full equality, including equal pay for equal work, discrimination against women continued. The Cape Verdean Institute of Equity and Gender worked for the protection of legal rights of women. The Women Jurists' Association provided free legal assistance to women throughout the country suffering from discrimination, violence, and spousal abuse.

Children

Citizenship can be derived either by birth within the country or from one's parents. The government registered all births immediately after they were reported. Failure to register did not result in denial of public services.

The government provided free and universal education for all children aged six to 12. Education was compulsory until age 11; however, secondary education was free only for children whose families had an annual income below 147,000 escudos (approximately $1,950). There was a 94 percent primary education enrollment rate for all children; the enrollment rate in secondary school for all children was 70 percent.

Child abuse and sexual violence against children were serious problems, and the media regularly reported on those issues. Child labor was also a problem (see section 7.d.). Government efforts to address these problems were inadequate. In 2007 the Institute of Children and Adolescents (ICCA), a government organization, carried out a study on the child labor situation and concluded that the practice of using children to collect sand for use in construction should be considered as one of the worst forms of child labor.

The ICCA also found that children tend to work at the behest of their families, and that child labor on the islands is intimately linked to the need to supplement family income. It is believed, however, that the vast majority of these children performed work outside of school hours and attended school.

Trafficking in Persons

The law prohibits trafficking in minors, but not adults, and there were reports that persons were trafficked to and from the country. Police reports alleged that the country was a transit point for trafficking in persons from West African countries to the Canary Islands and to Europe. However, there was no additional reported evidence to support these reports.

Sentences for trafficking in children range from 12 to 16 years' imprisonment. There were no prosecutions of such cases during the year. The Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Internal Administration are responsible for combating human trafficking. The government did not extradite citizens who were accused of human trafficking in other countries.

Persons with Disabilities

The law prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, education, access to health care, or in the provision of other state services, and the government effectively enforced these provisions. There are no laws or programs to ensure access to buildings for persons with disabilities. Several NGOs, including an association for the blind, actively advocated for the rights of persons with disabilities.

Societal Abuse, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

Legal protections helped ensure homosexual conduct was protected under the law; however, societal discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity continued to be a problem. There were no lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender persons' NGOs active in the country.

Other Societal Violence or Discrimination

There were no reports of societal violence or discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS.

Section 7 Worker Rights

a. The Right of Association

The law allows workers to form and to join unions of their choice without previous authorization or excessive requirements, and workers exercised this right in practice. There are no restrictions except for employees of diplomatic missions. Approximately 22 percent of workers were unionized. The law provides union members with the right to strike. Nonetheless, the government may invoke a "civil request" through which it may require the striking union to continue providing specified minimum services in an emergency or if provision of basic services is threatened.

b. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively

The law allows unions to conduct their activities without interference, and the government protected this right in practice. The law provides for the right of workers to bargain collectively; however, there was very little collective bargaining. There were no collective bargaining agreements and no collective labor contracts completed during the year.

The law prohibits antiunion discrimination.

There are no special laws or exemptions from regular labor laws within the export processing zone that encompasses the entire country.

c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor

The law prohibits forced or compulsory labor, including by children, and there were no reports that such practices occurred.

d. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment

There are laws and policies to protect children from exploitation in the workplace, but the government did not implement them effectively. A new labor code was approved in 2008, which lowered the legal minimum age for employment from 16 to 15 years. The code also states children under 15 may be allowed to work as apprentices under specific conditions that do not jeopardize the child's health and development; however, the government rarely enforced either provision. For children under the age of 15, only apprentice contracts are allowed.

The most recent statistics available (2000 census) indicated that an estimated 8,000 children were working as street vendors and car washers in urban centers, and in agriculture, animal husbandry, and fishing in the countryside. It is believed, however, that the vast majority performed work outside of school hours and attended school.

In 2007 the ICCA concluded a study analyzing the child labor situation in the country. The goals of the study were to raise public awareness, to create an action plan to prevent children from entering exploitive work situations, and to encourage children engaged in such labor to stop.

The ministries of justice and labor were responsible for enforcing child labor laws. In practice, however, they seldom did so. There were no government programs to address child labor.

e. Acceptable Conditions of Work

As the country's largest employer, the government continued to play the dominant role in setting wages. It did not fix wages for the private sector, but salary levels for civil servants provided the basis for wage negotiations in the private sector. For a typical entry-level worker, this wage was approximately 12,000 escudos ($163) per month. The majority of jobs paid wages that did not provide a worker and family with a decent standard of living; most workers also relied on second jobs and support from their extended family for income.

The law sets the maximum workweek for adults at 44 hours, prohibits excessive compulsory overtime, and requires that a premium be paid for whatever overtime is worked. The law also mandates required rest periods, which vary according to the sector--the minimum is 12 hours. While large employers generally respected these regulations, many domestic servants and agricultural laborers worked longer hours.

The director general of labor conducted sporadic inspections to enforce the labor code and imposed fines on private enterprises that were not in conformity with the law. Nonetheless, the government did not enforce labor laws systematically, and much of the labor force did not enjoy legal protection.

The government has not set occupational health and safety standards; however, there is a general provision in the law that requires employers to provide a healthy and safe work environment. Few industries employed heavy or dangerous equipment. The law does provide workers with the right to remove themselves from situations that endanger health or safety without jeopardizing their continued employment.

March 11, 2010
Cape Verde, with a population of approximately 508,600, is a multiparty parliamentary democracy in which constitutional powers are shared between the elected head of state, President Pedro Verona Rodrigues Pires, and Prime Minister Jose Maria Neves. Although civilian authorities generally maintained effective control of the security forces, there were some instances in which elements of the police forces committed abuses against detainees.
The government generally respected the human rights of its citizens; however, problems were reported in some areas: police abuse of detainees, police impunity, poor prison conditions, lengthy pretrial detention, excessive trial delays, violence and discrimination against women, child abuse, and some instances of child labor.
RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom From:
a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life
There were no reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings.
b. Disappearance
There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.
c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
The constitution and law prohibit such practices; however, there were credible reports that in some instances police beat persons in custody and detention. However, there were credible reports that police failed to report to their superiors some of the abuses that occurred in police stations.
Prison and Detention Center Conditions
Prison conditions were poor, and facilities were severely overcrowded. Psychological problems among prisoners were common.
During the year there were no known deaths in prison from adverse conditions. The maximum capacity of Praia's prison is 800 prisoners.
In prisons juveniles were sometimes held together with adults in certain facilities, but pretrial detainees generally were held separately from convicted prisoners.
In December 2008 a fellow prisoner alleged to be a professional hit man hired by drug traffickers murdered a convicted drug trafficker who was collaborating with authorities. The case remained under investigation.
The 2005 prisoner riot case at the Sao Martinho Prison in the capital city of Praia in which one prisoner was killed and three persons (including a guard) injured was pending final resolution. The prison director, who left for another country after being formally accused of allowing the mistreatment of prisoners under his supervision, subsequently was sentenced in that country to three years' imprisonment for perjury related to his immigration status.
The government permitted formal visits by international human rights monitors to prisons and visits to individual prisoners. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and media representatives frequently visited the prisons and reported on prison conditions.
Each municipality has police stations capable of holding detainees until they are transferred to prison. There were no deaths as a result of adverse conditions in jails and detention centers, but separation of prisoners based on trial status, gender, and age was not always possible due to space limitations.
d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention
The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally observed these prohibitions.
Role of the Police and Security Apparatus
The Public Order Police are under the Ministry of Internal Administration and are responsible for law enforcement. Corruption was not a significant problem.
Police abuses were investigated internally, and these investigations resulted occasionally in legal action against the perpetrators. Police impunity, however, remained a problem.
Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention
Police may not make arrests without a warrant issued by an authorized official unless a person is caught in the act of committing a felony. Detainees were allowed prompt access to family members and to a lawyer of their choice and, if indigent, to one provided by the government.
Nonetheless, the length of pretrial detention was a serious problem. The judicial system also was overburdened and understaffed, and criminal cases frequently ended when charges were dropped by the citizen before a determination of guilt or innocence was made.
e. Denial of Fair Public Trial
The law provides for an independent judiciary, and the government generally respected this provision in practice. However, the judicial system lacked sufficient staffing and was inefficient.
The judicial system is composed of the Supreme Court of Justice (SCJ), which is the court of last resort and also handles administrative cases, and the regional courts. The military court provides the same protections as civil criminal courts.
Trial Procedures
The law provides for the right to a fair and public nonjury trial. The law extends the above rights to all citizens.
Political Prisoners and Detainees
There were no reports of political prisoners or detainees.
Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies
The ordinary courts are impartial and independent, and handle civil matters including lawsuits seeking damages for, or an injunction ordering the cessation of, a human rights violation. Both administrative and judicial remedies are available for alleged wrongs.
f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence
The constitution and law prohibit such actions, and the government generally respected these prohibitions.
Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:
a. Freedom of Speech and Press
The constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and of the press, and the government generally respected these rights. The independent press was active and expressed a variety of views without direct restriction.
Internet Freedom
There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitored e-mail or Internet chat rooms. Citizens in the cities had access to the Internet at cybercafes.
Academic Freedom and Cultural Events
There were no government restrictions on academic freedom or cultural events.
b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association
The constitution and law provide for freedom of assembly and association, and the government generally respected these rights.
c. Freedom of Religion
The constitution and law provide for freedom of religion, and the government generally respected this right.
Societal Abuses and Discrimination
There was no known Jewish community, and there were no reports of anti-Semitic acts or discrimination against members of any religious group.
At the end of the year the SCJ had not issued a decision in the 2006 case against four Seventh-day Adventists accused of desecrating a Roman Catholic Church.
For a more detailed discussion, see the 2009 International Religious Freedom Report at www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf.
d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons
The constitution and laws provide for freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights in practice. The government cooperated with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and other humanitarian organizations in assisting refugees and asylum seekers.
The constitution and law prohibit forced exile, and the government did not employ it.
Protection of Refugees
The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status in accordance with the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 protocol, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. In practice, the government provided protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.
During the year the government provided temporary protection to 11 individuals who may not qualify as refugees under the 1951 convention and the 1967 protocol.
Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government
The constitution and law provide citizens with the right to change their government peacefully, and citizens exercised this right in practice through periodic, free, and fair elections held on the basis of universal suffrage.
Elections and Political Participation
In the 2006 legislative elections, individuals and parties were free to declare their candidacies. Alleging fraud the MPD unsuccessfully contested the results by filing suit with the SCJ to annul the elections.
Presidential elections were also held in 2006, and individuals and parties were free to declare their candidacies. The SCJ ruled there were no legal grounds for annulment and confirmed President Pires as the winner.
Although the National Electoral Commission (CNE) and the SCJ declared the legislative and presidential elections generally free and fair, they also recognized some irregularities in both elections. It also cited needs for stricter, more consistent voter identification and registration processes and the adoption of indelible ink on ballots.
There were 11 women in the 72-seat National Assembly, eight women in the 20-member cabinet, and three women on the SCJ.
Section 4 Official Corruption and Government Transparency
Official corruption carries a criminal penalty of up to 15 years' imprisonment. There were no new reports of government corruption during the year, but the World Bank's 2008 Worldwide Governance Indicators reflected that government corruption was a problem.
The law provides for freedom of access to governmental information without restriction, provided that privacy rights are respected. The government in practice frequently granted access.
Section 5 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights
A number of domestic human rights groups generally operated without government restriction, investigating and publishing their findings on human rights cases. Government officials generally were cooperative and responsive to their views.
There were several private, independent human rights groups, including the National Commission of the Rights of Man, the Ze Moniz Association, and the Alcides Barros Association.
The government has a positive attitude towards international NGOs. In November the International Labor Organization (ILO) sent an expert to provide training on constitutional obligations related to reporting requirements under ratified ILO conventions.
Section 6 Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons
The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, religion, disability, language, or social status; however, the government did not enforce these provisions effectively, and violence and discrimination against women and abuse of children were serious problems.
Women
Rape, including spousal rape, is a criminal offense, but the government generally did not enforce the law effectively. Penalties are higher if the victim is under the age of 16 or if the offender took advantage of job responsibilities in a prison, hospital, school, or rehabilitation center, or with persons under his or her authority.
Domestic violence against women, including wife beating, was widespread. The government and civil society encouraged women to report criminal offenses such as spousal abuse, which is punishable by two to 13 years' imprisonment; however, longstanding social and cultural norms as well as lack of shelter housing inhibited victims from doing so.
While there were mechanisms such as legal counseling, psychological care, specific police attention, and family courts to deal with spousal abuse, these mechanisms neither effectively prevented violence nor ensured the punishment of those responsible. Violence against women was the subject of extensive public service media coverage.
The government-run Cape Verdean Institute of Equity and Gender, the Women Parliamentarians Network, and local women's organizations with foreign diplomatic support promoted legislation to address gender-based violence.
Prostitution is legal, except for prostitution of minors, and the government generally did not enforce that prohibition. Sex tourism was a growing problem, and there are no laws to address it.
Sexual harassment was common and not culturally perceived as a crime. It is prohibited by law with a penalty of one year in prison, but the government did not effectively enforce this law.
The Civil Code grants all citizens the freedom to make decisions regarding the number, spacing, and timing of their children without discrimination, coercion, or violence. These centers provide skilled assistance and counseling both before and after childbirth and in cases of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
Women enjoy the same legal rights as men, including rights under family law, property law, and in the judicial system. The Women Jurists' Association provided free legal assistance to women throughout the country suffering from discrimination, violence, and spousal abuse.
Children
Citizenship can be derived either by birth within the country or from one's parents. Failure to register did not result in denial of public services.
The government provided free and universal education for all children aged six to 12. There was a 94 percent primary education enrollment rate for all children; the enrollment rate in secondary school for all children was 70 percent.
Child abuse and sexual violence against children were serious problems, and the media regularly reported on those issues. In 2007 the Institute of Children and Adolescents (ICCA), a government organization, carried out a study on the child labor situation and concluded that the practice of using children to collect sand for use in construction should be considered as one of the worst forms of child labor.
The ICCA also found that children tend to work at the behest of their families, and that child labor on the islands is intimately linked to the need to supplement family income. It is believed, however, that the vast majority of these children performed work outside of school hours and attended school.
Trafficking in Persons
The law prohibits trafficking in minors, but not adults, and there were reports that persons were trafficked to and from the country. However, there was no additional reported evidence to support these reports.
Sentences for trafficking in children range from 12 to 16 years' imprisonment. The government did not extradite citizens who were accused of human trafficking in other countries.
Persons with Disabilities
The law prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, education, access to health care, or in the provision of other state services, and the government effectively enforced these provisions. Several NGOs, including an association for the blind, actively advocated for the rights of persons with disabilities.
Societal Abuse, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
Legal protections helped ensure homosexual conduct was protected under the law; however, societal discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity continued to be a problem. There were no lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender persons' NGOs active in the country.
Other Societal Violence or Discrimination
There were no reports of societal violence or discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS.
Section 7 Worker Rights
a. The Right of Association
The law allows workers to form and to join unions of their choice without previous authorization or excessive requirements, and workers exercised this right in practice. Nonetheless, the government may invoke a "civil request" through which it may require the striking union to continue providing specified minimum services in an emergency or if provision of basic services is threatened.
b. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively
The law allows unions to conduct their activities without interference, and the government protected this right in practice. There were no collective bargaining agreements and no collective labor contracts completed during the year.
The law prohibits antiunion discrimination.
There are no special laws or exemptions from regular labor laws within the export processing zone that encompasses the entire country.
c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor
The law prohibits forced or compulsory labor, including by children, and there were no reports that such practices occurred.
d. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment
There are laws and policies to protect children from exploitation in the workplace, but the government did not implement them effectively. For children under the age of 15, only apprentice contracts are allowed.
The most recent statistics available (2000 census) indicated that an estimated 8,000 children were working as street vendors and car washers in urban centers, and in agriculture, animal husbandry, and fishing in the countryside. It is believed, however, that the vast majority performed work outside of school hours and attended school.
In 2007 the ICCA concluded a study analyzing the child labor situation in the country. The goals of the study were to raise public awareness, to create an action plan to prevent children from entering exploitive work situations, and to encourage children engaged in such labor to stop.
The ministries of justice and labor were responsible for enforcing child labor laws. There were no government programs to address child labor.
e. Acceptable Conditions of Work
As the country's largest employer, the government continued to play the dominant role in setting wages. The majority of jobs paid wages that did not provide a worker and family with a decent standard of living; most workers also relied on second jobs and support from their extended family for income.
The law sets the maximum workweek for adults at 44 hours, prohibits excessive compulsory overtime, and requires that a premium be paid for whatever overtime is worked. While large employers generally respected these regulations, many domestic servants and agricultural laborers worked longer hours.
The director general of labor conducted sporadic inspections to enforce the labor code and imposed fines on private enterprises that were not in conformity with the law. Nonetheless, the government did not enforce labor laws systematically, and much of the labor force did not enjoy legal protection.
The government has not set occupational health and safety standards; however, there is a general provision in the law that requires employers to provide a healthy and safe work environment. The law does provide workers with the right to remove themselves from situations that endanger health or safety without jeopardizing their continued employment.


