Dornier Do 17

Dornier Do 17


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Dornier Do 17

The Dornier Do 17 was one of the main Luftwaffe weapons during the period of German Blitzkrieg victories during 1939 and 1940. Like many early Luftwaffe aircraft it had originally been developed as a civilian aircraft, in this case as a high speed passenger and mail plane for Lufthansa. Three prototypes were completed during 1934, and tested by the airline early in 1935. Lufthansa promptly rejected the aircraft because the slim fuselage made it an impracticable passenger plane – the six seats were split between two tiny cabins, with very poor access.

The aircraft was saved by obscurity by Flugkapitan Untucht, a record breaking pilot then liaising between Lufthansa and the RLM. He suggested that the aircraft might make a good fast bomber, a type then in favour with military aviators. The RLM ordered three prototypes, the first of which flew during 1935. The new version was slightly shorter than the original prototypes, and was powered by 750hp BMW VI 7,3 engines. It was blisteringly fast – the first production version had a top speed of 236 mph. Its narrow fuselage soon won it the nickname the “flying pencil”.

A specially constructed version was produced for the July 1937 International Military Aircraft Competition, held at Zurich. This was powered by two 1,000hp Daimler Benz DB 600A engines, and had been lightened as much as possible. At Zurich it reached a top speed of 284mph, and ran away from all foreign opposition. The same happened when the standard production version was sent to Spain, to take part in the Civil War. The high speed aircraft was able to easily escape from the fighters flying for the Republican Air Force. The Luftwaffe entered the Second World War convinced that its lightly armed medium bombers would be able to evade any fighter opposition put up against it.

The Do 17E-1 entered Luftwaffe service in the summer of 1937. It could carry up to 750kg/ 1650lbs of bombs (although in service a lighter load was normally used), and was armed with two 7.92mm machine guns, with the provision to carry a third in a ventral position.

The Do 17 performed well in Poland and France against disorganised opposition. However, just as the British had found in France in 1940, the Do 17 would soon prove to be very vulnerable in daylight against first class fighters. Two factors combined to make the German bomber forces more vulnerable over Britain than they had ever been before. The most important of these factors was the British Home Chain radar system, which allowed the RAF’s fighters to intercept incoming bombers, rather than have to conduct standing patrols or chase bombers that were already overhead. Second, both British fighters, the Hurricane and the Spitfire, could overhaul the Do 17, the Spitfire by some 50mph. The Do 17 would prove to be the most vulnerable of the German medium bombers over Britain, and would be largely withdrawn from the front line during 1941. Production of the Do 17 had ended in 1940 after 522 Do 17Zs had been produced.

Combat

Spain

Both the E-1 and F-1 saw some service in Spain during the civil war. There their speed allowed them to outpace the mixed fighter forces available to the Republican government, apparently confirming the view of the Do 17 as a fast bomber capable of running from trouble.

Poland

Four Geschwader were equipped with the Do 17 during the invasion of Poland. There the type was often used as a dive bomber, while the He 111 carried out the level bombing. Once again the speed of the Do 17 allowed it to escape from danger.

France and the Low Countries

On 10 May 1940 the Luftwaffe still had four Do 17 Geschwader, with 338 operational aircraft out of a total strength of 422. Over the Low Countries and France the Do 17 played an important role in the attacks on allied communications and airfields. This time it was the speed of the German victory that protected the Do 17 from heavy losses, disrupting the Allied fighter forces and preventing the allies from gaining anything other than local air superiority.

Battle of Britain and Blitz

At the start of the Battle of Britain KG 2, KG 3 and III/.KG 76 were still using the Do 17, with the Ju 88 replacing it in other units. It now came up against a determined fighter opposition, and suffered heavy losses. Despite its speed, it suffered more heavily than the He 111 or Ju 88. Some Do 17 pilots were able to escape attack by going into a high speed dive, but that then prevented them from carrying out their bombing mission.

The Do 17 units played their part in the night-time blitz of 1940-41, but the type was no longer in production by the end of 1940, and only KG 2, III./KG 3 and KGr. 606 were still using the type in January 1941.

Greece and Yugoslavia

Four bomber groups used the Do 17 during the invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia, where the type was once again able to outpace its opponents. One unit remained in the area to take part in the attack on Crete, but the remaining Do 17 units moved back north to take part in the attack on Russia.

Russia and out of service

The Do 17 was only briefly involved in the invasion of Russia as a bomber. KG 2 used it on the eastern front during June 1941, before being withdrawn the following month to re-equip with the Do 217. A small number of Do 17s and the similar Do 215 remained in use with reconnaissance units until early in 1943, but with their replacement the Do 17 left front line service.

E-1

The E-1 was the first production version of the Do 17 bomber. It was powered by two 750hp BMW VI 7,3 engines, and could carry a maximum payload of 1,650lb/ 750kg. It entered Luftwaffe service in the summer of 1937.

F-1

The F-1 was a photo-reconnasiance version of the E series. It could carry two cameras in the floor – either the Rb 50/18 or Rb 50/30 – as well as extra fuel.

K

The K series were built for export to Yugoslavia. They were powered by 980 Gnome-Rhone 14 No. radial engines, and came in Ka reconnaissance and Kb bomber versions. Deliveries began in October 1937, and licensed production started in Yugoslavia in 1940. Two years later the Do 17K found itself facing the Luftwaffe’s Do 17Zs during the German invasion of Yugoslavia.

Export recon version for Yugoslavia, 980hp Gnome-Rhone 14 No. radials. Delivers from October 1937, license built in Yugoslavia from 1940

L

Two prototypes of the L series were built. Powered by the 900hp Bramo 323A engine, they could reach a top speed of 301mph, but were not placed into production.

M-1

The M-1 was the first production version to be powered by the 900hp Bramo 323A-1 Fafnir nine-cylinder air cooled radial engines. The bomb bay was extended to give the M-1 a maximum bomb load of 2,205lb/ 1000kg. It was otherwise similar to the E-1.

M-1/Trop

The M-1/Trop was a tropical version of the M-1.

M-1/U1

This designation was used for aircraft that carried an inflatable dinghy, a valuable piece of equipment once the Do 17 had to cross the English Channel.

P-1

The P-1 was a reconnaissance aircraft, powered by two 865hp BMW 132N radial engines, which were more fuel efficient than the Bramos, giving this version a longer range. It was normally used with either a Rb 20/30 and an Rb 50/30 or a Rb 20/18 and Rb 50/18 depending on the targets to be photographed.

R

Two R series aircraft were built to test the DB 600G and DB 601 engines.

S

The two S series aircraft saw the Do 17 loose its slim profile. It was becoming clear that the aircraft was dangerously under-armed, and so the forward fuselage was bulged downwards to fit in a prone gunner manning a rear firing ventral MG 15. It also featured a fully glazed nose, and the pilot’s canopy was raised, enclosing the dorsal gondola. The aircraft now had a bulbous pod at the head of the slim fuselage.

U

The U series were pathfinder aircraft, equipped with a second radio operator and more advanced radio equipment. Three U-0s and twelve U-1s were built and were used by KG 100.

Z-0

The Z series was the most important version of the Do 17. It featured the same bulged nose as the S series, and was powered by the Bramo 323A nine cylinder radial engine.

Z-1

The first production version of the Z series, the Z-1 was powered by the 323A-1 Fafnir engine, which did not provide enough power. As a result the maximum bomb load was reduced in this model.

Z-2

That problem was fixed in the Z-2, which was powered by two 1000hp Bramo 323P engines, with two-speed superchargers. This allowed the aircraft to carry a 2,200lb bomb load, a crew of five six 7.9mm MG 15s. These included two forward firing guns – one fixed and one moveable, one rear-firing gun in each of the dorsal and ventral positions and two beam guns, although these can not have been particularly useful as their field of fire was severely limited by their location next to the engines!

