21 March 1941

21 March 1941

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21 March 1941

March 1941



British occupy the Jarabub Oasis

›› Date difference from Mar 25, 1916 to Sep 19, 1941

The total number of days between Saturday, March 25th, 1916 and Friday, September 19th, 1941 is 9,309 days.

This is equal to 25 years, 5 months, and 25 days.

This does not include the end date, so it's accurate if you're measuring your age in days, or the total days between the start and end date. But if you want the duration of an event that includes both the starting date and the ending date, then it would actually be 9,310 days.

If you're counting workdays or weekends, there are 6,649 weekdays and 2,660 weekend days.

If you include the end date of Sep 19, 1941 which is a Friday, then there would be 6,650 weekdays and 2,660 weekend days including both the starting Saturday and the ending Friday.

9,309 days is equal to 1,329 weeks and 6 days.

The total time span from 1916-03-25 to 1941-09-19 is 223,416 hours.

You can also convert 9,309 days to 804,297,600 seconds.

March 23rd, 2033 is a Wednesday. It is the 82nd day of the year, and in the 12th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 2033 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 3/23/2033, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 23/3/2033.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.

March 22nd, 2009 is a Sunday. It is the 81st day of the year, and in the 12th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 1st quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 2009 is not a leap year, so there are 365 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 3/22/2009, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 22/3/2009.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Through Savage&rsquos grim determination to rout out the Yosemites from their mountain refuge, Yosemite Valley was first entered by him and his small company of soldiers on March 21, 1851.*

Emerging from the forest, the detachment suddenly came out on a clearing&mdashold Inspiration Point. Revealed in panorama before their eyes was Tenaya&rsquos secret fortress&mdash a gem of a valley, river-ribboned, in a setting of sheer, precipitous, granite cliffs, domes, and spires of surpassing grandeur. What they witnessed had been wrought by millions of years of geologic changes, but history bears record that only one of these rough mountaineers, Dr. L. H. Bunnell, was emotionally stirred by the awe-inspiring view. The thought uppermost was to blot out the Indians who claimed this valley as their own.

That night while Savage and his men chatted around a campfire near Bridalveil Fall, Dr. Bunnell, who was thrilled with the rare scenic value of the valley, suggested that it be called &ldquoYosemite,&rdquo after the Indians who were being driven out. Thus Yosemite Valley was entered for the first time by white men and named the same day.

The following day Savage and his men searched the valley floor in vain they scouted up Tenaya Creek

(*) Actual discovery of Yosemite Valley occurred at an earlier date. In the fall of 1833 a party of approximately 40 men, under the leadership of Joseph Reddeford Walker, passed through the area now included in Yosemite National Park. This journey was memorable in that it represented one of the first crossings of the Sierra Nevada. Members of the Walker party were thus the first white men to enter the area now included in Yosemite National Park.

Unfamiliarity with the region, its rugged terrain, and the season&rsquos lateness combined to make their journey through this region a long and extremely arduous one. Records indicate that members of this group, in scouting for a suitable westward route through the mountains, first saw the Valley from a point on the north rim. However, the Walker party never entered the Valley and their discovery made no great impression upon them. Thus this fact was not fully substantiated until comparatively recent years. In consequence, the existence of Yosemite Valley was generally unknown in 1851 when it was first entered by the Mariposa Battalion, although certain Indians had hinted of the presence of a formidable mountain refuge on several occasions co-incident with the Indian troubles of that period. (See &ldquoNarrative and Adventures of Zenas Leonard,[&rdquo] edited by M. M. Quaife, Lakeside Press, Chicago, 1934 also Walker&rsquos Discovery of Yosemite, Francis P. Farquhar, Sierra Club Bulletin, Vol. XXVII, No. 4, August 1942),

[Editor&rsquos note: today historians generally believe the Walker party looked down The Cascades, which are just west of Yosemite Valley, instead of Yosemite Valley itself.&mdash dea ]

beyond Mirror Lake they climbed up the Merced River canyon to above Nevada Fall, but not a trace of an Indian brave was discovered. The only living soul was an aged squaw who had been too feeble to join the others in the exodus.

Savage soothed his disappointment and failure by burning the dwellings, large caches of acorns and other provisions the Indians had left behind.

Although they were the first to enter Yosemite Valley, and were responsible for its name, this expedition of the Mariposa Battalion did not accomplish its purpose: i.e., to exterminate the Indians. Through carelessness of the guards in charge, tricky Chief Tenaya and his entire people were able to delay their relegation on the Fresno River Reservation by escaping during the night.