Claiming Human Rights

The Republic of Cape Verde is a member of the United Nations and the African Union. It has ratified many UN Human Rights Conventions (compare list on the right) and thus has made binding international commitments to adhere to the standards laid down in these universal human rights documents.

Cape Verde is a Portuguese-speaking island country in the Atlantic Ocean off the western coast of Africa opposite Mauritania and Senegal. With an area of 4,033 square km, it is a small country. On a global scale, its population density is high. The capital of the country, which became independent on 5 July 1975 from Portugal, is Praia. Cape Verde is a member of the regional economic community ECOWAS.

With a Human Development Index of 0.71 Cape Verde ranks 121 st of 182 countries ranked in the UNDP Human Development Report of 2009. Life expectancy of the 500,000 inhabitants at birth is 71 years, population growth is 1.4 percent per year. GNI is 3,130 US-$ per capita. External debt is 43.2 percent of gross national income. Primary school enrolment is 84.5 percent.

In as far as Cape Verde has ratified the Optional Protocols for UN Human Rights Conventions or has accepted the Competence of the corresponding UN Treaty Bodies (compare list on the right), the inhabitants of Cape Verde and their representatives are able to invoke their human rights through these bodies.

All inhabitants of Cape Verde may turn to the UN Human Rights Committee through procedure 1503, to the Special Rapporteurs for violations of specific human rights or to ECOSOC for women's rights violations.

Since Cape Verde is a member state of UNESCO, its citizens may use the UNESCO procedure for human rights violations in UNESCO's fields of mandate.

Employers' or workers' and certain other organizations (not individuals) of Cape Verde may file complaints through the ILO procedure in the cases of those conventions which Cape Verde has ratified.

Since Cape Verde is an AU member, its citizens and NGOs may file complaints to the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights.

They may also file complaints according to the EU guidelines (on Human Rights Defenders, Death Penalty and Torture) to Embassies of EU Member States and the Delegations of the European Commission.

In cases of human rights violations by multinational enterprises, they may also invoke the National Contact Point in an OECD member state.


Contents

The country is named after the Cap-Vert peninsula, on the Senegalese coast. [12] The name "Cap-Vert", in turn, comes from the Portuguese language "Cabo Verde" ("green cape"), the name that Portuguese explorers gave the cape in 1444, a few years before they discovered the islands.

On 24 October 2013, the country's delegation to the United Nations informed it that other countries should no longer use "Cape Verde" or any other translations of "Cabo Verde" as part of its official name: all countries should use "Republic of Cabo Verde" as the country's official name. [11] [13] Speakers of English have used the name "Cape Verde" for the archipelago and, since independence in 1975, for the country. In 2013, the Cape Verdean government determined that it would thenceforth use the Portuguese name "Cabo Verde" for official purposes, including at the United Nations, even when speaking or writing in English.

Before the arrival of Europeans, the Cape Verde Islands were uninhabited. [14] [15] [16] They were discovered by Genoese and Portuguese navigators around 1456. According to Portuguese official records, [17] the first discoveries were made by Genoa-born António de Noli, who was afterwards appointed governor of Cape Verde by the Portuguese king Afonso V. Other navigators mentioned as contributing to discoveries on the Cape Verde archipelago are Diogo Dias, Diogo Afonso, Venetian-born Alvise Cadamosto, and Diogo Gomes (who had accompanied António de Noli on his voyage of discovery, and who claimed to have been the first to land on the Cape Verdean island of Santiago, and the first to name that island).

In 1462, Portuguese settlers arrived at Santiago and founded a settlement they called Ribeira Grande. Today it is called Cidade Velha ("Old City"), to distinguish it from a town of the same name on a different Cape Verdean island (Ribeira Grande on the island of Santo Antão). The original Ribeira Grande was the first permanent European settlement in the tropics. [18]

In the 16th century, the archipelago prospered from the Atlantic slave trade. [18] Pirates occasionally attacked the Portuguese settlements. Francis Drake, an English privateer, twice sacked the (then) capital Ribeira Grande in 1585 when it was a part of the Iberian Union. [18] After a French attack in 1712, the town declined in importance relative to nearby Praia, which became the capital in 1770. [18]

Decline in the slave trade in the 19th century resulted in an economic crisis. Cape Verde's early prosperity slowly vanished. However, the islands' position astride mid-Atlantic shipping lanes made Cape Verde an ideal location for re-supplying ships. Because of its excellent harbour, the city of Mindelo, located on the island of São Vicente, became an important commercial centre during the 19th century. [18] Diplomat Edmund Roberts visited Cape Verde in 1832. [19] Cape Verde was the first stop of Charles Darwin's voyage with HMS Beagle in 1832. [20]

With few natural resources and inadequate sustainable investment from the Portuguese, the citizens grew increasingly discontented with the colonial masters, who nevertheless refused to provide the local authorities with more autonomy. In 1951, Portugal changed Cape Verde's status from a colony to an overseas province in an attempt to blunt growing nationalism. [18]

In 1956, Amílcar Cabral and a group of fellow Cape Verdeans and Guineans organized (in Portuguese Guinea) the clandestine African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC). [18] It demanded improvement in economic, social and political conditions in Cape Verde and Portuguese Guinea and formed the basis of the two nations' independence movement. Moving its headquarters to Conakry, Guinea in 1960, the PAIGC began an armed rebellion against Portugal in 1961. Acts of sabotage eventually grew into a war in Portuguese Guinea that pitted 10,000 Soviet Bloc-supported PAIGC soldiers against 35,000 Portuguese and African troops. [18]

By 1972, the PAIGC controlled much of Portuguese Guinea despite the presence of the Portuguese troops, but the organization did not attempt to disrupt Portuguese control in Cape Verde. Portuguese Guinea declared independence in 1973 and was granted de jure independence in 1974. A budding independence movement – originally led by Amílcar Cabral, assassinated in 1973 – passed on to his half-brother Luís Cabral and culminated in independence for the archipelago in 1975.

Independence (1975) Edit

Following the April 1974 revolution in Portugal, the PAIGC became an active political movement in Cape Verde. In December 1974, the PAIGC and Portugal signed an agreement providing for a transitional government composed of Portuguese and Cape Verdeans. On 30 June 1975, Cape Verdeans elected a National Assembly which received the instruments of independence from Portugal on 5 July 1975. [18] In the late 1970s and 1980s, most African countries prohibited South African Airways from overflights but Cape Verde allowed them and became a centre of activity for the airline's flights to Europe and the United States.

Immediately following the November 1980 coup in Guinea-Bissau, relations between Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau became strained. Cape Verde abandoned its hope for unity with Guinea-Bissau and formed the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV). Problems have since been resolved and relations between the countries are good. The PAICV and its predecessor established a one-party system and ruled Cape Verde from independence until 1990. [18]

Responding to growing pressure for pluralistic democracy, the PAICV called an emergency congress in February 1990 to discuss proposed constitutional changes to end one-party rule. Opposition groups came together to form the Movement for Democracy (MpD) in Praia in April 1990. Together, they campaigned for the right to contest the presidential election scheduled for December 1990.

The one-party state was abolished on 28 September 1990, and the first multi-party elections were held in January 1991. The MpD won a majority of the seats in the National Assembly, and MpD presidential candidate António Mascarenhas Monteiro defeated the PAICV's candidate with 73.5% of the votes. Legislative elections in December 1995 increased the MpD majority in the National Assembly. The party won 50 of the National Assembly's 72 seats.

A February 1996 presidential election returned President Monteiro to office. Legislative elections in January 2001 returned power to the PAICV, with the PAICV holding 40 of the National Assembly seats, MpD 30, and Party for Democratic Convergence (PCD) and Labour and Solidarity Party (PTS) 1 each. In February 2001, the PAICV-supported presidential candidate Pedro Pires defeated former MpD leader Carlos Veiga by only 13 votes. [18] President Pedro Pires was narrowly re-elected in 2006 elections. [21]

President Jorge Carlos Fonseca has led the country since 2011 Cape Verde presidential election and he was re-elected in 2016 election. He is supported by the Movement for Democracy Party. [22] MpD also won in 2016 parliamentary elections, taking back parliamentary majority after 15 year-rule of African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV). [23] In April 2021, the ruling center-right Movement for Democracy (MpD) of Prime Minister Ulisses Correia e Silva, won the parliamentary election. [24]

Cape Verde is a stable semi-presidential representative democratic republic. [4] [25] It is among the most democratic nations in Africa, ranking 26th in the world, according to the 2018 Democracy Index. [26] The constitution – adopted in 1980 and revised in 1992, 1995 and 1999 – defines the basic principles of its government. The president is the head of state and is elected by popular vote for a 5-year term. [18]

The prime minister is the head of government and proposes other ministers and secretaries of state. The prime minister is nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president. [ citation needed ] Members of the National Assembly are elected by popular vote for 5-year terms. Three parties now hold seats in the National Assembly – MpD (36), PAICV (25), and the Cape Verdean Independent Democratic Union (UCID) (3). [27]

The two main political parties are PAICV and MpD. [27]

Movement for Democracy (MpD) ousted the ruling African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV) for the first time in 15 years in 2016 parliamentary election. Leader of MpD Ulisses Correia e Silva has been prime minister since 2016. Jorge Carlos Almeida Fonseca was elected president in August 2011 and re-elected in October 2016. He is also supported by the MpD. [28]

International recognition Edit

Cape Verde is often praised as an example among African nations for its stability and developmental growth despite its lack of natural resources. In 2013 then United States President Barack Obama said Cape Verde is "a real success story". [29] Among other achievements, it has been recognised with the following assessments:

Index Score PALOP rank CPLP rank African rank World rank Year
Human Development Index 0.654 1 (top 17%) 3 (top 38%) 10 (top 19%) [A] 125 (top 62%) 2017 [30]
Ibrahim Index of African Governance 71.1 1 (top 17%) N/A 3 (top 6%) N/A 2018 [31]
Freedom of the Press 27 (Free) 1 (top 17%) 2 (top 25%) 1 (top 2%) 48 (top 24%) 2014
Freedom in the World 1/1 [B] 1 (top 17%) 1 (top 13%) [C] 1 (top 2%) [D] 1 (top 1%) [E] 2016
Press Freedom Index 18.02 1 (top 17%) 2 (top 25%) 3 (top 6%) 27 (top 14%) 2017
Democracy Index 7.88 (Flawed democracy) 1 (top 17%) 1 (top 13%) 2 (top 4%) 26 (top 13%) 2018
Corruption Perceptions Index 59 1 (top 17%) 2 (top 25%) 2 (top 4%) 38 (top 19%) 2016
Index of Economic Freedom [32] 66.5 1 (top 17%) 1 (top 13%) 3 (top 6%) 57 (top 28%) 2016
e-Government Readiness Index 0.3551 1 (top 17%) 3 (top 38%) 14 (top 26%) 127 (top 63%) 2014
Failed States Index 74.1 1 (top 17%) 3 (top 38%) 8 (top 15%) 93 (top 46%) [F] 2014
Networked Readiness Index 3.8 1 (top 17%) 3 (top 38%) 7 (top 13%) 87 (top 43%) 2015 [33]

  • A See List of countries by Human Development Index § Africa
  • B 1/1 is the highest possible rating.
  • C With the maximum score, Cape Verde shares the first place with Portugal.
  • D Cape Verde was the only African country to reach the maximum rating.
  • E With the maximum score, Cape Verde shares the first place with 48 other countries.
  • F The rank on this list is expressed in reverse order. To be comparable with the other rankings on this table, the actual rank of 88 was inverted, by subtracting it from the number of countries on the list, currently 177.