Z-3

The 22 Z-3s were long range photo-reconnaissance aircraft, carrying two Rb 20/30 cameras in the entrance door position.

Z-4

The Z-4 was a dual control trainer

Z-5

The Z-5 was a long range maritime reconnaissance aircraft equipped with flotation bags

Z-6 “Kauz” (Screech Owl)

The Z-6 was a first attempt to produce a Do 17 night fighter. It combined a standard Do 17Z with the gun nose of the Ju 88C-1 fighter, carrying three 7.9mm MG 17s and one 20mm MG FF cannon. The type was not a great success and was soon replaced by the Z-10.

Z-10 “Kauz II”

The Z-10 was a more successful night fighter, with a custom built nose containing four MG 17s and two 20mm MG FF cannon, which could be reloaded in flight from the crew compartment. Only nine were built, and they had a short combat life before being replaced by the Ju 88C.

E-1

Z-2

Engine

BMW VI

Bramo 323 P

Horsepower

750

1000

Span

59ft 0.25in

59ft 0.25in

Length

53 ft 3.75in

52ft 0in

Max speed

236 mph
At sea level

265mph at 15,400ft

Ceiling

18050ft

26,400

Range

990 miles with 1760lb bomb load

745 miles

Bomb load

2,200lb

2,200lb


Salvaging the Dornier Do 17

Only one Dornier Do 17 bomber is still in existence, and up until last year it resided at the bottom of the English Channel. Thanks to a project to salvage the bomber, that is no longer the case. Now, work is continuing to complete the salvage of what is left from the plane. While the paint job is no longer intact, much of the marine waste on the surface of the Dornier Do 17 has been eradicated.

Annihilation of such waste has resulted in numerous apparent progressions in the plane’s repair. Oxidization of the surface has not resulted in too much rusting or other such damage, and the overall physical stability of the Dornier Do 17 may not be great but is no worse off than when it was first pulled from the channel. The metal itself is nearly pristine in nature, with the fuselage as well as engine covering having been treated to astounding success. This is a great start to the long process of repairing the rare aircraft.

Technically, the authenticity of the plane is still not verified, as nobody has been able to locate the Werke plate that would provide the plane’s identity beyond the shadow of a doubt. Still, researchers are relatively certain that they are in fact working on the last remaining Dornier Do 17, even without the ability to provide a serial number. They have also learned something of its destruction, as it appears to have been fired upon and crashed into the sea with heavy damage to one of the wings that caused an inverted landing.

Completion of the current work is projected to take place in about a year and a half, making the plane available for public display. There is some consideration of just how the plane should best be displayed. It has been suggested that since the Dornier Do 17 was found upside down, it should be put on display in the same fashion. No decision regarding this aesthetic choice has yet been reached, the Royal Air Force Museum reports.

Due to the level of disrepair in which the Dornier Do 17 was found, it will likely have to be exhibited with some added structural support. Even at the time of its manufacture, certain parts of the plane were less sturdy than others, and these have not been aided by the duration of time it has spent underwater. Most other changes to the Dornier Do 17 will be entirely for the sake of appearance, as the current desire is to preserve the plane as found.


Dornier Do17K history

Do17K was export version of Do17 for Royal Yugoslavia. As the Do17K being close resemblance of the Do17E and M type, it mainly differ in several major features and was more capable combat platform. Do17Ka-1 and Ka-2 was derivates of Do17E/F and featured fabric covered wing lower surface and short distance among the engines. Do17Kb from Dornier and Yugoslav had all metal wing covering and some longer engine mountings.

Yugoslavia had in its service version K. Externally it could be recognized by its specific long nose, firstly used on V8 prototype and French double row radials. It was designed from two different versions of German origins, E and M. Model E had a partially fabric covered wings and M had completely metal covered wings. Initially K should present reengined resemblance of Do17E-1 with long nose but this was later changed and Yugoslav type featured more differences and many new innovations, later applied to the newest version of German Do17 planes. Yugoslav model of Do17 had increase in all aspects such as top speed, bomb load, range and firepower. In regards to the German models which were pure bombers, K version could be specified as a strike bomber.

First contact of the German and Yugoslav official’s about delivery of combat planes held in Alterheim in Switzerland, in September 1935. Two months later, Yugoslav commission had tested one of the first prototype of Do17, powered with BMW engines. Yugoslav officials held a negotiation with Dornier of the delivery of Do17 and Do22 in total amount of 2.000.000 RM but Herman Goring had influence as his opinion was that solutions was too good for Yugoslavs. But information that Yugoslav could got credit for military planes from France disturbed German side and after continued negotiation contract was sighed at November 1936. for delivery of twenty Do17. By the proposal, first plane should be ready and delivered at May 9. 1937. Yugoslav sent a commission whose task was to accept new produced planes. Regarding to their reports, by the end of August 1937. no one planes were in stage of final assembly as well proposal state first to be delivered in May. Command of the Yugoslav Aviation did not want to ask for penalty as well that could make administrative troubles. Yugoslav officials also refuse German offer to equip planes with armament and aiming devices. In the meantime a group of Yugoslav workers and technicians came into Dornier for manufacture training.

Maiden flight of the leading plane was at 6. October 1937 and first sample were deliver at October 25. 1937. The rest of the planes were delivering in the first months of 1938. During the delivery one plane, No.17 was lost and it was later replaced with the other one. At March 12. 1938 was signed new contract of delivery 14 new planes of the type and two of new model.

Total Yugoslavia pay 7.139.995 RM for delivery of 36 Do17K from Germany. Also was made contract for license production of the plane in Yugoslavia and more 1.829.825 RM was pay for spare parts and materials. From the report dated on February 6. 1939 could be noted that only ten planes from second contract was ferry to Yugoslavia and rest was in final stage of assembly or flight tests.

In total Germans were delivered 20 Do17Ka-1, fourteen Do17Ka-2 and two Do17Kb. During the delivery of Do17Ka-1 one plane was destroyed and in further purchase was replaced with new one, probably Ka-2 model. This gave a total number of 37 samples built in Germany. Royal Yugoslavia overtaken license production of Kb models in plant in Kraljevo. First production block had sixteen planes which had the original French powerplants. Second and third production block had license produced Gnome Rhone 14K engines. All DFA ( Drzavna Fabrika Aviona- State Aircraft Factory) built Do17Kb had a built-in windshield FN machine gun’s. As a offensive armament first and third block had a internally eight bomb “Stankovic” cal. 106 kg and externally on two racks, two 200 kg bombs could be carried. Similar bomb equipment had all German built planes. Second DFA production block had possibly two type of bomb armament. Mainly that block had two containers UD 32 with total of 64 bomb’s cal. 10 kg. This was later converted to carry one more container with total of 96 small bombs. But there is a information’s of the samples with twelve bombs 90 kg each.

Do17K was medium day and night bomber and recognize with crew of three men. Construction was all metal with shoulder wing and twin verticals. Wings had a rounded tips and 18 m in span. It consisted of two main spar and frames. Fuel and oil tank was housed in the inner side of the wing. Two engines were also positioned on wing with nacelle. Inside of the nacelle was retractable landing gear. Two types of wings were used on Do17K. One models used on Ka and it had partially fabric covered lower side and engine was placed on 5 m distance. On Kb models wing was all metal, with heated leading edge and engines was more separated 5, 42 m. Ka also used slotted type of flaps. After reintroducing of long nacelle, Kb wings had flaps spited into four parts. Fuselage was of monocoque all metal construction and total length was 16, 48 m. On the front was unglazed nose and two types were used, with more or less transparent panels. Behind the nose was pilot’s cockpit with place for two men, pilot and observer. Canopy was of two styles, symmetrical from German delivery and asymmetrical manufactured in DFA. In the back side of the cockpit was gunner compartment and boards with various devices and panels. Bomb bay was in the center section of the plane just behind the gunner place. In front and the behind of the bomb bay was entry doors, on port side only. Auxiliary fuel tank was in the fuselage aft of the bomb bay. Several of equipment was placed in fuselage. Radio equipment includes FuG III Telefunken 274 af radio station, directional finder Telefunken 128 H and compass P63 uN. Fire exguisher and battery was in gunner compartment. Nine air inhalator bottles was placed in the aft fuselage on Ka models and on Kb it might to be 15. All was Drager type and 2 l each. Powerplant consisted of two radial fourteen cylinder double row Gnome Rhone engines.