Three Brothers, named for sons of Chief Tenaya

Black History Month: March on Washington Movement (1941-1947)

The March on Washington Movement was the most militant and important force in African-American politics in the early 1940s, formed to protest segregation in the armed forces. The hypocrisy behind calls to “defending democracy” from Hitler was clear to African-Americans living in a Jim Crow society, of which the segregated quota system and training camps of the United States military were only the most obvious examples.

Early lobbying efforts to desegregate the military had not persuaded President Franklin Roosevelt to take action. On January 25, A. Philip Randolph, the president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, proposed the idea of a national, black-led march on the capitol in Washington DC to highlight the issue. Randolph's proposal was a radical shift away from the strategies of leading civil rights groups at the time. First, the march would mean a vast grassroots effort mobilising ordinary people, not political elites. Randolph proposed the march also as an independent action organised and led by black people themselves.

Throughout the next few months, March on Washington Committee chapters formed to build for the march, which was scheduled for July 1, 1941. It was estimated that the march would draw more than 100,000 people to the capitol. Both the media and long-time political activists noted the mass popularity of the march from people who had previously not been involved in protest politics.

A week before the protest, an alarmed Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, establishing the first Fair Employment Practices Committee. In return, Randolph cancelled the march, but established the March on Washington Movement to hold the FEPC to its mission of desegregating the armed forces and to continue agitation for civil rights. Throughout the summer of 1942, the MOWM organised mass popular rallies. Their call for non-violent civil disobedience, however, began to worry mainstream black organisations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People, which began to withdraw its support for MOWM activities.

The MOWM's hope that the FEPC would be an independent investigative body failed in June 1942, when Roosevelt placed it under congressional oversight. Although hearings continued after this, neither the FEPC nor the MOWM was able to survive as a real force for challenging the racial status quo. Nonetheless, the MOWM continued until 1947. At its zenith in 1941-42, the MOWM signified the cohesiveness and power of a more militant, grassroots black politics, and the ability of a black-led mass movement to achieve change that formal lobbying could not and to facilitate a grassroots mobilisation for civil rights. The MOWM was the model for the 1963 March on Washington, where Martin Luther King, Jr gave his famous I Have a Dream speech, and the militant black-only politics of the MOWM foreshadowed the Black Power movement of the late 1960s.

Sources: Herbert Garfinkel, When Negroes March: The March on Washington Movement in the Organisational Politics for FEPC (New York: Atheneum, 1969)

Landmarks around the globe light up for World Down Syndrome Day like the world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa in Dabai.

Every year we encourage people with Down syndrome, families, advocates, professionals and organisations to observe WDSD with your own activities. Here are a few ideas to get you started.

History of Change and Tradition on Inauguration Day

Inauguration has been a ceremony steeped in tradition.

Fast Facts About Inauguration

— -- Presidential inaugurations have been steeped in tradition and ceremony since the nation’s first president, George Washington, took the oath of the office. But from the parade processions to the swearing-in ceremony, those traditions have changed over time.

Here are a few lesser-known facts about the history of presidential inaugurations:

Inauguration Day wasn’t always on Jan. 20

George Washington, then a 57-year-old general, was sworn-in on a clear and cool day from the balcony of the Federal Hall in New York on April 30, 1789.

But it wasn't until his second inauguration as president that the traditions began to take root. Washington's second inauguration was held on March 04, 1793 and incoming presidents had their ceremonies on the spring date for many years -- unless it fell on a Sunday.

James Monroe was the first president to deal with such a situation. After consulting with the Supreme Court justices, Monroe decided to hold his inaugural ceremony on Monday, March 05, 1821.

But after a change made to the 20th Amendment of the Constitution, Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to have his inauguration ceremony on Jan. 20 in 1937.

Most of the swearing-in ceremony is not required, it’s just tradition

The only Constitutional requirement for the inauguration ceremonies is that the president takes his oath of office.

The Bible isn’t a requirement for the Oath of Office, nor is having a Chief Justice administer the oath.

Theodore Roosevelt didn’t use a Bible for his swearing-in on Sept. 14, 1901. John Quincy Adams used a books of law for his inauguration.

It also doesn’t matter who holds the Bible. In starting a tradition that has occurred at every inauguration since, Lady Bird Johnson was the first incoming-first lady to hold the Bible for her husband while he took the oath of office.

On March 4, 1797, John Adams became the first president to receive the oath of office from a Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court -- Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth.