Foreign relations Edit

Cape Verde follows a policy of nonalignment and seeks cooperative relations with all friendly states. [18] Angola, Brazil, China, Libya, Cuba, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Senegal, Russia, Luxembourg, and the United States maintain embassies in Praia. [18] Cape Verde maintains a vigorously active foreign policy, especially in Africa. [18]

Cape Verde is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, and international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.

Cape Verde has bilateral relations with some Lusophone nations and holds membership in a number of international organizations. [18] It also participates in most international conferences on economic and political issues. [18] Since 2007, Cape Verde has a special partnership status [34] with the EU, under the Cotonou Agreement, and might apply for special membership, in particular because the Cape Verdean escudo, the country's currency, is indexed to the euro. [35] In 2011 Cape Verde ratified the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. [36] In 2017 Cape Verde signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. [37]

Judiciary Edit

The judicial system consists of a Supreme Court of Justice – whose members are appointed by the president, the National Assembly, and the Board of the Judiciary – and regional courts. Separate courts hear civil, constitutional, and criminal cases. Appeals are to the Supreme Court. [18]

Military Edit

The military of Cape Verde consists of the National Guard and the Coast Guard 0.7% of the country's GDP was spent on the military in 2005.

Having fought their only battles in the war for independence against Portugal between 1974 and 1975, the efforts of the Caboverdean Armed Forces have now been turned to combating international drug trafficking. In 2007, together with the Cape Verdean Police, they carried out Operation Flying Launch (Operacão Lancha Voadora), a successful operation to put an end to a drug trafficking group which smuggled cocaine from Colombia to the Netherlands and Germany using the country as a reorder point. The operation took more than three years, being a secret operation during the first two years, and ended in 2010.

Although located in Africa, Cape Verde has always had close relations with Europe. Because of this, some scholars argue that Cape Verde may be eligible to join the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OECD) and NATO. [38]

The most recent news involving Cape Verdean Armed Forces was the Monte Tchota massacre, a green-on-green incident that resulted in 11 deaths. [39]

The Cape Verde archipelago is in the Atlantic Ocean, approximately 570 kilometres (350 mi) off the western coast of the African continent, near Senegal, The Gambia, and Mauritania, and is part of the Macaronesia ecoregion. It lies between latitudes 14° and 18°N, and longitudes 22° and 26°W.

The country is a horseshoe-shaped cluster of ten islands (nine inhabited) and eight islets, [40] that constitute an area of 4033 km 2 . [40]

The islands are spatially divided into two groups:

The largest island, both in size and population, is Santiago, which hosts the nation's capital, Praia, the principal urban agglomeration in the archipelago. [40]

Three of the Cape Verde islands, Sal, Boa Vista and Maio, are fairly flat, sandy, and dry the others are generally rockier with more vegetation.

Physical geography and geology Edit

Geologically, the islands, covering a combined area of slightly over 4,033 square kilometres (1,557 square miles), are principally composed of igneous rocks, with volcanic structures and pyroclastic debris comprising the majority of the archipelago's total volume. The volcanic and plutonic rocks are distinctly basic the archipelago is a soda-alkaline petrographic province, with a petrologic succession similar to that found in other Macaronesian islands.

Magnetic anomalies identified in the vicinity of the archipelago indicate that the structures forming the islands date back 125–150 million years: the islands themselves date from 8 million (in the west) to 20 million years (in the east). [41] The oldest exposed rocks occurred on Maio and northern peninsula of Santiago and are 128–131 million year old pillow lavas. The first stage of volcanism in the islands began in the early Miocene, and reached its peak at the end of this period, when the islands reached their maximum sizes. Historical volcanism (within human settlement) has been restricted to the island of Fogo. [42]

The islands lie on a bathymetric swell known as the Cape Verde Rise. [43] The Rise is one of the largest protuberances in the world's oceans, rising 2.2 kilometres (1.4 miles) in a semi-circular region of 1200 km 2 , associated with a rise of the geoid. [41]

Most recently erupting in 2014, Pico do Fogo is the largest active volcano in the region. It has an 8 kilometres (5 miles) diameter caldera, whose rim is 1,600 metres (5,249 feet) altitude and an interior cone that rises to 2,829 metres (9,281 feet) above sea level. The caldera resulted from subsidence, following the partial evacuation (eruption) of the magma chamber, along a cylindrical column from within magma chamber (at a depth of 8 kilometres (5 miles)).

Extensive salt flats are found on Sal and Maio. [40] On Santiago, Santo Antão, and São Nicolau, arid slopes give way in places to sugarcane fields or banana plantations spread along the base of towering mountains. [40] Ocean cliffs have been formed by catastrophic debris landslides. [44]

According to the president of Nauru, Cape Verde has been ranked the eighth most endangered nation due to flooding from climate change. [45]

Climate Edit

Cape Verde's climate is milder than that of the African mainland, because the surrounding sea moderates temperatures on the islands and cold Atlantic currents produce an arid atmosphere around the archipelago. Conversely, the islands do not receive the upwelling (cold streams) that affect the West African coast, so the air temperature is cooler than in Senegal, but the sea is warmer. Due to the relief of some islands, such as Santiago with its steep mountains, the islands can have orographically induced precipitation, allowing rich woods and luxuriant vegetation to grow where the humid air condenses soaking the plants, rocks, soil, logs, moss, etc. On the higher islands and somewhat wetter islands, exclusively in mountainous areas, like Santo Antão island, the climate is suitable for the development of dry monsoon forests, and laurel forests. [40] Average temperatures range from 22 °C (72 °F) in February to 27 °C (80.6 °F) in September. [46] Cape Verde is part of the Sahelian arid belt, with nothing like the rainfall levels of nearby West Africa. [40] It rains irregularly between August and October, with frequent brief heavy downpours. [40] A desert is usually defined as terrain that receives less than 250 mm (9.8 in) of annual rainfall. Sal's total of (145 mm (5.7 in)) confirms this classification. Most of the year's rain falls in September. [46]

Sal, Boa Vista and Maio have a flat landscape and arid climate, whilst the other islands are generally rockier and have more vegetation. Because of the infrequent occurrence of rainfall, where not mountainous, the landscape is so arid that less than two per cent of it is arable. [47] The archipelago can be divided into four broad ecological zones — arid, semiarid, subhumid and humid, according to altitude and average annual rainfall ranging from less than 100 millimetres (3.9 inches) in the arid areas of the coast as in the Deserto de Viana (67 millimetres (2.6 inches) in Sal Rei) to more than 1,000 millimetres (39 inches) in the humid mountain. Most rainfall precipitation is due to condensation of the ocean mist.

In some islands, like Santiago, the wetter climate of the interior and the eastern coast contrasts with the drier one in the south/southwest coast. Praia, on the southeast coast, is the largest city of the island and the largest city and capital of the country.

Because of their proximity to the Sahara, most of the Cape Verde islands are dry, but on islands with high mountains and farther away from the coast, by orography, the humidity is much higher, providing a rainforest habitat, although much affected by the human presence. Northeastern slopes of high mountains often receive a lot of rain while southwest slopes do not. These umbria areas are identified with cool and moisture. Cape Verde lies in the Cape Verde Islands dry forests ecoregion. [48]

Western Hemisphere-bound hurricanes often have their early beginnings near the Cape Verde Islands. These are referred to as Cape Verde-type hurricanes. These hurricanes can become very intense as they cross warm Atlantic waters away from Cape Verde. The average hurricane season has about two Cape Verde-type hurricanes, which are usually the largest and most intense storms of the season because they often have plenty of warm open ocean over which to develop before encountering land. The five largest Atlantic tropical cyclones on record have been Cape Verde-type hurricanes. Most of the longest-lived tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin are Cape Verde hurricanes. [ citation needed ]

The islands themselves have only been struck by hurricanes twice in recorded history (since 1851): once in 1892, and again in 2015 by Hurricane Fred, the easternmost hurricane ever to form in the Atlantic. [ citation needed ]

Climate data for Cape Verde: São Vicente, Sal and Santiago, 1981–2010 normals, 1931–1960 extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.0
(89.6)
33.1
(91.6)
34.2
(93.6)
33.4
(92.1)
33.3
(91.9)
34.1
(93.4)
33.6
(92.5)
38.0
(100.4)
34.8
(94.6)
33.0
(91.4)
33.0
(91.4)
31.0
(87.8)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F) 24.9
(76.8)
25.1
(77.2)
25.8
(78.4)
25.9
(78.6)
26.6
(79.9)
27.3
(81.1)
28.2
(82.8)
29.4
(84.9)
29.9
(85.8)
29.5
(85.1)
28.2
(82.8)
26.3
(79.3)
27.3
(81.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 22.1
(71.8)
21.9
(71.4)
22.4
(72.3)
22.7
(72.9)
23.4
(74.1)
24.3
(75.7)
25.3
(77.5)
26.5
(79.7)
26.9
(80.4)
26.4
(79.5)
25.2
(77.4)
23.4
(74.1)
24.2
(75.6)
Average low °C (°F) 19.4
(66.9)
19.1
(66.4)
19.3
(66.7)
19.8
(67.6)
20.6
(69.1)
21.6
(70.9)
22.7
(72.9)
23.9
(75.0)
24.5
(76.1)
23.8
(74.8)
22.6
(72.7)
20.9
(69.6)
21.5
(70.7)
Record low °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
10.0
(50.0)
12.0
(53.6)
15.0
(59.0)
15.0
(59.0)
15.0
(59.0)
17.0
(62.6)
14.5
(58.1)
19.0
(66.2)
18.5
(65.3)
17.0
(62.6)
16.0
(60.8)
10.0
(50.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.9
(0.19)
1.5
(0.06)
0.7
(0.03)
0.4
(0.02)
0.3
(0.01)
0.0
(0.0)
3.9
(0.15)
30.2
(1.19)
41.7
(1.64)
18.8
(0.74)
3.7
(0.15)
3.1
(0.12)
109.2
(4.3)
Average relative humidity (%) 66.9 67.3 66.9 67.8 69.5 72.3 73.8 75.3 76.0 73.5 70.7 69.5 70.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 213.4 184.9 197.1 199.0 195.4 175.1 165.4 160.7 165.1 185.3 186.2 202.9 2,230.5
Source 1: Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofísica [46]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes) [49] [50] [51]

Biota Edit

Cape Verde's isolation has resulted in the islands having a number of endemic species, particularly birds and reptiles, many of which are endangered by human development. Endemic birds include Alexander's swift (Apus alexandri), Bourne's heron (Ardea purpurea bournei), the Raso lark (Alauda razae), the Cape Verde warbler (Acrocephalus brevipennis), and the Iago sparrow (Passer iagoensis). [52] The islands are also an important breeding area for seabirds including the Cape Verde shearwater. Reptiles include the Cape Verde giant gecko (Tarentola gigas).

Administrative divisions Edit

Cape Verde is divided into 22 municipalities (concelhos) and subdivided into 32 parishes (freguesias), based on the religious parishes that existed during the colonial period:

Barlavento Islands
Island Municipality Census 2010 [53] Estimate
mid 2019
[54]
Parish
Santo Antão Ribeira Grande 18,890 15,730 Nossa Senhora do Rosário
Nossa Senhora do Livramento
Santo Crucifixo
São Pedro Apóstolo
Paúl 6,997 5,510 Santo António das Pombas
Porto Novo 18,028 16,950 São João Baptista
Santo André
São Vicente São Vicente 76,107 84,230 Nossa Senhora da Luz
Santa Luzia
São Nicolau Ribeira Brava 7,580 6,900 Nossa Senhora da Lapa
Nossa Senhora do Rosário
Tarrafal de São Nicolau 5,237 5,210 São Francisco
Sal Sal 25,765 39,700 Nossa Senhora das Dores
Boa Vista Boa Vista 9,162 18,800 Santa Isabel
São João Baptista
Sotavento Islands
Island Municipality Census 2010 [53] Estimate
mid 2019
[54]
Parish
Maio Maio 6,952 7,350 Nossa Senhora da Luz
Santiago Praia 131,602 166,550 Nossa Senhora da Graça
São Domingos 13,808 14,170 Nossa Senhora da Luz
São Nicolau Tolentino
Santa Catarina 43,297 47,760 Santa Catarina
São Salvador do Mundo 8,677 8,610 São Salvador do Mundo
Santa Cruz 26,609 26,010 Santiago Maior
São Lourenço dos Órgãos 7,388 6,950 São Lourenço dos Órgãos
Ribeira Grande de Santiago 8,325 8,520 Santíssimo Nome de Jesus
São João Baptista
São Miguel 15,648 13,950 São Miguel Arcanjo
Tarrafal 18,565 18,130 Santo Amaro Abade
Fogo São Filipe 22,228 20,530 São Lourenço
Nossa Senhora da Conceição
Santa Catarina do Fogo 5,299 5,220 Santa Catarina do Fogo
Mosteiros 9,524 9,270 Nossa Senhora da Ajuda
Brava Brava 5,995 5,460 São João Baptista
Nossa Senhora do Monte

Cape Verde's notable economic growth and improvement in living conditions despite a lack of natural resources has garnered international recognition, with other countries and international organizations often providing development aid. Since 2007, the UN has classified it as a developing nation rather than a least developed country.