Power on take of was 770 HP and 850 HP at 3850 m height. Engines had one clock and the other clockwise rotation. Total weight of both engines was 1900 kg but recce version weighted 1940 kg. Propellers were three blades metal constant speed VDM, 3, 3 m in diameter. Engines used 87 octane fuel and total of 1880 l could be carried. Armament differs from production blocks. All of the planes delivered from Dornier had defense armament consisted of two Darne 7, 7 mm machine guns and two of the same type fixed in nose for attack. Yugoslav built samples had all FN machine guns. First block DFA had four 7, 9 mm cal of them but later block had in the cockpit 13, 1 mm cal gun. Many of statements direct that 20 mm cannon were installed in nose of some DFA produced planes. Offensive load on Dornier planes could be carried on two internal Maga 4/85 bomb racks and external P.V. 125 racks. Total of eight internal bombs could be carried. There was Stankovic cal. 106 used. On the external pylons could be load 106 or 200 kg bombs. That was identical bomb load for first block from DFA but later was introduced two cluster racks UD 32 with 32 bombs cal 12 kg. Later that was converted to carry more bombs. Also was version with twelve 90 bombs. In recce missions bombs are not to be used and one 55 kg camera was placed in the nose.

Sole Yugoslav operator of the type was 3. vazduhoplovni puk ( air regiment) with staff headquarter in Skoplje, South Serbia. This unit foresees aggressor role with targets in Bulgaria and possibly Albania. Unit was highly trained and only two planes were lost before the war. There war also few of air accidents but all damages were repaired. Three samples were in Combat weapon school in Mostar.

Yugoslavia enters Second World War on April 6. 1941 when Axis power attacked them. Do17K led an massive attack on Bulgaria (Sofia and airfields around) and a number of group attack on German armored units with highly destructive effects. After of brilliant activities Do17K find new operators after the fall of Yugoslavia. Two samples were used by RAF in Africa. Hungary had one sample used as a fast reconnaissance plane until 1944. Bulgarians handed from Skoplje six damaged planes while new established Croatian state took eleven samples. Second World War survived no less then nine planes but all of them were scraped until fifties.

Dornier Do17K in its several versions was almost all of them served in 3. bomber regiment while one was in training squadron and two were in combat weapon school in Mostar. First were arrived in 1937. and became operational in 1939.


Book Review: Dornier Do 17


This is Combat Aircraft 129 from Osprey, taking a look at the fighting aircraft of WWII. The Dornier Do 17 was a strange-looking aeroplane, being very long and tapering off towards the back end. The chapters cover the design and development and then the deployment into Poland, the Battle of France, the Battle of Britain, its use in the Blitz and finally, a last hurrah on the Eastern Front. The typeface is very small, packing a lot in, but still leaving room for a series of colour illustrations in the middle. So, worthy, if not particularly engaging.


&bull Osprey Publishing
&bull ISBN 978-1-4728-2963-4
&bull 98 pages &bull Softcover &bull £14.99

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Dornier Do 17

The Dornier Do 17, sometimes referred to as the Fliegender Bleistift ("flying pencil"), is a light bomber of Nazi Germany during World War II. It was produced by Claudius Dornier's company, Dornier Flugzeugwerke. The aircraft was designed as a Schnellbomber ("fast bomber"), a light bomber which, in theory, would be so fast that it could outrun defending fighter aircraft.

The Dornier was designed with two engines mounted on a "shoulder wing" structure and possessed a twin tail fin configuration. The type was popular among its crews due to its handling, especially at low altitude, which made the Do 17 harder to hit than other German bombers.

Designed in the early 1930s, it was one of the three main Luftwaffe bomber types used in the first three years of the war. The Do 17 made its combat debut in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War, operating in the Condor Legion in various roles. Along with the Heinkel He 111 it was the main bomber type of the German air arm in 1939–1940. The Dornier was used throughout the early war, and saw action in significant numbers in every major campaign theatre as a front line aircraft until the end of 1941, when its effectiveness and usage was curtailed as its bomb load and range were limited.

Production of the Dornier ended in mid-1940, in favour of the newer and more powerful Junkers Ju 88. The successor of the Do 17 was the much more powerful Dornier Do 217, which started to appear in strength in 1942. Even so, the Do 17 continued service in the Luftwaffe in various roles until the end of the war, as a glider tug, research and trainer aircraft. A considerable number of surviving examples were sent to other Axis nations as well as countries like Finland. Few Dornier Do 17s survived the war and the last was scrapped in Finland in 1952.

On 3 September 2010, the Royal Air Force Museum London announced the discovery of a Henschel-built Dornier Do 17Z buried in the Goodwin Sands off the coast of Kent, England. On 10 June 2013, the salvage team raised the airframe from the seabed. [4]

Development

In 1932, the Ordnance Department (Heereswaffenamt) issued a specification for the construction of a "freight aircraft for German State Railways", and a "high speed mail plane for Lufthansa". [1] The factory at Friedrichshafen began work on the design on 1 August 1932. [1]

When the Nazis took power in 1933, Hermann Göring became National Commissar for aviation with former Deutsche Luft Hansa employee Erhard Milch as his deputy, soon forming the Ministry of Aviation. The Ministry of Aviation designated the new aircraft Do 17, and on 17 March 1933, just three months after taking office, Milch gave the go ahead for the building of prototypes. At the end of 1933, the Ministry of Aviation issued an order for a "high speed aircraft with double tail," and for a "freight aircraft with special equipment," in other words, a bomber. The original design (the Do 17 V1) configuration in 1932 had sported a single vertical stabilizer, and Dornier continued developing that model. The Do 17 was first demonstrated in mock-up form in April 1933. The "special equipment" was to be fitted later, to disguise its offensive role. [5]

In April 1934, the Dornier works at Manzell began project "definition." During this month, the defensive armament was designed and the bomb release mechanism details ironed out. Production of these prototypes began on 20 May 1934 and, on 23 November 1934, the Do 17 V1, with a single fin and powered by two BMW VI 7.3 motors, took off on its first flight. Testing was delayed by a series of accidents, with V1 being damaged in landing accidents in February and April 1935. The twin-tailed V2 (powered by low-compression BMW VI 6.3 engines) first flew on 18 May 1935 and was evaluated together with the V1 by the Ministry of Aviation at Rechlin in June. During the tests, the single fin proved to be only marginally stable, resulting in the V1 being modified with a twin tail. The aircraft was destroyed in a crash after an engine failure on 21 December 1935. [6] The V3, also fitted with a twin tail, was originally planned to be powered by Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs engines, but as these were unavailable, it was fitted with BMW VI 7.3 engines like the V1 and flew on 19 September 1935. [7] The V1 prototype remained the only built machine with the single stabilizer. [5]