The Chancellor of New York, Robert Livingston, and Associate Justice, William Cushing, had the honor of administering the oath of office at George Washington’s first and second inaugurations, respectively. Several other kinds of officials, who were not Supreme Court justices, have also administered the oath of office.

Judge Sarah Hughes swore in Lyndon Johnson, making her the first woman to administer the oath.

The Inaugural speech

William Henry Harrison spoke for about 1 hour, 45 minutes on March 4, 1841. His speech was the longest since -- 8,445 words.

George Washington delivered the shortest speech -- only 135 words at his second inauguration on March 4, 1793.

Yes, there have been hiccups

At the presidential inauguration of Herbert Hoover in 1929, first lady Grace Coolidge and incoming first lady Lou Henry Hoover delayed the ceremony for about half an hour. The two were without escorts and got lost in the confusing hallways of the U.S. Capitol on their way to the west front where the ceremony would start.

During John F. Kennedy’s inauguration, the lectern caught fire during Cardinal Richard Cushing’s inaugural invocation. Secret Service rushed to the front and put out the fire caused by the electric motor that’s used to adjust the lectern’s height.

The first organized parade was for James Madison in 1809, but before that there were presidential processions.

Local militias accompanied George Washington in his trip from Mount Vernon in Virginia to New York City for his first inauguration ceremony in 1789.

The only parade known to have been canceled because of the weather was Ronald Reagan's second in 1985. It was the coldest Inauguration Day to date. The noon temperature was 7 degrees Fahrenheit, but the wind chill temperatures were in the negatives. The freezing temperatures made proceeding with the parade dangerous.

Even when there was a blizzard for William Taft’s inauguration in 1901, the parade was not canceled. Workers had to clear snow from the parade route.

The largest parade -- and the longest -- was held for Dwight D. Eisenhower's first Inauguration in 1953. The parade featured 73 bands, 59 floats, horses, elephants and civilian and military vehicles in a procession lasted 4 hours and 32 minutes.

The first Inaugural ball was for James Madison’s inauguration on March 4, 1809. It was held at Long's Hotel in Washington D.C. Tickets cost $4 and 40 were sold.

President Bill Clinton had a record 14 inaugural balls held in celebration of his second inauguration in 1997.

Somber Inaugurations

Inauguration ceremonies are typically happy celebrations, but there have been exceptions.

Two months before his inauguration, Franklin Pierce and his wife lost their 11-year-old son in a train accident. Because they were still in mourning, Pierce canceled his inaugural ball.

Four presidents were assassinated and each of their vice presidents had to take the oath of office shortly after.

The day after Abraham Lincoln was killed, on April 15, 1865, Andrew Johnson took the oath of office.

James Garfield was shot and later died on Sept. 19, 1881 and Chester Arthur was sworn in the next day.

In 1901, McKinley had struggled for a week to stay alive after suffering a gunshot to the stomach. Theodore Roosevelt rushed to be in Buffalo, New York only to find President William McKinley dead and was sworn-in as president on Sept. 14, 1901.

On Nov. 22, 1963, Lyndon Johnson took the oath of office aboard Air Force One after the death of John F. Kennedy.

Four other vice presidents were sworn-in after the sitting president died from illness. And one vice president, Gerald Ford, became Commander-in-Chief after President Richard Nixon resigned.

21 March 1941 - History

1349 - 3,000 Jews were killed in Black Death riots in Efurt Germany.

1556 - Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, was burned at the stake at Oxford after retracting the last of seven recantations that same day.

1788 - Almost the entire city of New Orleans, LA, was destroyed by fire. 856 buildings were destroyed.

1790 - Thomas Jefferson reported to U.S. President George Washington as the new secretary of state.

1804 - The French civil code, the Code Napoleon, was adopted.

1824 - A fire at a Cairo ammunitions dump killed 4,000 horses.

1826 - The Rensselaer School in Troy, NY, was incorporated. The school became known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and was the first engineering college in the U.S.

1835 - Charles Darwin & Mariano Gonzales met at Portillo Pass.

1851 - Emperor Tu Duc ordered that Christian priests be put to death.

1851 - Yosemite Valley was discovered in California.

1857 - An earthquake hit Tokyo killing about 107,000.

1858 - British forces in India lift the siege of Lucknow, ending the Indian Mutiny.

1859 - In Philadelphia, the first Zoological Society was incorporated.

1868 - The Sorosos club for professional women was formed in New York City by Jennie June. It was the first of its kind.