Cape Verde has few natural resources. Only five of the ten main islands (Santiago, Santo Antão, São Nicolau, Fogo, and Brava) normally support significant agricultural production, [55] and over 90% of all food consumed in Cape Verde is imported. Mineral resources include salt, pozzolana (a volcanic rock used in cement production), and limestone. [18] Its small number of wineries making Portuguese-style wines have traditionally focused on the domestic market, but have recently met with some international acclaim. A number of wine tours of Cape Verde's various microclimates began to be offered in spring 2010.

The economy of Cape Verde is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, and public services accounting for more than 70% of GDP. [ citation needed ] Although nearly 35% of the population lives in rural areas, agriculture and fishing contribute only about 9% of GDP. Light manufacturing accounts for most of the remainder. Fish and shellfish are plentiful, and small quantities are exported. Cape Verde has cold storage and freezing facilities and fish processing plants in Mindelo, Praia, and on Sal. Expatriate Cape Verdeans contribute an amount estimated at about 20% of GDP to the domestic economy through remittances. [18] In spite of having few natural resources and being semi-desert, the country boasts the highest living standards in the region, and has attracted thousands of immigrants of different nationalities.

Since 1991, the government has pursued market-oriented economic policies, including an open welcome to foreign investors and a far-reaching privatization programme. It established as top development priorities the promotion of a market economy and of the private sector the development of tourism, light manufacturing industries, and fisheries and the development of transport, communications, and energy facilities. From 1994 to 2000 about $407 million in foreign investments were made or planned, of which 58% were in tourism, [56] 17% in industry, 4% in infrastructure, and 21% in fisheries and services. [18]

In 2011, on four islands a wind farm was built that supplies about 30% of the electricity of the country. [57]

Between 2000 and 2009, real GDP increased on average by over 7 per cent a year, well above the average for Sub-Saharan countries and faster than most small island economies in the region. Strong economic performance was bolstered by one of the fastest growing tourism industries in the world, as well as by substantial capital inflows that allowed Cape Verde to build up national currency reserves to the current 3.5 months of imports. Unemployment has been falling rapidly, and the country is on track to achieve most of the UN Millennium Development Goals – including halving its 1990 poverty level.

In 2007, Cape Verde joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and in 2008 the country graduated from Least Developed Country (LDC) to Middle Income Country (MIC) status. [58] [59]

Cape Verde has significant cooperation with Portugal at every level of the economy, which has led it to link its currency first to the Portuguese escudo and, in 1999, to the euro. On 23 June 2008 Cape Verde became the 153rd member of the WTO. [60]

In early January 2018, the government announced that the minimum wage would be raised to 13,000 CVE (US$140 or EUR 130) per month, from 11,000 CVE, which was effective in mid-January 2018. [61] [62]

Development Edit

The European Commission's total allocation for the period of 2008–2013 foreseen for Cape Verde to address "poverty reduction, in particular in rural and periurban areas where women are heading the households, as well as good governance" amounts to €54.1 million. [63]

Tourism Edit

Cape Verde's strategic location at the crossroads of mid-Atlantic air and sea lanes has been enhanced by significant improvements at Mindelo's harbour (Porto Grande) and at Sal's and Praia's international airports. A new international airport was opened in Boa Vista in December 2007 and on the island of São Vicente the newest international airport (Cesária Évora Airport) in Cape Verde was opened in late 2009. Ship repair facilities at Mindelo were opened in 1983. [18]

The major ports are Mindelo and Praia, but all other islands have smaller port facilities. In addition to the international airport on Sal, airports have been built on all of the inhabited islands. All but the airports on Brava and Santo Antão enjoy scheduled air service. The archipelago has 3,050 km (1,895 mi) of roads, of which 1,010 km (628 mi) are paved, most using cobblestone. [18]

The country's future economic prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the encouragement of tourism, remittances, outsourcing labour to neighbouring African countries, and the momentum of the government's development programme. [18]

Demographics Edit

The official Census recorded that Cape Verde had a population of 512,096 in 2013. [64] A large proportion (236,000) of Cape Verdeans live on the main island, Santiago. [65]

The Cape Verde archipelago was uninhabited when the Portuguese discovered it in 1456. The modern population of Cape Verde descends from the mixture of European settlers and African slaves who were brought to the islands to work on Portuguese plantations. Most Cape Verdeans are therefore mulattos, also called mestiços in Portuguese. Another term is creole, meaning those of mixed native-born African and native-born European descent.

European input included Spaniards and Italian seamen who were granted land by the Portuguese Empire, followed by Portuguese settlers and exiles, as well as Portuguese Muslims (ethnic Moors) and Portuguese Jews (ethnic Sephardim). Both of these religious groups were victims of the Inquisition. Other immigrants came from places such as the Netherlands, France, Britain, the Arab countries (especially Lebanon and Morocco), China (especially from Macau), India, Indonesia, South America, and North America (including people of Portuguese and African descent) and were absorbed into the mestiço population.

Cape Verde's population in the 21st century is mostly creole the capital city Praia accounts for a quarter of the country's population. Over 65% of the population in the archipelago live in urban centers, and the literacy rate is 89% (i.e., 93,3% among men aged 15 and above and 84,7% among women aged 15 and above) according to the 2017 National Statistics Bureau data. Many Cape Verdeans have since emigrated, mainly to the United States and Europe.

A genetic study revealed that the ancestry of the population in Cape Verde is predominantly European in the male line and West African in the female line counted together the percentage is 56% African and 44% European. [66] The high degree of genetic and ethnic mixture of individuals is a result of centuries of migration.

Languages Edit

Cape Verde's official language is Portuguese. [1] It is the language of instruction and government. It is also used in newspapers, television, and radio.

Cape Verdean Creole (Kriolu) is a dialect continuum of a Portuguese-based creole used colloquially throughout Cape Verde and is the mother tongue of virtually all Cape Verdeans. The national constitution calls for measures to give it parity with Portuguese. [1] There is a substantial body of literature in Creole, especially in the Santiago Creole and the São Vicente Creole. Kriolu has been gaining prestige since the nation's independence from Portugal.

The differences between the forms of the language within the islands have been a major obstacle in the way of standardization of the language. Some people have advocated the development of two standards: a North (Barlavento) standard, centered on the São Vicente Creole, and a South (Sotavento) standard, centered on the Santiago Creole. Manuel Veiga, PhD, a linguist and Minister of Culture of Cape Verde, is the premier proponent of Kriolu's officialization and standardization. [67]

Religion Edit

Religion in Cape Verde (2010) [68]

Around 95% of the population are Christian. More than 85% of the population were nominally Roman Catholic in 2007. [69] For a minority of the population, Catholicism is syncretized with African influences. [70]

As of 2007, the largest Protestant denomination is the Church of the Nazarene other religious groups include the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Assemblies of God, the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. [69] There is a small Muslim community. [69] There were Jewish settlements on several islands. [71] The number of atheists is estimated at less than 1% of the population. [69]

Emigration and immigration Edit

Today, more Cape Verdeans live abroad (nearly a million) than in Cape Verde itself, with significant emigrant [72] Cape Verdean communities in the United States (500,000) of Cape Verdean descent, with a major concentration on the New England coast Providence, Rhode Island, New Bedford, Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts. Brockton, Massachusetts is the city with the largest number of Cape Verdean descents and immigrants (18,832) [73] in the United States.

There are significant Cape Verde populations in Portugal (150,000), Angola (45,000), São Tomé and Príncipe (25,000), Senegal (25,000), the Netherlands (20,000, of which 15,000 are concentrated in Rotterdam), Spain (65,500), United Kingdom (35,500), France (25,000), Italy (10,000), Luxembourg and Scandinavia (7,000), and Mexico (5,000). There is a Cape Verdean community in Argentina numbering 8,000. A large number of Cape Verdeans and people of Cape Verdean descent who emigrated before 1975 are not included in these statistics, because Cape Verdeans had Portuguese passports before 1975.

The Chinese make up a sizeable and important segment of the immigrant population in Cape Verde. The immigrants from the nearby West African coast make up the majority of foreigners in the country. Over the last several years, a few thousand Europeans and Latin Americans have settled in the country. On the islands, there are over 22,000 foreign-born naturalized Cape Verdeans who hail from over 90 countries around the world, living and working in the country on a permanent basis.

Over the years, Cape Verde has increasingly become a net immigration country due to its relative high per capita income, political and social stability, and freedom. [ citation needed ]

Emigrants from the Cape Verde islands to North America have a long history of involvement with the armed forces. They have enlisted in aid of the Revolutionary War, the Civil War, the First and Second World Wars, as well as the Korean and Vietnam Wars. [74] Cape Verdeans moved to places all over the world, from Macau to Haiti, and Argentina to northern Europe. [75]

The Cape Verdean people's history and experience with immigration has inspired many songs and musicians, like the song Sodade by Cesaria Evora. [76]

Health Edit

The infant mortality rate among Cape Verdean children between 0 and 5 years old is 15 per 1,000 live births according to the latest (2017) data from the National Statistics Bureau, [77] while the maternal mortality rate is 42 deaths per 100,000 live births. The HIV-AIDS prevalence rate among Cape Verdeans between 15 and 49 years old is 0.8%. [78]

According to the latest data (2017) from the National Statistics Bureau, [77] life expectancy at birth in Cape Verde is 76,2 years, that is, 72,2 years for males and 80,2 years for females. There are six hospitals in the Cape Verde archipelago: two central hospitals (one in the capital city of Praia and one in Mindelo, São Vicente) and four regional hospitals (one in Santa Catarina (northern Santiago region), one on São Antão, one on Fogo, and one on Sal). In addition, there are 28 health centers, 35 sanitation centers and a variety of private clinics located throughout the archipelago.

Cape Verde's population is among the healthiest in Africa. Since its independence, it has greatly improved its health indicators. Besides having been promoted to the group of "medium development" countries in 2007, leaving the least developed countries category (becoming the second country to do so [79] ), is currently the 10th best ranked country in Africa in its Human Development Index.

The total expenditure for health was 7.1% of GDP (2015).

Education Edit

Although the Cape Verdean educational system is similar to the Portuguese system, over the years the local universities have been increasingly adopting the American educational system for instance, all 10 existing universities in the country offer 4-year bachelor's degree programs as opposed to 5-year bachelor's degree programs that existed before 2010. Cape Verde has the second best educational system in Africa, after South Africa. [ citation needed ] Primary school education in Cape Verde is mandatory and free for children between the ages of 6 and 14 years. [80]

In 2011, the net enrolment ratio for primary school was 85%. [80] [81] Approximately 90% of the total population over 15 years of age is literate, and roughly 25% of the population holds a college degree a significant number of these college graduates hold doctorate degrees in different academic fields. Textbooks have been made available to 90 per cent of school children, and 98 per cent of the teachers have attended in-service teacher training. [80] Although most children have access to education, some problems remain. [80] For example, there is insufficient spending on school materials, lunches, and books. [80]

As of October 2016 [update] , there were 69 secondary schools throughout the archipelago (including 19 private secondary schools) and at least 10 universities in the country which are based on the two islands of Santiago and São Vicente.

In 2015, 23% of the Cape Verdean population had either attended or graduated from secondary schools. When it came to higher education, 9% of Cape Verdean men and 8% of Cape Verdean women held a bachelor's degree or had attended universities. The overall college education rate (i.e., college graduates and undergraduate students) in Cape Verde is about 24%, in relation to the local college age population [1]. The total expenditure on education was 5.6% of GDP (2010). The mean years of schooling of adults over 25 years is 12.

Science and technology Edit

In 2011, Cape Verde devoted just 0.07% of its GDP to research and development, among the lowest rates in West Africa. The Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Culture plans to strengthen the research and academic sectors by placing emphasis on greater mobility, through exchange programmes and international co-operation agreements. As part of this strategy, Cape Verde is participating in the Ibero-American academic mobility programme that expects to mobilize 200,000 academics between 2015 and 2020. [82]

Cape Verde counted 25 researchers in 2011, a researcher density of 51 per million inhabitants. The world average was 1,083 per million in 2013. All 25 researchers were working in the government sector in 2011 and one in three were women (36%). There was no research being conducted in either medical or agricultural sciences. Of the eight engineers involved in research and development, one was a woman. Three of the five researchers working in natural sciences were women, as were three of the six social scientists and two of the five researchers from the humanities. [82]

In 2015, the government was planning to build a 'cyber-island' which would develop and offer services that include software development, computer maintenance and back office operations. Approved in 2013, the Praia Technology Park is a step in this direction. Financed by the African Development Bank, it is expected to be operational by 2018. [82]

Crime Edit

Theft and burglary are common in Cape Verde, especially in crowded environments such as marketplaces, festivals, and celebrations. [83] Often the perpetrators of these crimes are gangs of street children. [83] Murders are concentrated in the major population centres of Praia and Mindelo. [83]

The culture of Cape Verde is characterized by a mixture of European and African elements. This is not a sum of two cultures living side by side, but a new culture resulting from an exchange that began in the 15th century.