It is claimed that, unlike the Heinkel He 111 series, whose military use was planned from the start, the Do 17 V1 was contracted as a fast six-passenger mail plane to compete with the smaller Heinkel He 70 monoplane [8] It has been suggested that it was rejected by Luft Hansa, as the cramped cabin was too uncomfortable for passenger use and the operating costs were too high for a mail plane. [9] According to the story, the three prototypes remained unused in the Dornier factory in Lowental for almost six months, until Flight Captain Untucht of Luft Hansa came across them. After receiving permission to fly one of the machines, he proceeded to put it through an almost stunt flying routine. After landing, he said that "the machine is as nimble as a fighter, give it more lateral stability and we'll have a high speed bomber!" Untucht's comments prompted Dornier to redesign the tail unit and revived interest in the type. [10]

Dornier was then ordered to produce the V4 prototype. Some sources state this differed from the V3 in that the passenger portholes were removed and the single fin was replaced with two smaller ones. [11] [12] Photographic evidence demonstrates the V3 had twin stabilizers from the start of its construction. [13] The tests of the "twin-tailed" V4, V6 and V7 prototypes were positive and more prototypes like the V8 emerged as the forerunner of the long-range reconnaissance version, while the V9 was tested as a high-speed airliner. [14] The V9 machine was still flying in 1944. [11]

Design

The forward fuselage had a conventional stepped cockpit, with a fully glazed nose. Early variants were labelled the "flying pencil" owing to its sleek and continuous "stick-like" lines. As a result of the lessons learned in the Spanish Civil War, the cockpit roof was raised and the lower, or bottom half, of the crew compartment was a typical under-nose gondola or "Bodenlafette" (abbreviated Bola): this inverted-casemate design ventral defensive armament position was a common feature of most German medium bombers. The Bola was extended back to the leading edge of the wings where the lower-rear gunners position and upper-rear gunner position were level with each other. [15] As with contemporary German bombers, the crew were concentrated in a single compartment. The cockpit layout consisted of the pilot seat and front gunner in the forward part of the cockpit. The pilot sat on the left side, close up to the Plexiglas windshield. One of the gunners sat on the right seat, which was set further back to provide room for the 7.92 mm (0.312 in) MG 15 machine gun to be traversed in use. The Do 17 usually carried a crew of four: the pilot, a bombardier and two gunners. The bomb-aimer also manned the MG 15 in the nose glazing and Bola-housed rear lower position. The two gunners operated the forward-firing MG 15 installed in the front windshield, the two MGs located in the side windows (one each side) and the rearward firing weapon. The cockpit offered a bright and panoramic view at high altitude. [16] [Notes 1] The standard ammunition load was 3,300 rounds of 7.92 mm ammunition in 44 double-drum magazines. [18]

The wings were of a broad 55 m 2 (590 sq ft) area and had a span of 18 m (59 ft 5 ⁄ 8 in) with a straight leading edge which curved in a near-perfect semicircle into the trailing edge. The positions of the wing roots were offset. The leading edge wing root merged with the top of the fuselage and cockpit. As the wing extended backwards, by roughly two thirds, it declined downwards at a sharp angle so that the trailing edge wing root ended nearly halfway down the side of the fuselage increasing the angle of incidence. [19] This design feature was used on all future Dornier bomber designs, namely the Dornier Do 217. [20] The trailing edge was faired into the round fuselage shape. The engine nacelle was also faired into the flaps. The extreme rear of the nacelle was hollow and allowed the flap with an attached vertical slot to fit into the cavity when deployed. [21]

The fuselage was 15.80 m (51 ft 10 in) long. It was thin and narrow, which presented an enemy with a difficult target to hit. The fuselage had twin vertical stabilizers to increase lateral stability. The power plant of the Z-1 was to have been the Daimler-Benz DB 601 but, owing to shortages from priority allocation for Bf 109E and Bf 110 fighter production, it was allocated Bramo 323 A-1 power plants. The Bramos could only reach 352 km/h (219 mph) at 1,070 m (3,510 ft). The limited performance of the Bramo 323s ensured the Do 17 could not reach 416 km/h (258 mph) at 3,960 m (12,990 ft) in level flight when fully loaded. [22] The range of the Do 17Z-1 at ground level was 635 nmi (1,176 km) this increased to 1,370 km (850 nm) at 4,700 m (15,400 ft). This gave an average attack range of 400 nmi (740 km). The introduction of the Bramo 323P increased the Z-2 performance slightly in all areas. [22]

The Dornier had self-sealing fuel tanks to protect fuel stored in the wings and fuselage. This reduced the loss of fuel and risk of fire when hit in action, and often enabled the aircraft to return. Twenty oxygen bottles were provided for crew use during long flights above 3,660 m (12,010 ft). [18]

Communications usually consisted of FuG X, the later FuG 10 (Funkgerät), navigational direction finder PeilG V direction finder (PeilG - Peilgerät) and the FuG 25 IFF and FuBI 1 blind-landing devices. The crew communicated by EiV intercom. [18] A primitive autopilot device, the Siemens K4Ü, was installed and could maintain bearing using the rudder's control surfaces. [18]

The bomb bay accommodated four bomb racks, the No. 5 for SC50 bombs and two ETC 500 racks to carry heavier loads of up to 500 kg (1,100 lb) each. A Lotfe A, or B bombsight was issued together with the BZA-2 aperture (a modernised optical lens system). [18] The aircraft's bomb bay allowed two options. The first was to carry four 250 kg (550 lb) bombs for a load of 1,000 kg (2,200 lb), which reduced aircraft range. With half the maximum load, ten 50 kg (110 lb) bombs, additional fuel tanks could be placed into the forward part of the bomb bay to increase range. The bomb aimer would deploy the bomb load via the Lotfe (A, B or C 7/A, depending on the variant) bomb sight which was in the left side of the nose compartment directly under and forward of the pilot. [23] When fully loaded, the Z-1 weighed 7,740 kg (17,060 lb). [22]

Variants

Early Daimler-Benz-powered variants

The initial production variants were the Do 17E-1 bomber, which was tested with two Daimler-Benz DB 600, [14] and Do 17F-1 reconnaissance aircraft, powered like the early prototypes with BMW VI engines, which entered production in late 1936. The first Luftwaffe units converted to the Do 17 in early 1937. [24]

The Do 17E-1 was equipped with two BMW VI 7.3D inline engines of 750 PS each. The crew numbered three. The radio operator manned the two 7.92 mm MG 15 machine guns within a B-Stand pod in the rear cockpit. They had 750 rounds of ammunition. The bomb bay was divided into two compartments. Each had five bomb racks with individual capacity of 50 kg (110 lb). A single ETC 500/IX bomb rack could be mounted externally underneath the aircraft to carry a 500 kg bomb. A Do 17 E-1 with the designation D-AJUN was tested with an unusual configuration, two SC 500 bombs mounted side by side under the fuselage. [Notes 2] It showed a notable performance reduction due to the increase in weight and drag, this configuration was not used operationally. The E-1 continued to carry low bomb loads into the Second World War. The performance of the E-1 enabled it to reach a speed of 330 km/h (210 mph) at 3,000 m (9,800 ft). Conducting a shallow dive the light frame of the Do 17 could reach 500 km/h (310 mph). Its maximum ceiling was 5,500 m (18,000 ft). Several E-1s were rebuilt as E-2 or E-3, at least three E-2 and one E-3 were used by DVL and Hansa-Luftbild GmbH (Hansa Aerial Photography Ltd) in a secret military reconnaissance role prior to the war. [25]

The Do 17F-1 was a long-range reconnaissance aircraft based on field modified Do 17Es. The Do 17 prototype V8 was used to test the configuration of the F-1 and V11 for the F-2. The defensive armament consisted of a MG 15 in the B- and C-Stand (B-Stand - an upper rear firing position, C-Stand — lower gun emplacement). The fuselage had two cameras along with six ejector tubes for flashlight cartridges. The F-1 would see service until replaced by the Do 17 P in 1938. Only one F-2 was ever built, it was designated D-ACZJ and was used by Zeiss-Jena Company as a factory aircraft. [25]