1871 - Journalist Henry M Stanley began his famous expedition to Africa.

1902 - Romain Roland's play "The 4th of July" premiered in Paris.

1902 - In New York, three Park Avenue mansions were destroyed when a subway tunnel roof caved in.

1904 - The British Parliament vetoed a proposal to send Chinese workers to Transvaal.

1905 - Sterilization legislation was passed in the State of Pennsylvania. The governor vetoed the measure.

1906 - Ohio passed a law that prohibited hazing by fraternities after two fatalities.

1907 - The U.S. Marines landed in Honduras to protect American interests in the war with Nicaragua.

1907 - The first Parliament of Transvaal met in Pretoria.

1908 - A passenger was carried in a bi-plane for the first time by Henri Farman of France.

1909 - Russia withdrew its support for Serbia and recognized the Austrian annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Serbia accepted Austrian control over Bosnia-Herzegovina on March 31, 1909.

1910 - The U.S. Senate granted ex-President Teddy Roosevelt a yearly pension of $10,000.

1918 - During World War I, the Germans launched the Somme Offensive.

1925 - The state of Tennessee enacted the Butler Act. It was a law that made it a crime for a teacher in any state-supported public school to teach any theory that was in contradiction to the Bible's account of man's creation.

1928 - U.S. President Calvin Coolidge gave the Congressional Medal of Honor to Charles Lindbergh for his first trans-Atlantic flight.

1934 - A fire destroyed Hakodate, Japan, killing about 1,500.

1935 - Incubator ambulance service began in Chicago, IL.

1941 - The last Italian post in East Libya, North Africa, fell to the British.

1945 - During World War II, Allied bombers began four days of raids over Germany.

1946 - The Los Angeles Rams signed Kenny Washington. Washington was the first black player to join a National Football League team since 1933.

1946 - The United Nations set up a temporary headquarters at Hunter College in New York City.

1953 - The Boston Celtics beat Syracuse Nationals (111-105) in four overtimes to eliminate them from the Eastern Division Semifinals. A total of seven players (both teams combined) fouled out of the game.

1955 - NBC-TV presented the first "Colgate Comedy Hour".

1957 - Shirley Booth made her TV acting debut in "The Hostess with the Mostest" on CBS.

1960 - About 70 people were killed in Sharpeville, South Africa, when police fired upon demonstrators.

1963 - Alcatraz Island, the federal penitentiary in San Francisco Bay, CA, closed.

1965 - The U.S. launched Ranger 9 . It was the last in a series of unmanned lunar explorations.

1965 - More than 3,000 civil rights demonstrators led by the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. began a march from Selma to Montgomery, AL.

1966 - In New York, demolition work began to clear thirteen square blocks for the construction of the original World Trade Center.

1971 - Two U.S. platoons in Vietnam refused their orders to advance.

1972 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that states could not require one year of residency for voting eligibility.

1974 - In Londone, an attempt was made to kidnap Princess Anne on the Mall.

1980 - U.S. President Jimmy Carter announced to the U.S. Olympic Team that they would not participate in the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow as a boycott against Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.

1980 - On the TV show "Dallas", J.R. Ewing was shot.

1982 - The movie "Annie" premiered.

1982 - The United States, U.K. and other Western countries condemned the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.

1984 - A Soviet submarine crashed into the USS Kitty Hawk off the coast of Japan.

1985 - Larry Flynt offered to sell his pornography empire for $26 million or "Hustler" magazine alone for $18 million.

1985 - Police in Langa, South Africa, opened fire on blacks marching to mark the 25th anniversary of the Sharpeville shootings. At least 21 demonstrators were killed.

1989 - Randall Dale Adams was released from a Texas prison after his conviction was overturned. The documentary "The Thin Blue Line" had challenged evidence of Adams' conviction for killing a police officer.

1990 - "Normal Life" with Moon Unit & Dweezil Zappa premiered on CBS-TV.

1990 - Australian businessman Alan Bond sold Van Gogh's "Irises" to the Gerry Museum. Bond had purchased the painting for $53.9 million in 1987.

1990 - "Sydney" starring Valerie Bertinelli premiered on CBS-TV.

1990 - Namibia became independent of South Africa.

1991 - 27 people were lost at sea when two U.S. Navy anti-submarine planes collided.

1991 - The U.N. Security Council lifted the food embargo against Iraq.

1994 - Dudley Moore was arrested for hitting his girlfriend.