The Cape Verdean case may be situated in the common context of African nations, in which elites, who questioned European racial and cultural superiority and who in some cases undertook a long armed struggle against European imperialism and for national liberation, use the rule of Western codes as the main instrument of internal domination. [40]

Cape Verdean social and cultural patterns are similar to those of rural Portugal. [40] Football games and church activities are typical sources of social interaction and entertainment. [40] The traditional walk around the praça (town square) to meet friends is practised regularly in Cape Verde towns. [40]

Media Edit

In towns with electricity, television is available on three channels one state owned (RTC – TCV) and three foreign owned, RTI Cabo Verde launched by the Portuguese-based RTI in 2005, on 31 March 2007, Record Cabo Verde, its own version was launched by the Brazilian-based Rede Record. [40] Cape Verde has now received TV CPLP and some of its programs are broadcast, the network first aired in 2016. Premium channels includes the Cape Verdean versions of Boom TV and Zap Cabo Verde, two channels owned by Brazil's Record. [84] Other premium channels are aired in Cape Verde, especially satellite networks common in hotels and villas. Availability is mostly limited, though. One channel is RDP África, the African version of the Portuguese radio station RDP.

As of early 2017, about 19% of the Cape Verdean population own an active cellular phone, 70% have access to the Internet, 11% own a landline telephone, and 2% of the population subscribe to local cable TV. In 2003, Cape Verde had 71,700 main line telephones with an additional 53,300 cellular phones in use throughout the country.

In 2004, there were seven radio stations six independent and one state owned. The media is operated by the Capeverdean News Agency (secondarily as Inforpress). Nationwide radio stations include RCV, RCV+, Radio Kriola, the religious station Radio Nova. [ citation needed ] Local radio stations include Rádio Praia, the first radio station in Cape Verde, Praia FM, the first FM station in the nation, Rádio Barlavento, Rádio Clube do Mindelo and Radio Morabeza in Mindelo. [ citation needed ]

Music Edit

The Cape Verdean people are known for their musicality, well expressed by popular manifestations such as the Carnival of Mindelo. Cape Verde music incorporates "African, Portuguese and Brazilian influences." [85] Cape Verde's quintessential national music is the morna, a melancholy and lyrical song form typically sung in Cape Verdean Creole. The most popular music genre after morna is the coladeira, followed by funaná and batuque music. Cesária Évora was the best-known Cape Verdean singer in the world, known as the "barefoot diva," because she liked to perform barefooted on stage. She was also referred to as "The Queen of Morna" [86] as opposed to her uncle Bana, who was referred to as "King of Morna". The international success of Cesária Évora has made other Cape Verdean artists, or descendants of Cape Verdeans born in Portugal, gain more space in the music market. Examples of this are singers Sara Tavares, Lura and Mayra Andrade.

Another great exponent of traditional music from Cape Verde was Antonio Vicente Lopes, better known as Travadinha, and Ildo Lobo, who died in 2004. The House of Culture in the center of the city of Praia is called Ildo Lobo House of Culture, in his honour.

There are also well known artists born to Cape Verdean parents who excelled themselves in the international music scene. Amongst these artists are jazz pianist Horace Silver, Duke Ellington's saxophonist Paul Gonsalves, Teófilo Chantre, Paul Pena, the Tavares brothers and singer Lura.

Dance Edit

Dance forms include the soft dance morna, the coladeira, the Cape Verdean version of the zouk from Guadeloupe called Cabo love, the Funaná (a sensual mixed Portuguese and African dance), the Batuque dance, and the Cabo Zouk.

Literature Edit

Cape Verdean literature is one of the richest of Lusophone Africa. Famous poets include Paulino Vieira, Manuel de Novas, Sergio Frusoni, Eugénio Tavares, and B. Léza, and famous authors include Baltasar Lopes da Silva, António Aurélio Gonçalves, Manuel Lopes, Orlanda Amarílis, Henrique Teixeira de Sousa, Arménio Vieira, Kaoberdiano Dambará, Dr. Azágua, and Germano Almeida.

Cinema Edit

The Carnival and the island of São Vicente are portrayed in the 2015 feature documentary Tchindas, nominated at the 12th Africa Movie Academy Awards.

Cuisine Edit

The Cape Verde diet is mostly based on fish and staple foods like corn and rice. Vegetables available during most of the year are potatoes, onions, tomatoes, manioc, cabbage, kale, and dried beans. Fruits such as bananas and papayas are available year-round, while others like mangoes and avocados are seasonal. [40]

A popular dish served in Cape Verde is cachupa, a slow-cooked stew of corn (hominy), beans, and fish or meat. A common appetizer is the pastel, a pastry shell filled with fish or meat which is then fried. [40]

Sports Edit

The country's most successful sports team is the Cape Verde national basketball team, which won the bronze medal at the FIBA Africa Championship 2007, after beating Egypt in its last game. The country's most well-known player is Walter Tavares, who plays for Real Madrid of Spain.

Cape Verde is famous for wave sailing [ citation needed ] (a type of windsurfing) and kiteboarding [ citation needed ] . Josh Angulo, a Hawaiian and 2009 PWA Wave World Champion, has done much to promote the archipelago as a windsurfing destination. [ citation needed ] Mitu Monteiro, a local kitesurfer, was the 2008 Kite Surfing World Champion in the wave discipline.

The Cape Verde national football team, nicknamed either the Tubarões Azuis (Blue Sharks) or Crioulos (Creoles), is the national team of Cape Verde and is controlled by the Cape Verdean Football Federation. The team has played at two Africa Cup of Nations, in 2013 and 2015. [87]

The country has competed at every Summer Olympics since 1996. [ citation needed ] In 2016, Gracelino Barbosa became the first Cape Verdean to win a medal at the Paralympic Games. [88]

Ports Edit

There are four international ports: Mindelo, São Vicente Praia, Santiago Palmeira, Sal and Sal Rei, Boa Vista. Mindelo on São Vicente is the main port for cruise liners and the terminus for the ferry service to Santo Antão. Praia on Santiago is a main hub for local ferry services to other islands. Palmeira on Sal supplies fuel for the main airport on the island, Amílcar Cabral International Airport, and is important for the hotel construction taking place on the island. Porto Novo on Santo Antão is the only source for imports and exports of produce from the island as well as passenger traffic since the closure of the airstrip at Ponta do Sol. There are smaller harbours, essentially single jetties at Tarrafal on São Nicolau, Sal Rei on Boa Vista, Vila do Maio (Porto Inglês) on Maio, São Filipe on Fogo and Furna on Brava. These act as terminals for the inter-island ferry services, which carry both freight and passengers. The pier at Santa Maria on Sal used by both fishing and dive boats has been rehabilitated.

Airports Edit

There were seven operational airports as of 2014 [update] — 4 international and 3 domestic. Two others were non-operational, one on Brava and the other on Santo Antão, closed for safety reasons.

Due to its geographical location, Cape Verde is often flown over by transatlantic airliners. It is part of the conventional air traffic route from Europe to South America, which goes from southern Portugal via the Canary Islands and Cape Verde to northern Brazil.

International airports Edit

    , Sal Island , Santiago Island , Boa Vista Island , São Vicente Island
  • João dos Santos Airport, CPV
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  • Definitions from Wiktionary
  • Media from Wikimedia Commons
  • News from Wikinews
  • Travel guide from Wikivoyage
  • Wikimedia Atlas of Cape Verde at Curlie . The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. from State.gov from BBC News entry on Encyclopædia Britannica from UCB Libraries GovPubs from International Futures

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RESPECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS

Section 1 Respect for the Integrity of the Person, Including Freedom From:

a. Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life

There were no reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings.

There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances.

c. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

The constitution and law prohibit such practices however, there were credible reports that in some instances police beat persons in custody and detention. In most cases, authorities took action against the abusers. However, there were credible reports that police failed to report to their superiors some of the abuses that occurred in police stations.

Prison and Detention Center Conditions

Prison conditions were poor, and facilities were severely overcrowded. Sanitation and medical assistance were poor however, doctors and nurses were available, and prisoners were taken to public hospitals for serious medical problems. Psychological problems among prisoners were common.

During the year there were no known deaths in prison from adverse conditions. There were a total of approximately 1,300 prisoners and detainees in the country's eight prisons. The maximum capacity of Praia's prison is 800 prisoners.

In prisons juveniles were sometimes held together with adults in certain facilities, but pretrial detainees generally were held separately from convicted prisoners.

In December 2008 a fellow prisoner alleged to be a professional hit man hired by drug traffickers murdered a convicted drug trafficker who was collaborating with authorities. The case remained under investigation.

The 2005 prisoner riot case at the Sao Martinho Prison in the capital city of Praia in which one prisoner was killed and three persons (including a guard) injured was pending final resolution. The prison director, who left for another country after being formally accused of allowing the mistreatment of prisoners under his supervision, subsequently was sentenced in that country to three years' imprisonment for perjury related to his immigration status.

The government permitted formal visits by international human rights monitors to prisons and visits to individual prisoners. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and media representatives frequently visited the prisons and reported on prison conditions.

Each municipality has police stations capable of holding detainees until they are transferred to prison. There were no deaths as a result of adverse conditions in jails and detention centers, but separation of prisoners based on trial status, gender, and age was not always possible due to space limitations.

d. Arbitrary Arrest or Detention

The constitution and law prohibit arbitrary arrest and detention, and the government generally observed these prohibitions.

Role of the Police and Security Apparatus

The Public Order Police are under the Ministry of Internal Administration and are responsible for law enforcement. The Judicial Police are under the Ministry of Justice and are responsible for major investigations. Logistical constraints--including lack of vehicles, limited communications equipment, and poor forensic capacity--limited police effectiveness. Corruption was not a significant problem.

Police abuses were investigated internally, and these investigations resulted occasionally in legal action against the perpetrators. During 2008 the government provided training to increase police effectiveness. Police impunity, however, remained a problem.

Arrest Procedures and Treatment While in Detention

Police may not make arrests without a warrant issued by an authorized official unless a person is caught in the act of committing a felony. The law stipulates that a suspect must be brought before a judge within 48 hours of arrest. The law provides a detainee with the right to prompt judicial determination of the legality of his or her detention, and the authorities respected this right in practice. Attorneys inform detainees of the charges against them. There was a functioning bail system. Detainees were allowed prompt access to family members and to a lawyer of their choice and, if indigent, to one provided by the government.

Nonetheless, the length of pretrial detention was a serious problem. One concern arose from differing interpretations of the law authorizing extended pretrial detention in certain circumstances. Some courts have read this provision broadly, while others have opted for a narrower interpretation. This resulted in situations where detainees facing identical charges were held for different lengths of time based on the prosecutor's and the judge's interpretation of the law. At year's end no standard timelines had been set for pretrial detentions. The judicial system also was overburdened and understaffed, and criminal cases frequently ended when charges were dropped by the citizen before a determination of guilt or innocence was made.

e. Denial of Fair Public Trial

The law provides for an independent judiciary, and the government generally respected this provision in practice. However, the judicial system lacked sufficient staffing and was inefficient.

The judicial system is composed of the Supreme Court of Justice (SCJ), which is the court of last resort and also handles administrative cases, and the regional courts. The National Assembly amended the constitution in February to increase the number of Supreme Court judges from five to seven with a view to expediting the resolution of cases. Of the seven Supreme Court judges, one is appointed by the president, two by the National Assembly, and four by the Superior Judiciary Council. Judges are independent and may not belong to a political party. Regional courts adjudicate minor disputes on the local level in rural areas. The civilian courts have jurisdiction over state security cases. Criminal courts handle violations of criminal law, including the electoral laws, while civil courts handle civil and commercial suits. There is also a military court it cannot try civilians. The military court provides the same protections as civil criminal courts.

The law provides for the right to a fair and public nonjury trial. Defendants have the right to be present and to consult with an attorney in a timely manner free counsel is provided for the indigent. Defendants are presumed to be innocent until proven guilty, have the right to confront or question witnesses against them, and have the right to present witnesses in their defense. Defendants also can present evidence on their own behalf. Defendants and their attorneys have access to government-held evidence relevant to their cases and can appeal regional court decisions to the SCJ. The law extends the above rights to all citizens.

Political Prisoners and Detainees

There were no reports of political prisoners or detainees.

Civil Judicial Procedures and Remedies

The ordinary courts are impartial and independent, and handle civil matters including lawsuits seeking damages for, or an injunction ordering the cessation of, a human rights violation. Both administrative and judicial remedies are available for alleged wrongs.

f. Arbitrary Interference with Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence

The constitution and law prohibit such actions, and the government generally respected these prohibitions.

Section 2 Respect for Civil Liberties, Including:

a. Freedom of Speech and Press

The constitution and law provide for freedom of speech and of the press, and the government generally respected these rights. The independent press was active and expressed a variety of views without direct restriction.

There were no government restrictions on access to the Internet or reports that the government monitored e-mail or Internet chat rooms. Individuals and groups could engage in peaceful expression of views via the Internet, including by e-mail. According to International Telecommunication Union statistics for 2008, approximately 21 percent of the country's inhabitants used the Internet. Citizens in the cities had access to the Internet at cybercafes.

Academic Freedom and Cultural Events

There were no government restrictions on academic freedom or cultural events.

b. Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and Association

The constitution and law provide for freedom of assembly and association, and the government generally respected these rights.

The constitution and law provide for freedom of religion, and the government generally respected this right.

Societal Abuses and Discrimination

There was no known Jewish community, and there were no reports of anti-Semitic acts or discrimination against members of any religious group.

At the end of the year the SCJ had not issued a decision in the 2006 case against four Seventh-day Adventists accused of desecrating a Roman Catholic Church.