Conversion of two E-2 series aircraft with two BMW 132F radial engines led to the Do 17 J-1 and J-2. These aircraft served as flight testing machines to evaluate the BMW 132 for usage in the Do 17. The aircraft were the V18 (Wrk Nr, or Werknummer meaning works/factory number, 2021) and V19 (Wrk Nr 2022) prototypes. Trials began in late 1937. A similar conversion, but with Bramo 323 radial engines, led to the designation Do 17 L-1 and L-2. Two Do 17 (Wrk Nr 2031 and 2032) were renamed as V20 and V21 prototypes and used to evaluate the Bramo 323 for usage in the Do 17. The test were satisfactory and all future production models would be equipped with this engine. [25]

After seeing the Do 17M V1 at the Zürich air races in 1937, the Yugoslav Royal Air Force bought license rights for production at the Drzavna Fabrika Aviona factory in 1938. They equipped it with the more powerful Gnome-Rhône 14N radial engine (although the French exaggerated its performance) [26] Dornier designs were delivered to the Pomorsko Vazduhoplovstvo (Naval Aviation - PV) in 1926, namely the Dornier Komet and Dornier Do Y heavy bombers. The Yugoslavs were familiar with Dornier designs, and on 19 November 1935 Yugoslav pilots test-flew the Do 17 V-3 prototype, D-ABIH, W.Nr. 258. They decided to select the Do 17 for service, despite it being more expensive than any other aircraft, because of the German willingness to deliver them quickly without limitations on numbers. [27]

The Do 17L-0 and Do 17M-0 were developed in parallel as replacements for the earlier E and Fs, the L being the reconnaissance version. Both were designed around the more powerful DB 600A engines, delivering about 746 kW (1,000 hp). Two L and one M versions were built as prototypes, both with another MG 15 in the nose. [28] The first prototype of the revised version, the Do 17M V1 (D-ABVD) was powered by two DB 600s, and demonstrated impressive performance, including a maximum speed of 425 km/h (264 mph). [29]

At the International Military Aircraft Competition at Zürich, Switzerland in 1937, the Dornier Do 17M V1 proved a leader in its class and was faster than the fastest foreign fighter, the French Dewoitine D.510. [10] The Do 17, along with the Messerschmitt Bf 109, won many prizes, demonstrating the prowess of German aviation design. [14] [30]

Radial variants

Despite its success, owing to shortages in the supply of the Daimler-Benz engine, the production Do 17M was fitted with the Bramo 323 engine, [31] with the corresponding reconnaissance aircraft, the Do 17P, being powered by BMW 132Ns to give better range. [32]

The supply of the DB 600 remained extremely limited as production was soon switched over to the fuel-injected DB 601, which was reserved for the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighters. Therefore, production versions of the basic Do 17M model airframe were fitted with the new Bramo 323A-1 Fafnir engines of 670 kW (900 hp), which gave reasonable performance and raised the bomb load to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). The resulting Do 17 M-1 was produced in small numbers and operated until 1941. [33]

The prototypes for the M-1 series were Do 17M V1 (Werk Nr 691) and Do 17M V2 (Werk Nr 692) which were tested with bomb loads of a medium bomber. The third prototype, Do 17M V3 was evaluated as a fast bomber. The M V1 was fitted with two Daimler Benz DB 601 inline engines while the M V2 and M V3 had the Bramo 323 A and D respectively. The Ministry of Aviation favoured the widespread use of the DB 601, but demand for the DB 601s in fighter aircraft and the lack of production forced the use of the Bramo. [34]

The Do 17 M-1 started its service as a medium bomber and was able to carry 2,200 lb (1,000 kg) of bombs. It was equipped with two air-cooled Bramo 323 A-1 or A-2. The defensive armament consisted of two, and later three, MG 15 machine guns. The first was operated in an A-Stand pod operated by the navigator through the windshield. The position was allocated 370 rounds of ammunition. The rearward firing B-Stand was operated by the radio operator and allocated 750 rounds. The rear position in the lower fuselage was allocated 375 rounds in a C-Stand pod. The Do 17M could carry a bomb load of either 20 SC50 50 kg (110 lb) or two SC250 250 kg (550 lb) bombs or 10 SC50 and a single SC250 bomb. The speed of the M was superior to that of the E variant. The Do 17M could reach 420 km/h (260 mph) at altitudes of 3,500 m (11,500 ft) and could achieve a maximum service ceiling of 5,790 m (19,000 ft) and a range of 850 nautical miles (1,570 km). [34]

Reconnaissance aircraft based on the M-1, the under-surfaces of the wing were covered with duralumin and it had a wider engine axis and longer engine nacelles. The demand for a reconnaissance aircraft based on the M-1 led to the development of the P-1 variant. [35]

The L version would not be able to enter production with the DB 600 owing to its use in the Bf 109, and the Bramo engine was rather thirsty on fuel and left the M models with too short a range for reconnaissance use. BMW 132N radials of 865 PS were selected instead, which had lower fuel consumption for better range. Another two prototypes with DB 600 engines were produced as the Do 17R-0, but did not enter production. During reconnaissance missions the P-1 was armed with four MG 15s in the A, B and C—Stands. One machine gun was located in the rear of the cockpit, another in the lower rear Bola mount, one facing forward through the windscreen and the other in the nose glazing. [36] In earlier variants the B-Stand (the gun position in the upper rear cockpit) was open to the elements, but the P-1 now provided an enclosed bulb-shaped mount protecting the radio operator from the weather. [37]

The P variant had similar features to the Do 17M-1, with added blind flying and camera equipment for reconnaissance work. The Do 17P-1 was powered by two BMW 132N radial engines with a maximum performance of 865 PS (853 hp (636 kW) each. The machine was fitted with several radio variations. The FuG IIIaU radio (Funkgerät), the PeilG V direction finder (PeilG - Peilgerät) and the FuBI 1 radio blind-landing device (FuBI - Funkblindlandegerät). [34] The crew of three communicated with each other via the EiV intercom (EiV -Eigenverständigungsanlage). [34] The P-1 was equipped with either Rb 20/30 and Rb 50/30 or Rb 20/18 and Rb 50/18 cameras. The P-1/trop was fitted with filters and protection for the cameras. [38] The cameras were controlled remotely by the crew from the cockpit. [37]

Due to a shortage of night fighters, at least one Do 17P-1 was assigned to this role. A smooth metal sheet was installed in place of its glass nose and it was armed with three 20 mm (0.79 in) MG 151/20 cannons. The machine operated under Luftflotte 1. [39]

The Do 17P-2 was identical to the P-1, with the additional installation of an ETC 500 bomb rack under the fuselage. These aircraft were designed for night reconnaissance. It is assumed that Dornier converted most, if not all, P-2 models from existing P-1 production aircraft. [34]

Unlike the P-2, the Do 17R-1 did not see series production. The experiences of the Spanish Civil War proved that unarmed aircraft were easy prey for fighter aircraft. The R-1 was to be a fast long-range reconnaissance aircraft with two additional fuel cells inside the fuselage aft of the bomb bay. Two variants were suggested, the first (variant I) had a single Rb 50/30 and two Rb 20/30 cameras, while variant II had a third fuel cell to replace the rear Rb 20/30. The aircraft had a gross weight of 7,250 kg (15,980 lb) but could be overloaded to 7,500 kg (16,500 lb) in emergencies. The crew usually numbered three, but a fourth was added depending on the missions to be flown. [34] To achieve a high performance at increased altitudes two DB 600 Gs were to be used. The power plants were tested in the Do 17R V1 prototype registered D-ABEE. The second, the R V2, registered D-ATJU, received the even more powerful DB 601 Aa engines. [22] The power plant of the R-1s that did exist are not known. [3]

The lessons from the Spanish Civil War had led Dornier's designers to incorporate more defensive machine guns. Battles with Soviet-built fighter aircraft had demonstrated that the Dornier was not as fast and invulnerable as was first thought. [22] To cope with this, a completely new pod-like cockpit was designed to give the crew more room and better visibility. The roof was extended upward over the line of the fuselage, sloping down to meet it just in front of the wing. The dorsal gun was moved to the rear of the pod where it had a considerably better field of fire. Likewise, the floor was dropped under the fuselage as a Bola casemate-style defensive armament emplacement, and the ventral gun moved to the back of the Bola, allowing it to fire directly to the rear. The changes in the roof and floor made the whole front of the aircraft much larger. The rest of the airframe remained the same. The new cockpit design was nicknamed Kampfkopf (German: "battle head"). [22]

Three S variant prototypes with the DB 600 G inline engines were tested. The S-01 (designation D-AFFY), 03 and 04 were flown. [22] The inverted V-12 engines were constructed as the Do 17 S-0 reconnaissance version, but it did not go into production. An additional 15 Do 17 U-1 pathfinder models were built, similar to the S-0 but adding another crewman (taking the total to five) to operate the extra radio equipment. The U models were to fly ahead of other bombers on night missions, using the radio equipment to locate the target and drop flares on it. They were personally requested by KG 100 as experimental models for this role. The U-1 had a maximum speed of 265 mph (426 km/h) and a combat ceiling of 4,500 m (14,800 ft). The U-1 had a cruising speed of 384 km/h (239 mph) and a maximum reachable height of 5,700 m (18,700 ft), owing to the "rather low performance of the Bramo 323 A-1 engines". The three prototypes (U-01 - U-03) and twelve production aircraft were built by 1938. [22]

Dornier Do 17Z: The main variant

The Dornier Do 17Z series was the most recognised and mass-produced variant, and saw more combat service than the E-U types. The type was modified as a result of combat experience during the Spanish Civil War. The forward fuselage was redesigned, with the cockpit area being "dropped", or extended further to enable a rear firing gunner position to be installed, and the canopy extended aft, until it was nearly parallel with the leading edge and wing root. [15]

To test the design, the Do 17S and Do 17U were produced, both to be powered by the DB 600 power plants. However, a call for all DB 600 series engines to be reserved for fighters led to the variants being fitted with Bramo Fafnir 323 A radial engines. The bomb load was increased to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) and a fourth crew member was added. It proved to be underpowered, so Bramo 323 P engines were then fitted. Only three Do 17S and 15 Do 17Us were built. With the updates, the Dornier, with a full bomb load, had a combat radius of 322 km (200 mi). Later variants, in the Do 17 Z-3, Z-4 and Z-5, which were fitted with cameras, dual trainer controls and flotation aids (for maritime operations) respectively, still could not solve the problems with range and bomb load. [15]

At first, a batch of Z-0s were built with the Fafnir for testing, the DB 600 again proving to be too hard to obtain. These were quickly replaced with the Z-1 model, which added another gun for the bombardier, but the additional weight of the nose and guns meant the bomb load was reduced to 500 kg (1,100 lb). The Luftwaffe, not being satisfied with the test outcome of the Z series, immediately ordered performance and design studies to increase the overall performance of the bomber. These resulted in very optimistic speeds and altitudes for all future Z variants, especially for the Z-5 aircraft. Planned performance altitudes of up to 7,620 m (25,000 ft) at a maximum speed of 418 km/h (260 mph) with an aircraft weight of 8,100 kg (17,900 lb) were planned. Unfortunately, production aircraft never reached these optimistic performances during the service career of the Do 17Z. At 7,740 kg (17,060 lb), the heavy Do 17Z-1 used two Bramo 323 A-1 engines with self-sealing fuel cells in the fuselage and wings. The crew of four consumed approximately 20 bottles of oxygen during long flights above 3,700 m (12,100 ft). The Do 17Z-1 had a speed of 352 km/h (219 mph) at 1,100 m (3,600 ft). However, the performance of the Bramo 323s did not permit the Do 17 to reach 416 km/h (258 mph) at 3,900 m (12,800 ft) and level flight when fully loaded. Range of the Z-1 at ground level was 635 nmi (1,176 km) while at 4,700 m (15,400 ft) this increased to 850 nmi (1,570 km). This gave an average range of 400 nmi (740 km). The introduction of the Bramo 323P increased subsequent performance in the following sub variants. [22]

This was addressed in the major production model, the Do 17 Z-2. The Z-2 mounted the new 323P-1 version of the Fafnir with 746 kW (1,000 hp), which was specifically tuned to the performance needs of the Do 17 by decreasing supercharger power at lower altitudes and thus improving low-level performance. The increase in takeoff power allowed the bomb load to be increased from 500 to 1,000 kg (1,100 to 2,200 lb). [14] However the combat range with a full 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) bomb load was a very short 330 km (210 mi). [15] The armament was further upgraded by adding another pair of guns firing out of the sides of the upper part of the pod, but as the three guns were all fired by a single gunner, only one of them could be fired at a time. From May 1940, 422 Do 17 Z-2s flew with Kampfgeschwader 2, Kampfgeschwader 3, Kampfgeschwader 76 and Kampfgeschwader 77. [14] The upgrades of the Z-2 had its overall weight increased from 17,600 to 17,920 lb (7,980 to 8,130 kg). [18] After heavy losses of Do 17s during the Battle of Britain it was decided to replace the MG FF cannon with the more powerful MG 151/15. Losses had mounted in spite of an increase of up to eight machine guns in some Dorniers. [40]

The Z-3 formed part of the bomber versions of the Z series, it was, however, also used as a reconnaissance aircraft by the staff flight of the particular unit. The engines and the general equipment were identical to the Z-2 standard however two cameras — the Rb 50/30 and Rb 20/30 - were incorporated into the crew entry hatch. A handheld camera was issued to the crew to validate the success during bombing missions. Autopilot equipment was added later. The Z-2 and Z-3 were identical visually, and could only be distinguished from each other by the altered crew hatch on the Z-3. Owing to spacing problems because of the added camera equipment, the ammunition supply was reduced from 44 to 42 magazines. [41] The power plant of the Z-3 was upgraded to the Bramo 323P-2. The Bramo P-2 remained the engine of all the remaining Z series variants. [3]

The Z-4 was designed as trainer. Although nearly identical to the Z-2 and Z-3, it featured several equipment changes optimised for blind flying training. The four-seat aircraft had a single control column with dual steering, which was achieved by a jib protruding to the right. Rudder pedals were in front of both seats. The defensive armament and bomb racks were reduced, or in most cases omitted to reduce weight. [41]

The Z-5 was similar to the Z-3 with a weight of 19,000 lb (8,600 kg). Designed as an anti-shipping aircraft, the Z-5, was fitted with flotation cells in the fuselage and engine nacelles in case it was forced down on water. [14] [42] Usually the flotation devices took the form of inflatable bags stored in the rear of the engine nacelles and in bulges on either side of the nose, just behind the front glazing. [43]

Later variants of the Z model were developed. The Z-6 was to be a reconnaissance aircraft, although it was only built as a prototype. During the war only a few were converted from existing combat variants. The type was selected for weather check flights. It was identical to the Z-1/Z-2 variants, but offensive armament was omitted and extra fuel cells fitted. This increased the fuel load to 2,890 L (578 imperial gallons). As flights required higher altitude, the oxygen supply was increased from 20 to 24 bottles. For long-range flights over water, the larger dinghy of the Z-5 with its updated emergency escape equipment was mandatory during operations. [41] The Z-6s were also used for night fighter operations. Some of the few converted Z-6s had the Ju 88C-6 nose installed and were equipped with machine guns and cannons. The nose proved to be unsatisfactory, and it was redesigned. In the tip of the new nose was an infrared spotlight which was soon made redundant after the introduction of Lichtenstein radar which was fitted to some of the Z-6. [43]