For a more detailed discussion, see the 2009 International Religious Freedom Report at 2009-2017.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf.

d. Freedom of Movement, Internally Displaced Persons, Protection of Refugees, and Stateless Persons

The constitution and laws provide for freedom of movement within the country, foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation, and the government generally respected these rights in practice. The government cooperated with the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and other humanitarian organizations in assisting refugees and asylum seekers.

The constitution and law prohibit forced exile, and the government did not employ it.

The law provides for the granting of asylum or refugee status in accordance with the 1951 UN Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its 1967 protocol, and the government has established a system for providing protection to refugees. The country is also a party to the 1969 African Union Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of the Refugee Problem in Africa. The government grants refugee status and asylum when petitioned under the established system. In practice, the government provided protection against the expulsion or return of refugees to countries where their lives or freedom would be threatened on account of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion.

During the year the government provided temporary protection to 11 individuals who may not qualify as refugees under the 1951 convention and the 1967 protocol.

Section 3 Respect for Political Rights: The Right of Citizens to Change Their Government

The constitution and law provide citizens with the right to change their government peacefully, and citizens exercised this right in practice through periodic, free, and fair elections held on the basis of universal suffrage.

Elections and Political Participation

In the 2006 legislative elections, individuals and parties were free to declare their candidacies. The ruling African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV) won 41 seats in the National Assembly with 52 percent of the vote the main opposition party, Movement for Democracy (MPD), won 29 seats and the Union for a Democratic and Independent Cape Verde won the remaining two seats. International observers characterized the elections as generally free and fair, despite some irregularities. Alleging fraud the MPD unsuccessfully contested the results by filing suit with the SCJ to annul the elections.

Presidential elections were also held in 2006, and individuals and parties were free to declare their candidacies. International observers characterized the conduct of the election as free and fair. The incumbent, President Pires, won a second term with 51 percent of the vote MPD candidate Carlos Veiga obtained 49 percent of the vote. Veiga then petitioned the SCJ to annul the presidential election results, stating that the elections were not free or transparent. The SCJ ruled there were no legal grounds for annulment and confirmed President Pires as the winner.

Although the National Electoral Commission (CNE) and the SCJ declared the legislative and presidential elections generally free and fair, they also recognized some irregularities in both elections. The CNE noted that the electoral code needed to be amended to provide greater security and transparency. It also cited needs for stricter, more consistent voter identification and registration processes and the adoption of indelible ink on ballots.

There were 11 women in the 72-seat National Assembly, eight women in the 20-member cabinet, and three women on the SCJ.

Section 4 Official Corruption and Government Transparency

Official corruption carries a criminal penalty of up to 15 years' imprisonment. There were no new reports of government corruption during the year, but the World Bank's 2008 Worldwide Governance Indicators reflected that government corruption was a problem.

The law provides for freedom of access to governmental information without restriction, provided that privacy rights are respected. The government in practice frequently granted access.

Section 5 Governmental Attitude Regarding International and Nongovernmental Investigation of Alleged Violations of Human Rights

A number of domestic human rights groups generally operated without government restriction, investigating and publishing their findings on human rights cases. Government officials generally were cooperative and responsive to their views.

There were several private, independent human rights groups, including the National Commission of the Rights of Man, the Ze Moniz Association, and the Alcides Barros Association.

The government has a positive attitude towards international NGOs. In November the International Labor Organization (ILO) sent an expert to provide training on constitutional obligations related to reporting requirements under ratified ILO conventions.

Section 6 Discrimination, Societal Abuses, and Trafficking in Persons

The law prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, religion, disability, language, or social status however, the government did not enforce these provisions effectively, and violence and discrimination against women and abuse of children were serious problems.

Rape, including spousal rape, is a criminal offense, but the government generally did not enforce the law effectively. The penalty for rape is eight to 16 years' imprisonment. Penalties are higher if the victim is under the age of 16 or if the offender took advantage of job responsibilities in a prison, hospital, school, or rehabilitation center, or with persons under his or her authority.

Domestic violence against women, including wife beating, was widespread. The government and civil society encouraged women to report criminal offenses such as spousal abuse, which is punishable by two to 13 years' imprisonment however, longstanding social and cultural norms as well as lack of shelter housing inhibited victims from doing so.

While there were mechanisms such as legal counseling, psychological care, specific police attention, and family courts to deal with spousal abuse, these mechanisms neither effectively prevented violence nor ensured the punishment of those responsible. Women claimed that police often ignored the legal complaints they filed against their husbands. Nevertheless reports to police of domestic violence continued to increase during the year. The police and judicial system sometimes delayed acting on abuse cases. Violence against women was the subject of extensive public service media coverage.

The government-run Cape Verdean Institute of Equity and Gender, the Women Parliamentarians Network, and local women's organizations with foreign diplomatic support promoted legislation to address gender-based violence.

Prostitution is legal, except for prostitution of minors, and the government generally did not enforce that prohibition. Sex tourism was a growing problem, and there are no laws to address it.

Sexual harassment was common and not culturally perceived as a crime. It is prohibited by law with a penalty of one year in prison, but the government did not effectively enforce this law.

The Civil Code grants all citizens the freedom to make decisions regarding the number, spacing, and timing of their children without discrimination, coercion, or violence. All citizens have access to contraception. Family planning centers throughout the country distribute some contraceptives free of charge to the public. These centers provide skilled assistance and counseling both before and after childbirth and in cases of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.

Women enjoy the same legal rights as men, including rights under family law, property law, and in the judicial system. Despite legal prohibitions against sex discrimination and provisions for full equality, including equal pay for equal work, discrimination against women continued. The Cape Verdean Institute of Equity and Gender worked for the protection of legal rights of women. The Women Jurists' Association provided free legal assistance to women throughout the country suffering from discrimination, violence, and spousal abuse.

Citizenship can be derived either by birth within the country or from one's parents. The government registered all births immediately after they were reported. Failure to register did not result in denial of public services.

The government provided free and universal education for all children aged six to 12. Education was compulsory until age 11 however, secondary education was free only for children whose families had an annual income below 147,000 escudos (approximately $1,950). There was a 94 percent primary education enrollment rate for all children the enrollment rate in secondary school for all children was 70 percent.

Child abuse and sexual violence against children were serious problems, and the media regularly reported on those issues. Child labor was also a problem (see section 7.d.). Government efforts to address these problems were inadequate. In 2007 the Institute of Children and Adolescents (ICCA), a government organization, carried out a study on the child labor situation and concluded that the practice of using children to collect sand for use in construction should be considered as one of the worst forms of child labor.

The ICCA also found that children tend to work at the behest of their families, and that child labor on the islands is intimately linked to the need to supplement family income. It is believed, however, that the vast majority of these children performed work outside of school hours and attended school.

The law prohibits trafficking in minors, but not adults, and there were reports that persons were trafficked to and from the country. Police reports alleged that the country was a transit point for trafficking in persons from West African countries to the Canary Islands and to Europe. However, there was no additional reported evidence to support these reports.

Sentences for trafficking in children range from 12 to 16 years' imprisonment. There were no prosecutions of such cases during the year. The Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Internal Administration are responsible for combating human trafficking. The government did not extradite citizens who were accused of human trafficking in other countries.

Persons with Disabilities

The law prohibits discrimination against persons with disabilities in employment, education, access to health care, or in the provision of other state services, and the government effectively enforced these provisions. There are no laws or programs to ensure access to buildings for persons with disabilities. Several NGOs, including an association for the blind, actively advocated for the rights of persons with disabilities.

Societal Abuse, Discrimination, and Acts of Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

Legal protections helped ensure homosexual conduct was protected under the law however, societal discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity continued to be a problem. There were no lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender persons' NGOs active in the country.

Other Societal Violence or Discrimination

There were no reports of societal violence or discrimination against persons with HIV/AIDS.

a. The Right of Association

The law allows workers to form and to join unions of their choice without previous authorization or excessive requirements, and workers exercised this right in practice. There are no restrictions except for employees of diplomatic missions. Approximately 22 percent of workers were unionized. The law provides union members with the right to strike. Nonetheless, the government may invoke a "civil request" through which it may require the striking union to continue providing specified minimum services in an emergency or if provision of basic services is threatened.

b. The Right to Organize and Bargain Collectively

The law allows unions to conduct their activities without interference, and the government protected this right in practice. The law provides for the right of workers to bargain collectively however, there was very little collective bargaining. There were no collective bargaining agreements and no collective labor contracts completed during the year.

The law prohibits antiunion discrimination.

There are no special laws or exemptions from regular labor laws within the export processing zone that encompasses the entire country.

c. Prohibition of Forced or Compulsory Labor

The law prohibits forced or compulsory labor, including by children, and there were no reports that such practices occurred.

d. Prohibition of Child Labor and Minimum Age for Employment

There are laws and policies to protect children from exploitation in the workplace, but the government did not implement them effectively. A new labor code was approved in 2008, which lowered the legal minimum age for employment from 16 to 15 years. The code also states children under 15 may be allowed to work as apprentices under specific conditions that do not jeopardize the child's health and development however, the government rarely enforced either provision. For children under the age of 15, only apprentice contracts are allowed.

The most recent statistics available (2000 census) indicated that an estimated 8,000 children were working as street vendors and car washers in urban centers, and in agriculture, animal husbandry, and fishing in the countryside. It is believed, however, that the vast majority performed work outside of school hours and attended school.

In 2007 the ICCA concluded a study analyzing the child labor situation in the country. The goals of the study were to raise public awareness, to create an action plan to prevent children from entering exploitive work situations, and to encourage children engaged in such labor to stop.

The ministries of justice and labor were responsible for enforcing child labor laws. In practice, however, they seldom did so. There were no government programs to address child labor.

e. Acceptable Conditions of Work

As the country's largest employer, the government continued to play the dominant role in setting wages. It did not fix wages for the private sector, but salary levels for civil servants provided the basis for wage negotiations in the private sector. For a typical entry-level worker, this wage was approximately 12,000 escudos ($163) per month. The majority of jobs paid wages that did not provide a worker and family with a decent standard of living most workers also relied on second jobs and support from their extended family for income.

The law sets the maximum workweek for adults at 44 hours, prohibits excessive compulsory overtime, and requires that a premium be paid for whatever overtime is worked. The law also mandates required rest periods, which vary according to the sector--the minimum is 12 hours. While large employers generally respected these regulations, many domestic servants and agricultural laborers worked longer hours.

The director general of labor conducted sporadic inspections to enforce the labor code and imposed fines on private enterprises that were not in conformity with the law. Nonetheless, the government did not enforce labor laws systematically, and much of the labor force did not enjoy legal protection.

The government has not set occupational health and safety standards however, there is a general provision in the law that requires employers to provide a healthy and safe work environment. Few industries employed heavy or dangerous equipment. The law does provide workers with the right to remove themselves from situations that endanger health or safety without jeopardizing their continued employment.


Contents

Map # Municipality Island(s) Area
(km 2 ) [2]
Population
(2010 census) [2]
Population
(2015 estimate) [3]
Parishes
1 Tarrafal Santiago 120.8 18,565 18,314 Santo Amaro Abade
2 São Miguel Santiago 77.4 15,648 14,671 São Miguel Arcanjo
3 São Salvador do Mundo Santiago 26.5 8,677 8,652 São Salvador do Mundo
4 Santa Cruz Santiago 112.2 26,617 26,360 Santiago Maior
5 São Domingos Santiago 147.5 13,808 14,037 Nossa Senhora da Luz
São Nicolau Tolentino
6 Praia Santiago 102.6 131,719 151,436 Nossa Senhora da Graça
7 Ribeira Grande de Santiago Santiago 137.3 8,325 8,415 Santíssimo Nome de Jesus
São João Baptista
8 São Lourenço dos Órgãos Santiago 36.9 7,388 7,127 São Lourenço dos Órgãos
9 Santa Catarina Santiago 242.6 43,297 45,123 Santa Catarina
10 Brava Brava 62.5 5,995 5,698 São João Baptista
Nossa Senhora do Monte
11 São Filipe Fogo 228.8 22,248 21,194 São Lourenço
Nossa Senhora da Conceição
12 Santa Catarina do Fogo Fogo 153.0 5,299 5,279 Santa Catarina do Fogo
13 Mosteiros Fogo 89.5 9,524 9,364 Nossa Senhora da Ajuda
14 Maio Maio 274.5 6,952 6,980 Nossa Senhora da Luz
15 Boa Vista Boa Vista 631.1 9,162 14,451 Santa Isabel
São João Baptista
16 Sal Sal 219.8 25,779 33,747 Nossa Senhora das Dores
17 Ribeira Brava São Nicolau 224.8 7,580 7,182 Nossa Senhora da Lapa
Nossa Senhora do Rosário
18 Tarrafal de São Nicolau São Nicolau 119.8 5,237 5,242 São Francisco
19 São Vicente São Vicente 226.7 76,140 81,014 Nossa Senhora da Luz
20 Porto Novo Santo Antão 564.3 18,028 17,431 São João Baptista
Santo André
21 Ribeira Grande Santo Antão 166.5 18,890 17,017 Nossa Senhora do Rosário
Nossa Senhora do Livramento
Santo Crucifixo
São Pedro Apóstolo
22 Paul Santo Antão 54.3 6,997 6,099 Santo António das Pombas

The uninhabited island of Santa Luzia and all uninhabited islets, including Raso and Branco, are not part of any municipality, but are in the public domain of the state of Cape Verde. [4]


Cape Verde’s court cannot review UN Human Rights Committee’s directive on Alex Saab – Femi Falana

Femi Falana, a lawyer for Venezuelan businessman and diplomat , Alex Saab says Cape Verde cannot review the directives of the UN Human Rights Committee to halt extradition processes on the businessman.

He made the comment in reaction to statements by the president of Cape Verde, Jorge Fonseca that the country’s courts will look into the directives and decide on the way forward.

The president of Cape Verde’s also said he has no influence in the extradition or otherwise of the businessman.