The Z-8 Geier was not produced. It was intended as a ground attack aircraft and reached the first planning phase but was given up due to lack of performance and protective armour allocation against anti-aircraft artillery. An increase in armour would have meant a decrease in speed which would have exposed the aircraft further to enemy fire. [45]

The Z-9, which was fitted with special bomb release equipment, and delayed release gear for low-level attack missions. Its purpose was to suppress enemy air defences. Therefore, it was designed to fly over anti-aircraft positions and drop Butterfly Bombs, an early form of cluster bomb munitions. This could only be done with air superiority, as the Z-9 was unarmoured. The airframe and equipment was identical to the Z-1/Z-2 version. Only the bomb bay was altered to accommodate 16 bomb-dispenser systems. The maximum weight of the Z-9 was 7,800 kg (17,200 lb). The design did not reach serial production. [45]

After bomber production ended in 1940, the Z model was modified with a "solid" nose from the Ju 88C, fitted with one 20 mm MG FF cannon and three 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns, to be used as night fighters. Three prototypes were converted from existing Z-series airframes to the Do 17 Z-7 Kauz I ("screech-owl") configuration. The standard Z-7 was fitted with Bramo 323P-1 radial engines and had a crew of three airmen. In comparison to the standard bomber version, the fuel load arrangement was altered by subdividing into cells. Two cells were in the wings, with a capacity of 770 litres (154 imperial gallons) each. A third cell was placed in the bomb bay within the main fuselage, having a capacity of 895 litres (179 imperial gallons). The oxygen supply for the three man crew was reduced to nine bottles, as intercepts at high altitudes were not anticipated. Add-on armour in the form of heavy steel plates was bolted to the nose bulkhead to protect the crew against frontal fire. Originally, it was planned to completely armour the crew compartment. This idea, was given up again as the increased weight would have reduced flight performance of an already slow aircraft. The ammunition loads for the three 7.92 mm MG 17s amounted to 3,000 rounds and 400 rounds of ammunition for the 20 mm MG 151 cannon (although some Do 17Z bombers carried a single 20 mm for ground attack missions). [41] [46]

Later, the design was further modified to the Do 17 Z-10 Kauz II, the solid nose now containing an infrared searchlight for the Spanner Anlage infrared detection system. [47] The infrared lamp in the nose was used to illuminate the target while the display unit in the windshield made the reflection visible to the pilot. [48] The Z-10 was armed with four 7.92 mm (.312 in) MG 17 machine guns grouped above the IR light and two 20 mm MG FF in the lower nose. [47] The crew could reload the 20 mm cannons' drum magazines internally. The Z-10 contained an IR searchlight (Spanner-Anlage) for the Spanner infrared detection system. [49] [50] A single Kauz II was equipped with and tested the Lichtenstein radar. [39]

Only 10 of these Kauz II designs were converted from existing Z-series airframes. The Spanner system proved to be essentially useless and many Z-10 were left without any detection system. At least one Z-10, coded CD+PV, was used as a flying test bed to help developing the early low-UHF band B/C version of the Lichtenstein radar system in late 1941–1942. [Notes 3] When the Z-10 was stripped of all non-night fighter equipment, it had a maximum weight of 7,300 kg (16,100 lb). Armament fit was similar to that of the Z-7, with an added MG 17 and an additional 1,000 rounds of ammunition in the nose section. Defensive gun positions included the B and C stand, each equipped with a single MG 15. [45]

Production

German

Official figures state 2,139 Do 17s were built on German assembly lines. At the Dornier factory at Oberpfaffenhofen, 328 Do 17Es were built along with a further 77 Do 17Fs and 200 Do 17M variants. Do 17Z production figures for Oberpfaffenhofen stand at 420. At Friedrichshafen, 84 Do 17Ks were built, some of which were sold to the Yugoslav Royal Air Force. Do 17P production was spread out over different factory lines. At Siebel/Halle, eight were built. At the Henschel factory at Berlin-Schönefeld 73 were constructed. At the HFB plant in Hamburg 149 were built. Henschel also produced some 320 Do 17Zs, HFB contributed to construction of 74 at its Hamburg plant, and another 73 were built at Siebel. Some 105 examples of the Dornier Do 215B was later built at Oberpfaffenhofen. [3]

By 19 September 1938, the Luftwaffe had received 579 Dornier Do 17s. These were mostly Do 17E, F, M and P variants. [51] During 1939–1940, some 475 Dornier Do 17Z bombers, 16 reconnaissance aircraft and nine night fighters were built. Another 100 Dornier Do 215s, an updated variant of the Do 17, were built during this period also. [52]

Yugoslav

Other governments were interested in the Do 17. In June 1936, the Yugoslav government ordered 36 Do 17E variants from Germany. The negotiations for a licence were completed on 27 June 1938 for 36 Do 17Ka's at the cost of 1,829,825 Reichsmark (RM). On 18 March 1938, Yugoslavia ordered 16 complete Do 17 Ka-2's and Ka-3's at a cost of 3,316,788 RM. They received the last on 21 April 1939. The machines were from 72 to 96% complete. [53]

The Dorniers were devoid of German equipment, including engines. The Yugoslavs found a French manufacturer to supply the powerplants instead. Gnome et Rhône was the supplier chosen, and the Gnome-Rhône Mistral Major engine was to be used in the Dornier. The French had inflated the performance data of the engine, claiming it to have 649 kW (870 hp) and a speed of 420 km/h (260 mph) at 3,850 m (12,630 ft). The constant-speed propellers were also poor, and delivered late. This led to trials with Piaggio Aero and Ratier propellers. [54] Only one of the Do 17s delivered was fitted out complete with German equipment. The rest of the Dorniers were equipped with Belgian FN 7.9 mm (.31 in) machine guns, Czech camera equipment and eventually Telefunken radio sets. [26] Altogether, 70 Do 17s were produced by Yugoslav factories.

Operators and operational history

  • The Bulgarian Air Force received 11 Do 17 Ms and Ps in 1940 and at least 11 ex-Yugoslav aircraft in 1941. Six more Do 17 Ms were delivered in 1943. They remained in service until at least 1945. [55]
  • The Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia (Zrakoplovstvo Nezavisne Države Hrvatske) received at least 21 Do 17Zs (the last 12 in 1945), 11 ex-Yugoslav Do 17Ka's in 1942 and 30 Do 17Es in 1943. [56]
      received 15 aircraft in January 1942: [57][58]
      received one ex-Yugoslavian Do 17Ka-3. [59]
    • Regia Aeronautica operated at least one ex-Yugoslavian Do 17Ka-3 under 1°Centro Sperimentale in Guidonia, where it was tested until September 1943. [60]
      received 10 worn Do 17Ms in November 1942. [61]
      received ex-Legion Condor Do 17E, F, and Ps and 13 remained in service after the end of the Spanish Civil War. [62][63]
      operated a single Do 17Z-2, interned after landing at Basel Airport in April 1940. [64]
      pressed into service [65][66] two Yugoslav-built Do 17Ks which escaped Yugoslavia carrying King Peter and gold. The aircraft were given the serials AX706 and AX707. Both aircraft were destroyed in an air attack on Ismaïlia airfield on 27 August 1941. [67]
      obtained at least one Do 17E-1, WkNr 2095. Renamed Axis Sally, it was taken to the United States after the war and tested. [68][69]

    Surviving aircraft

    Until 2007 none of the Dornier twin-engined bomber variants were thought to have survived intact, but various large relics of the Do 17 and Do 215 are held by public museums and private collectors. [70] [Notes 4] In September 2007 a Do 215 B-5 (variant of Do 17Z) was found largely intact in the shallow waters off Waddenzee in the Netherlands. [71]


    Archived Articles

    I'm thinking, sometimes, wouldn't it be cheaper just to get a copy of the plans and all the materials to build a new one from scratch?? I mean really, what is REALLY there that could be "salvaged" to useable condition?? I'm not ragging on the effort at all, but jeeezz, seems their isn't much there to work with!

    I stopped at the museum/restoration shop in Kissimmee, FL a long time ago. They did do a lot of restoration work. While I was there I asked about a row of 5 gallon buckets lined up against one wall of the museum/shop floor that I saw. The guide said it was all that remained of the first President Bush's airplane that was shot out from under him in World War 2! The guide told me they were going to restore it!! I was thinking good luck with that.

    The Dornier Do17 is going to be displayed "as is" at the Royal Air Force Museum. This should make for an interesting display! Who wants to put one into the T4T mod??

    From: War History Online, on June 19, 2014 at 19:00

    Only one Dornier Do 17 bomber is still in existence, and up until last year it resided at the bottom of the English Channel. Thanks to a project to salvage the bomber, that is no longer the case. Now, work is continuing to complete the salvage of what is left from the plane. While the paint job is no longer intact, much of the marine waste on the surface of the Dornier Do 17 has been eradicated.

    Annihilation of such waste has resulted in numerous apparent progressions in the plane’s repair. Oxidization of the surface has not resulted in too much rusting or other such damage, and the overall physical stability of the Dornier Do 17 may not be great but is no worse off than when it was first pulled from the channel. The metal itself is nearly pristine in nature, with the fuselage as well as engine covering having been treated to astounding success. This is a great start to the long process of repairing the rare aircraft.

    Technically, the authenticity of the plane is still not verified, as nobody has been able to locate the Werke plate that would provide the plane’s identity beyond the shadow of a doubt. Still, researchers are relatively certain that they are in fact working on the last remaining Dornier Do 17, even without the ability to provide a serial number. They have also learned something of its destruction, as it appears to have been fired upon and crashed into the sea with heavy damage to one of the wings that caused an inverted landing.

    Completion of the current work is projected to take place in about a year and a half, making the plane available for public display. There is some consideration of just how the plane should best be displayed. It has been suggested that since the Dornier Do 17 was found upside down, it should be put on display in the same fashion. No decision regarding this aesthetic choice has yet been reached, the Royal Air Force Museum reports.

    Due to the level of disrepair in which the Dornier Do 17 was found, it will likely have to be exhibited with some added structural support. Even at the time of its manufacture, certain parts of the plane were less sturdy than others, and these have not been aided by the duration of time it has spent underwater. Most other changes to the Dornier Do 17 will be entirely for the sake of appearance, as the current desire is to preserve the plane as found.


    Dornier Do 17 - Development

    In 1932, the Ordnance Department (Heereswaffenamt) issued a specification for the construction of a "freight aircraft for German State Railways", and a "high speed mail plane for Lufthansa". The factory at Friedrichshafen began work on the design on 1 August 1932.

    When the Nazis took power in 1933, Hermann Göring became National Commissar for aviation with former Deutsche Luft Hansa employee Erhard Milch as his deputy, soon forming the Ministry of Aviation. The Ministry of Aviation designated the new aircraft Do 17, and on 17 March 1933, just three months after taking office, Milch gave the go-ahead for the building of prototypes. At the end of 1933, the Ministry of Aviation issued an order for a "high speed aircraft with double tail," and for a "freight aircraft with special equipment," in other words, a bomber. The original design (the Do 17 V1) configuration in 1932 had sported a single vertical stabilizer, and Dornier continued developing that model. The Do 17 was first demonstrated in mock-up form in April 1933. The "special equipment" was to be fitted later, to disguise its offensive role.

    In April 1934, the Dornier works at Manzell began project "definition." During this month, the defensive armament was designed and the bomb release mechanism details ironed out. Production of these prototypes began on 20 May 1934 and, on 23 November 1934, the Do 17 V1, with a single fin and powered by two BMW VI 7.3 motors, took off on its first flight. Testing was delayed by a series of accidents, with V1 being damaged in landing accidents in February and April 1935. The twin-tailed V2 (powered by low-compression BMW VI 6.3 engines) first flew on 18 May 1935 and was evaluated together with the V1 by the Ministry of Aviation at Rechlin in June. During the tests, the single fin proved to be only marginally stable, resulting in the V1 being modified with a twin tail. The aircraft was destroyed in a crash after an engine failure on 21 December 1935. The V3, also fitted with a twin tail, was originally planned to be powered by Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs engines, but as these were unavailable, it was fitted with BMW VI 7.3 engines like the V1 and flew on 19 September 1935. The V1 prototype remained the only built machine with the single stabilizer.

    It is claimed that, unlike the Heinkel He 111 series, whose military use was planned from the start, the Do 17 V1 was contracted as a fast six-passenger mail plane to compete with the smaller Heinkel He 70 monoplane It has been suggested that it was rejected by Luft Hansa, as the cramped cabin was too uncomfortable for passenger use and the operating costs also were too high for a mail plane. According to the story, the three prototypes remained unused in the Dornier factory in Lowental for almost six months, until Flight Captain Untucht of Luft Hansa came across them. After receiving permission to fly one of the machines, he proceeded to put it through an almost stunt flying routine. After landing, he said that "the machine is as nimble as a fighter, give it more lateral stability and we'll have a high speed bomber!" Untucht's comments prompted Dornier to redesign the tail unit and revived interest in the type.

    Dornier was then ordered to produce the V4 prototype. Some sources state this differed from the V3 in that the passenger portholes were removed and the single fin was replaced with two smaller ones. Photographic evidence demonstrates the V3 had twin stabilizers from the start of its construction. The tests of the "twin-tailed" V4, V6 and V7 prototypes were positive and more prototypes like the V8 emerged as the forerunner of the long-range reconnaissance version, while the V9 was tested as a high-speed airliner. The V9 machine was still flying in 1944.

    Read more about this topic: Dornier Do 17

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    The attempt to raise the last surviving Luftwaffe Dornier Do 17 bomber, submerged at Goodwin Sands off the coast of Kent, has been postponed for at least a week after bad weather conditions forced the salvage team to return to their port four times.

    But organisers at the Royal Air Force Museum, who have overseen a month of frequent dives by the team, said they would “alter their methodology” in the construction of the lifting frame, targeting the strongest parts of the plane in a plan which will be “more delicate in nature”.

    “We have adapted the design to minimise the loads on the airframe during the lift while allowing the recovery to occur within the limited time remaining,” said Peter Dye, the museum’s Director General, outlining a rethink which aims to keep the Dornier fully intact during a single lift.

    “The RAF Museum has worked extremely closely with SeaTech throughout this process. Both organisations remain determined to complete this challenging task and see the Dornier safely recovered as planned and delivered to the Museum's Conservation Centre for preservation and public exhibition.”

    A £345,000 grant from the National Heritage Memorial Fund saw the team set a three-week timescale to complete their mission. Their deadline remains strict for a potentially momentous archaeological achievement.

    The museum is pledging to examine and care for as many parts of the Dornier as possible if the operation fails to salvage every part of its ancient target.


    History [ edit | edit source ]

    Because the Do 15 design was rejected, a redesigned aircraft, called Do 17 was made and it was accepted by the Reichsluftfahrtministerium, to build two prototypes of it. The first flight took place on 23rd November 1934. The slender fuselage was the reason for its nickname “Fliegender Bleistift” (“flying pencil”).

    During flight testing it was realized that the Do 17 could also be used by the military, and from then on it was redesigned to be used as a high speed bomber.


    Watch the video: Anna Fedorova: R. Schumann, Fantasie in C Major, Op. 17: 안나 페도로바: 슈만, 환상곡


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