According to Mr. Falana, President Jorge Fonseca’s claim is not right.

The United Nations Human Rights Committee last week directed Cape Verde to suspend activities towards the extradition of Mr. Saab to the US to face money laundering charges.

The Committee gave Cape Verde the opportunity to respond to the issues to enable it take a final decision.

The President of Cape Verde, Jorge Fonseca during a press interaction in Praia earlier this week said he has no influence in the case and cannot decide whether Cape Verde will comply with the decision or not.

He said the decision can only be taken by Cape Verde’s court.

“In a system like ours, only a judge can arrest or release because only a judge has the jurisdictional power to remove or restore freedom. There may be countries where this is possible. But not in Cape Verde… I have no interest in that. I may have an opinion, but it’s not worth anything. The opinion that counts is the opinion of the Constitutional Court…Whatever the TC decides, is decided, and is complied with,” the president said.

But Femi Falana in response to the comment said the UN Human Rights Committee’s directive must be complied with and the president has the power to ensure that.

“This is grossly misleading as President Fonseca is not unaware that the decisions of the United Nations Human Rights Committee are not subject to the review of domestic courts of Cape Verde,” he said.

He added that, “When the ECOWAS Court ordered the immediate release of H.E. Alex Saab from illegal custody and termination of the extradition proceedings pending in Cape Verdean courts, President Fonseca said that Cape Verde was not bound by the decisions of the Regional Court. When the Supreme Court of Justice of Cape Verde ruled that the immunity of H.E. Alex Saab was a political decision the Government ignored the ruling,” he added.

Although it’s been a week since the directive, Cape Verde is yet to comply with it.

Meanwhile, the UN Human Rights Committee says it has written again to Cape Verde to remind it of the directive hoping that it will comply with it especially on the issue of ensuring that Mr. Saab is allowed to get proper medical care.


  • Africa portal

Sudan's human rights record has been widely condemned. Some human rights organizations have documented a variety of abuses and atrocities carried out by the Sudanese government over the past several years under the rule of Omar al-Bashir. The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted serious concerns over human rights violations by the government and militia groups. Capital punishment, including crucifixion, is used for many crimes. In September, 2019, the government of Sudan signed an agreement with the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights to open a UN Human Rights Office in Khartoum and field offices in Darfur, Blue Nile, Southern Kordofan and East Sudan.

Human rights in Kenya internationally maintain a variety of mixed opinions specifically, political freedoms are highlighted as being poor and homosexuality remains a crime. In the Freedom of the World index for 2017, Kenya held a rating of '4' for civil liberties and political freedoms, in which a scale of "1" to "7" is practised.

Human rights in Eritrea are viewed by certain non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Human Rights Watch as among the worst in the world, particularly with regards to freedom of the press. Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have been repeatedly postponed, the judiciary is weak, and constitutional provisions protecting individual freedom have yet to be fully implemented. Some Western countries, particularly the United States, accuse the Government of Eritrea of arbitrary arrest and detentions and of detaining an unknown number of people without charge for their political activism. The Eritrean government has continuously dismissed the accusations as politically motivated. As an attempt at reform, Eritrean government officials and NGO representatives have participated in numerous public meetings and dialogues. A new movement called Citizens for Democratic Rights in Eritrea aimed at bringing about dialogue between the government and opposition was also formed in early 2009.

The U.S. Department of State's Country Report on Human Rights Practices for São Tomé and Príncipe states that the government generally respects the human rights of its citizens, despite problems in a few areas.

Human rights in Somalia throughout the late 20th-century and early 21st-century were considered dire, but have gradually improved over the following years. Human rights are guaranteed in the Federal Constitution, which was adopted in August 2012. They fall under the Ministry of Human Rights established in August 2013. The central authorities concurrently inaugurated a National Human Rights Day, endorsed an official Human Rights Roadmap, and completed Somalia's first National Gender Policy.

Human rights in Chad have been described as "poor" for example, Freedom House has designated the country as "Not Free." Chad received a score of 7 for political rights and 6 for civil liberties.

Historically, Comoros has had a relatively poor human rights record. In early 1979, Comorian authorities arrested some 300 supporters of the Soilih's regime and imprisoned them without trial in Moroni. Four of Soilih's former ministers also disappeared. For the next two years, there were further arrests, shootings, and disappearances. Under pressure from France, some trials were held but many Comorians remained political prisoners, despite protests from Amnesty International and other humanitarian organizations. The Abdallah regime also restricted freedom of speech, press, association, citizens' rights to change their government, women's rights, and workers' rights. After Abdallah's death on November 27, 1989, the country's human rights record improved. The European mercenaries who ruled the island ordered only a few arrests and released nearly all political prisoners who had been detained after the 1985 and 1987 coup attempts.

Human rights in Rwanda have been violated on a grand scale. The greatest violation is the Rwandan genocide of Tutsi in 1994. The post-genocide government is also responsible for grave violations of human rights.

The Republic of Congo gained independence from French Equatorial Africa in 1960. It was a one-party Marxist-Leninist state from 1969 to 1991. Multi-party elections have been held since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 civil war and President Denis Sassou Nguesso has ruled for 26 of the past 36 years. The political stability and development of hydrocarbon production made the Republic of the Congo the fourth largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea region, providing the country with relative prosperity despite instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide.
The Congolese Human Right Observatory claims a number of unresolved and pending issues in the country.
Discrimination against Pygmies is widespread, the result of cultural biases, especially traditional relationships with the Bantu, as well as more contemporary forms of exploitation.

Human rights in Madagascar are protected under the country's constitution. However the extent to which such rights are reflected in practice, is subject to debate. The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted concerns regarding the suspension of democratic electoral processes as the result of recent political unrest. Furthermore, reports of corruption, arbitrary arrest and child labor highlight the prevalence of human rights issues in the country.

Human rights in Botswana are protected under the constitution. The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted that in general the government of Botswana has respected the rights of its citizens.

Human rights in Cameroon are addressed in the constitution. However, the 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted concerns in regard to election irregularities, security forces torture and arbitrary arrests.

Human rights in Burkina Faso are addressed in the constitution. The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted concerns regarding restrictions on the press and the operation of the judiciary system.

Burundi is governed as a presidential representative democratic republic, with an estimated population of 10,557,259. The country has experienced a long history of social unrest and ethnic tension between the Hutu majority and Tutsi minority, with successive civil wars jeopardizing national development since Burundi's decolonization as a Belgian territory in 1962. The most recent conflict broke out in 1993 with the assassination of Burundi's first democratically elected President, Melchior Ndadaye, and led to large-scale violations of human rights and general impunity. In line with the Arusha Agreement of August 2000, peace was brokered between rebel groups the National Council for the Defense of Democracy–Forces for the Defense of Democracy (CNDD-FDD) and the National Forces of Liberation (FNL), and a new Constitution was adopted by national referendum in 2005. The Constitution established cognitive institutions of State, including the Executive, Judiciary, and Legislature, with a view to promoting the rule of law and a more cogent human rights framework.

Human rights in Liberia became a focus of international attention when the country's president, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, was named one of the three female co-winners of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize, all of whom were cited "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work".

Human rights are "rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled". Proponents of the concept usually assert that everyone is endowed with certain entitlements merely by reason of being human.

The issue of human rights in Djibouti, a small country situated within the Horn of Africa, is a matter of concern for several human rights organizations. In its 2011 Freedom in the World report, Freedom House ranked Djibouti as "Not Free", a downgrading from its former status as "Partly Free". The nation most recently saw martial violence in 2008, in the form of border clashes with neighbouring Eritrea.

Equatorial Guinea is known for human rights abuses. Under the current government it has "limited ability of citizens to change their government increased reports of unlawful killings by security forces government-sanctioned kidnappings systematic torture of prisoners and detainees by security forces life threatening conditions in prisons and detention facilities impunity arbitrary arrest, detention, and incommunicado detention harassment and deportation of foreign residents with limited due process judicial corruption and lack of due process restrictions on the right to privacy restrictions on freedom of speech and of the press restrictions on the rights of assembly, association, and movement government corruption violence and discrimination against women suspected trafficking in persons discrimination against ethnic minorities and restrictions on labor rights."

Human rights in Lesotho, a nation of 2,067,000 people completely surrounded by South Africa, is a contentious issue. In its 2012 Freedom in the World report, Freedom House declared the country "Partly Free". According to the United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, which produces annual human rights reports on the country, the most pressing human rights issues are the use of torture, poor prison conditions, and the abuse of women and children.

Human rights in Guinea, a nation of approximately 10,069,000 people in West Africa, are a contentious issue. In its 2012 Freedom in the World report, Freedom House named Guinea "partly free" for the second year in a row, an improvement over its former status as one of the least free countries in Africa.


Cape Verde Human Rights - History

The United Nations Human Rights Committee (UNHRC) has called on Cape Verde to "refrain from extraditing Mr Alex Saab to the United States" and to take all necessary measures to ensure access to appropriate health care.

In a decision on interim measures dated June 8, UNHRC said Mr Saab, the Venezuelan diplomat who was arrested in the country earlier this year, needs independent and specialised physicians of his choice.

This decision ordering interim measures is the first urgent step resulting from the registration of a complaint filed by Mr Saab with the UNHCR, a body composed of 18 independent experts.

In the petition, that is receiving the committee's full attention, the Venezuelan envoy claims to be a victim of torture and ill-treatment at the time of the arrest and in detention by State agents.

Dr Jose Manuel Pinto Monteiro, a renowned Cape Verde constitutional and criminal lawyer who is leading Mr Saad's defense team said that his client has received inhumane treatment and suffered through degrading conditions of the detention due to lack of medical care as a cancer patient, a situation that requires urgent medical care.

"Mr Saad is under the risk of being tortured and ill-treated in case of extradition and to be exposed to further violations of his rights if extradited the denial of his right to be informed of consular rights and the arbitrary nature of his detention," Dr Monteiro said in a statement seen by Nation.Africa.

Mr Saab was arrested and has been detained in Cape Verde since June 12, 2020 pending what his lawyers call an unlawful extradition to the United States of America.

Despite a ruling by the Ecowas Court of Justice on 15 March 2021, declaring that his arrest and detention were arbitrary, and ordering his immediate release and the termination of the extradition proceedings against him, Cape Verde keeps on refusing to cooperate with the judicial laws.

A Geneva prosecutor closed the three-year investigation into money laundering and ordered the compensation for damages in late 2020.

The Cape Verdean Prosecutor General has acknowledged publicly that the detention was made with a political agenda.

Cape Verde continues to neglect the rule of law, refuses to respect his immunity and inviolability with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela been shut out from any diplomatic dialogue with the host nation.

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In ordering the urgent interim measures to suspend immediately the extradition and secure the human dignity through medical care of Mr Saab, UNHCR shares its concerns about the risks of irreparable harms and violations of the right to life and right to physical integrity of the Venezuelan diplomat and requests from Cape Verde to preserve the human rights of the envoy.

"This case of arbitrary arrest is emblematic of serious and systematic violations of human rights and international law by Cape Verde. No state respecting international law and the rule of law could legitimately ignore this new call to reason and to respect human rights," said Dr Monteiro.

The Committee's consistent position is that "a failure to implement interim measures is incompatible with the obligation to respect in good faith the procedure for the consideration of individual communications under the Optional Protocol."

UNHCR reminded the State party that the obligations under the Covenant and the Optional Protocol are binding on the State party as a whole, including all branches of its Government.

Cape Verde has been a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights since August 6, 1993 and to the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights since May 19, 2000.


Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Marriage. Legal and church weddings are uncommon in Cape Verde. More often than not, a woman will simply sai di casa (leave her family's house) to move in with her boyfriend. This is often occasioned by the woman becoming pregnant. After four years of cohabitation, a relationship acquires the status of common-law marriage. While polygamy is not legal, it is customary for men (married or not) to be sleeping with several women at once.

Domestic Unit. Traditionally, several generations of a family live together in the same house. Childrearing is communal, and living situations are fluid children often stay with aunts, uncles, or other relatives, especially during the school year. Due to emigration and de facto polygamy, there are a great many households headed by single mothers.


Cape Verde Human Rights - History

Following independence in 1975, the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) established a one
party political system. This became the African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde (PAICV) in 1980, as Cape Verde
sought to distance itself from Guinea-Bissau, following unrest in that country.

In 1991, following growing pressure for a more pluralistic society, multi-party elections were held for the first time. The opposition
party, the Movement for Democracy (MpD), won the legislative elections, and formed the government. The MpD candidate also
defeated the PAICV candidate in the presidential elections. In the 1996 elections, the MpD increased their majority, but in the 2001
the PAICV returned to power, winning both the Legislative and the Presidential elections.

Generally, Cape Verde enjoys a stable democratic system. The elections have been considered free and fair, there is a free press,
and the rule of law is respected by the State. In acknowledgment of this, Freedom House granted Cape Verde two 1s in its annual
Freedom in the World report, a perfect score. It is the only African country to receive this score.

A presidential election was held in Cape Verde on 7 August 2011, with a second round run-off on 21 August. The result was a
victory for Jorge Carlos Fonseca of the Movement for Democracy, who received 54% of the vote in the second round. A
parliamentary election was held Cape Verde on 6 February 2011. The African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde
(PAICV), led by Prime Minister Jose Maria Neves, had been the governing party since 2001 it faced the main opposition
Movement for Democracy (MpD), led by Carlos Veiga. Although technical problems prevented a prompt announcement of official
results, it quickly became clear that PAICV had won a parliamentary majority, and Veiga conceded defeat on 7 February 2011.
The opposition's immediate acceptance of defeat, prior to an official announcement, was viewed as a sign of the strength of
democracy in Cape Verde.
Source: Wikipedia: Politics of Cape Verde

Cape Verde is a multiparty parliamentary democracy in which constitutional powers are shared between the newly elected (in August)
head of state, President Jorge Carlos Fonseca, and Prime Minister Jose Maria Neves, who is serving a third term after his party won the
parliamentary elections in February. President Fonseca was elected to a five-year term in generally free and fair elections. The Supreme
Court and the National Electoral Commission also declared the 2011 nationwide legislative elections generally free and fair. There
continue to be isolated instances in which elements of the security forces acted independently of civilian control.

There were reports of human rights problems in the following areas: allegations of police violence towards prisoners and detainees,
lengthy pretrial detention, and violence and discrimination against women.

Other human rights issues concerned child abuse and some instances of child labor.

The government took steps to prosecute and punish officials who committed abuses. A tendency to downplay or disregard police abuses
sometimes characterized the attitude of local governments.
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23 April 2012
Human Rights Committee
104th
session
New York, 12-30 March 2012
Consideration of reports submitted by States parties
under article 40 of the Covenant
Concluding observations of the Human Rights Committee
Cape Verde

A. Introduction
3. The Covenant came into force for Cape Verde on 6 November 1993. The State party was under the obligation to submit its initial
report under article 40, paragraph 1 (a), of the Covenant by 5 November 1994. The Committee regrets that the State party has failed to
honour its reporting obligations under article 40 of the Covenant and that, despite numerous reminders, the State party has not submitted
the initial report. This amounts to a serious breach by the State party o f its obligations under article 40 of the Covenant. However, the
Committee appreciates that the State party’s permanent representative to the United Nations attended the session and provided
clarification on a number of issues.

B. Positive aspects
4. The Committee welcomes the accession by the State party to the following treaties:
(a) The Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its Second Optional Protocol aiming at the
abolition of the death penalty, on 19May 2000
(b) The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, on 10 October 2011
(c) The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, on 10 May 2002

C. Principal matters of concern and recommendations
5. W hile welcoming the establishment of the National Commission for Human Rights and Citizenship (NCHRC), the Committee
expresses concern at the lack of information on its operations and its independence. The Committee shares the concerns expressed by
the Human Rights Council during the review of the State party under the universal periodic review (UPR) mechanism on the need to
strengthen the NCHRC so that it complies with the Paris Principles (General Assembly resolution 48/134, annex) (art. 2of the Covenant).
The State party should provide information in its initial report on the mandate, i ndependence, funding and activities of the NCHRC.
Furthermore, the State party should report on the measures taken, since its review by the Human Rights Council under the UPR
mechanism, to strengthen the NCHRC so that it operates in accordance with the Paris Principles (General Assembly resolution 48/134,
annex).
Click here to read more »

Cape Verde continued to serve as a model for political rights and civil liberties in Africa in 2012. In January 2012 municipal elections, the
Movement for Democracy (MDP) won the majority of city councils. The African Party for Independence of Cape Verde has continued
to decline in popularity since its candidate was defeated by the MDP in the 2011 presidential election. Both elections were considered
credible and fair by international observers.

In the February 2011 legislative elections, the PAICV secured 38 seats, while the MPD garnered 32 and the Democratic and Independent
Cape Verdean Union (UCID)—a smaller opposition party—took 2. However, in the August presidential election, former foreign minister
Jose Carlos Fonseca of the MPD defeated Manuel Sousa of the PAICV, claiming 54 percent of the vote in a second-round runoff.
International observers declared both elections to be free and fair. Subsequently, Fonseca and Prime Minister José Maria das Neves of
the PAICV promised to put aside their political differences and work together to ensure Cape Verde’s stability and increased prosperity.

In January 2012, Cape Verde held its second municipal elections since the new electoral code was instituted. The MPD won 14 of 22
municipalities, 2 more than in 2008 the PAICV in turn lost 2 city councils and had to settle for a total of 8. An independent movement
supported by the MPD won the remaining city council. The MPD’s strong performance confirmed the PAICV’s decline in
popularity.

Services, particularly tourism, dominate the economy, representing nearly 80 percent of the gross domestic product. As a result of
persistent droughts, the country experienced heavy emigration in the second half of the 20th century, and Cape Verde’s expatriate
population is greater than its domestic population remittances therefore continue to be a major source of wealth. While the United
Nations raised Cape Verde out of the least developed countries category in 2008, the country’s official unemployment rate is still around
11 percent, and there is significant income inequality.

Cape Verde is an electoral democracy. The president and members of the 72-seat National Assembly are elected by universal suffrage
for five-year terms. The prime minister is nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president.

Cape Verde received the second-highest ranking for governance performance in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance.
However, in a recent survey of Cape Verdeans, the police and city council members were deemed to be corrupt by 17 and 85 percent of
those interviewed, respectively. Cape Verde was ranked 39 out of 176 countries in Transparency International’s 2012 Corruption
Perceptions Index.
Click here to read more »

Ratification of international human rights treaties
•To ratify the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and to opt-in to the inquiry and
inter-state mechanisms
•To ratify promptly the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, signed on 6 February
2007, making upon ratification the declarations set out in Articles 31 and 32 (recognition of the competence of the Committee on
Enforced Disappearances to receive and consider communications from or on behalf of victims and from other states parties), and to
implement it in national law
•To accede promptly to the 1968 Convention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity,
without making any reservation and to implement it into national law.

International Criminal Court
To implement Cape Verde’s obligations under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
To accede to the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Criminal Court and to implement it in national law.
Click here to read more »

Letter to Foreign Ministers of African States Parties to the ICC
Letter from African Civil Society and International Organizations on the Occassion of the 18th Ordinary Session of the
Assembly of the African Union
January 26, 2012

African states parties to the International Criminal Court

On the occasion of the 18th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the African Union (AU)–which will take place in Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia, on January 29-30, 2012–we, the undersigned African civil society organizations and international organizations with a presence
in Africa, write to share some important developments affecting international criminal justice in Africa and to encourage African states
parties to reaffirm their strong support for the International Criminal Court (ICC) and its goal of ending impunity for grave international
crimes.

Our organizations note that the ICC is not on the formal agenda of the AU Assembly at the upcoming summit. The summit is however
an opportunity for gathered African states parties to informally exchange observations about recent developments and discuss concrete
steps that they and the AU can take to advance justice for the victims of crimes under international law, in accordance with Article 4 of
the African Union Constitutive Act.

Significant moment in the evolution of the ICC and need for renewed support from Africa

2011 was marked by a number of important developments for justice for crimes under international law, such as a higher number of
ratifications of the ICC Statute than in previous years, strong popular calls for justice in North Africa, and important elections to top
positions at the ICC that will result in a change of leadership at the institution in 2012.

Six new states ratified the ICC Statute in 2011, thus affirming their support to the values of justice and accountability it embodies.
Among these six states, two are African (Tunisia and Cape Verde), thus bringing the total number of African states that are parties to the
court’s treaty to 33–still the largest geographical group in the membership of the court. The court now enjoys support from 120 nations
around the world, with ongoing consideration of possible additional ratifications, including African countries such as Côte d’Ivoire and
Egypt. Mali has also become the first African state party to enter into an enforcement of sentences agreement with the ICC.
Click here to read more »

T RANSLATED FROM PORTUGUESE BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
Family planning is the right and duty "to each and every one"
Published on 12/19/2012

Prime Minister José Maria Neves, who presided over the ceremony of presentation of the latest report on World Population for the year
2012, reiterated his Government's conviction of the importance of family planning in developing nations and welfare of families, and
subscribe the said directions and main ideas in this document be defending Planned Parenthood, "an undeniable human right, it is also the
duty of citizenship of each and every one."

In his speech, José Maria Neves reiterate says, "that improving maternal and child health, promoting gender equality, expanding access
to education, training young people for social integration, and economic community, and reducing poverty, are the fundamentals of our
political choice, I would say the bulk of government action, both who are enrolled in the Government Programme, as they occupy a
substantial part of the ongoing Transformation Agenda ".

Leveraging that this was an occasion also to commemorate the 35 years of the Project Maternal Child Protection and Family Planning,
Sexual and Reproductive Health today, José Maria Neves render their tribute to those who contributed to its implementation and for that
"critical transformation", instilling the idea of ​​the importance of planning and Family rights and also obligations, and who prepared the
groundwork for the country could develop.

"The gains we have today in maternal and child health, promoting gender equity and equality, combating social inequalities and all forms
of exclusion, economic and social inclusion of young people, reducing poverty and improving the quality of life, we owe them action
visionary, creative and innovative pioneers of this noble cause which is health, this has everything to do with the promotion and
protection of rights, freedoms and guarantees of citizens, or better yet, with realization of the Constitution, "said Neves.

However, stresses the Chief Executive, "such gains, undisputed and tending to irreversibility, oblige us, meanwhile, reflect on future
directions of Reproductive Health and align them to the Millennium Development Goals and targets on how to beat the quality and
sustainability, not only of health as a whole, but across all sectors of socio-economic development.
Click here to read more »

TRANSLATED FROM PORTUGUESE BY GOOGLE TRANSLATE
Tue August 2012
Draft of Proposed Law on Status of Children and Adolescents is known today

The coordinators of the Legal and Institutional Reform in Respect of Children and Adolescents in Cape Verde officially receive this
Tuesday in Praia, the draft of the Proposed Law of the Child and Adolescent (ECA).

The delivery will be made by the Technical Team of the Legal and Institutional Reform on Children and Adolescents to Minister of
Youth, Employment and Human Resources Development, Janira Hopffer Almada, and the Minister of Justice, José Carlos Correia, acting
as coordinators same.

In a press release, the Office of Communication of the Ministry of Youth, Employment and Human Resources Development (MJEDRH)
states that the project was presented to the public in November 2011, having been reviewed by the same committee and approval of
internal project, which was part of the Technical Team of the Legal and Institutional Reform on Children and Adolescents and two
prosecutors.

"The ECA is an important guiding document and consecrator the absolute priority of the rights of children and adolescents as subjects of
rights, pillars of
construction of Cape Verde's future, since this norm defines the fundamental rights of children and adolescents and lay down the system
of protection, "reads the document.

According to the Office of Communication of MJEDRH, this protection system "involves" and "responsible" state and society as a whole
in implementing policies on health, education, social security and assistance, special protection and promotion of rights and freedoms in
favor development of children and adolescents.

The Committee on Legal and Institutional Reform on Children and Adolescents in Cape Verde (RLI MIA) was established in 2005 by
resolution n º 05/2005 of 28 February.

The award ceremony will be attended Resident Coordinator of the UN System in Cape Verde, Petra Lanz.
Click here to read more »

Internationally various indices are used to compare the situation of women and men. An example is Global Index Gender Disparity
between (used by the World Economic Forum) spanning four social areas: participation and opportunities in employment, educational
attainment, political empowerment and health.

In 2010, the Economist Intelligence Unit released the Index of Economic Opportunities for Women, which covers five dimensions:
Public policies and labor practices women's economic opportunities, access to finance, education, training, legal and social condition of
women, and Environment business. Another example is the Gender Inequality Index (GII), also released by the United Nations in 2010.
He captures the disadvantages of women and the loss of development potential in three dimensions that mirror the Human Development
Index and that includes education and representation in Parliament, employment, reproductive health (maternal mortality, adolescent
fertility and contraceptive use) .

The Social Watch, an organization is present in all regions of the world, promotes effective respect for human rights and the eradication
of poverty and all forms of discrimination, produces the annual Gender Equity Index (GEI). To prepare it uses statistical information
disaggregated by sex for the Education Sector (rates at all levels of education), the Economic Sector (income and employment) and the
Empowerment Politico (Parliament, high-level executive positions and highly skilled jobs ).

The scale of the IEG standings, goes from 0 to 1, and the index is calculated overall and by sector. The results appear sorted into five
levels: Acceptable (between 1 and 0.91), Medium (between 0, 90 and 0.81), Low (0.80 to 0.61), Very Low (between 0.60 and 0.41) and
Critical (between 0.40 and 0). The index expresses a relationship of proportionality based on sex, ie the gap between the position of men
and women and not welfare. For example in the case of education when the index is 1, it means that the the attendance rate for men
women boys and girls is 100%. What it means is that access is equal for both, even though the country this rate is very low. In the case
of the economic sector a high rate does not mean that there are high levels of income in the country but that there is some equality in
income and access to employment, even though poverty in these countries is very high. In some countries with high social indicators, it
was found that there is a huge gap between the situation of men and women, such as Saudi Arabia's economic sector index is 0.04.

The results of the exercise of Social Watch in 2012, indicate that the position that women occupy in society in relation to the position
occupied by men is still far from equal. None of the 154 countries assessed had a rating of "Acceptable". The average world was Very
Low (0.57). The top countries were Norway (0.89), Finland (0.88), Iceland and Sweden (both 0.87), Denmark (0.84), New Zealand
(0.82), Mongolia and Spain (both with 0.81), all with an IEG East. The five countries were worse off with the Republic of Congo
(0.29), Niger (0.26), Chad (0.25), Yemen (0.24) and Afghanistan (0.15).

By sectors, the global averages were: Education - Low (0.71), Economics - Very Low (42) and Political Empowerment - Critical (0.17).
In the education sector in 42 countries have equality between women and men (1). Economic sector only obtained the classification of
acceptable Mongolia (0.99) and Burundi (0.91). In Empowerment Politico lowest rates were obtained by Iceland (0.80), Norway (0.78),
Sweden (0.77), Finland (0.76) and Rwanda (0.74).
Click here to read more>>


Watch the video: HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE IS NOT A RECOGNIZED IN CAPE VERDE


Comments:

  1. Adolph

    I apologize for interfering ... But this topic is very close to me.I can help with the answer.

  2. Hilton

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  3. Dogis

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  4. Fenrisar

    Where can I find it?

  5. Eorland

    I like!!!!!!!!!



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