1994 - Steven Spielberg won his first Oscars. They were for best picture and best director for "Schindler's List."

1994 - Wayne Gretzky tied Gordie Howe's NHL record of 801 goals.

1994 - Bill Gates of Microsoft and Craig McCaw of McCaw Cellular Communications announced a $9 billion plan that would send 840 satellites into orbit to relay information around the globe.

1995 - New Jersey officially dedicated the Howard Stern Rest Area along Route 295.

1995 - Tokyo police raided the headquarters of Aum Shinrikyo in search of evidence to link the cult to the Sarin gas released on five Tokyo subway trains.

1999 - Israel's Supreme Court rejected the final effort to have American Samuel Sheinbein returned to the U.S. to face murder charges for killing Alfred Tello, Jr. Under a plea bargain Sheinbein was sentenced to 24 years in prison.

2000 - The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had overstepped its regulatory authority when it attempted to restrict the marketing of cigarettes to youngsters.

2002 - In Pakistan, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh was charged with murder for his role in the kidnapping of Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pear. Three other Islamic militants that were in custody were also charged along with seven more accomplices that were still at large.

2002 - In Paris, an 1825 print by French inventor Joseph Nicephore Niepce was sold for $443,220. The print, of a man leading a horse, was the earliest recorded image taken by photographic means.

2003 - It was reported that the Dow Jones Industrial Average closed up 235.27 (2.8%) at 8,521.97. It was the strongest weekly gain in more than 20 years.

2016 - It was reported that the Kepler space telescope had captured the visible light of a "shock breakout" when the star KSN 2011a exploded. It was the first time an exploding star's brilliant flash shockwave had been captured.

Leaders of the March

One hundred years after the Emancipation Proclamation, A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin began to plan a mass demonstration in Washington. They hoped to unite established civil rights organizations with new community and student activists in a broad coalition.

As demonstrations and violence spread across the country in the spring and summer of 1963, interest in a march grew. On July 2, 1963, leaders representing six national civil rights organizations met at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York to announce a march demanding jobs and freedom. The group appointed Randolph the march director and Rustin his principal deputy. In just eight weeks, they proposed to hold the largest demonstration in American history.

The Big Six
At the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City, six national civil rights leaders announce their coalition to organize a national march for jobs and freedom.

John R. Lewis, Director, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
The youngest member of the Big Six, Lewis represented SNCC and a new generation of freedom fighters. In the early 1960s, SNCC galvanized the nation with its direct action campaigns—from sit-ins to freedom rides to voter registration drives in the deep South. By the time of the march, Lewis had been arrested 24 times for his activism during nonviolent protests. SNCC activists were at the forefront of many of the protests across the South, challenging both white segregationists and traditional black organizations.

Whitney Young,Executive Director, National Urban League (NUL)
Young represented one of the oldest and largest civil rights organizations—the National Urban League. Founded in 1910, the NUL worked to document urban poverty and influence public policy through social surveys on housing, education, and nutrition. Young joined the league as a social scientist in 1941. He devoted his career to studying the conditions of urban life for African Americans as a dean at Atlanta University, the state president of the Massachusetts NAACP, and as the Executive Director of the NUL.

A. Philip Randolph, President, Negro American Labor Council (NALC)
The elder statesman of the civil rights movement, Randolph was the principal visionary behind the March on Washington. At age 74, he had dedicated his life to organizing workers. Randolph brought an unwavering socialist vision to the civil rights struggle. His considerable achievements included founding the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1925, creating the National Negro Congress in 1936, serving as vice president of the AFL-CIO in the 1950s, and organizing the Negro American Labor Council in 1959.

James L. Farmer Jr., National Director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
James Farmer was a founding member and director of CORE, an interracial coalition created in 1941. CORE challenged the law by breaking the law, building upon Mahatma Gandhi’s tactics of nonviolent protest and passive resistance. Staging direct action protests from sit-ins to freedom rides, CORE pioneered the tactics used in freedom struggles across the South by the 1960s. As an elder of the civil rights movement, Farmer continued to lead by example as CORE shifted from a focus on desegregation to voter registration drives by March 1963.

Roy Wilkins, Executive Secretary, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Roy Wilkins represented the NAACP, one of the oldest and largest civil rights organizations in the country. Co-founded in 1909 by W. E. B. Du Bois, the NAACP pursued the philosophy of “color blindness,” pressing for equal access to all aspects of American life. Committed to working through the court system and the legislative process, the NAACP carefully carved out spaces for African American inclusion. By 1963, the NAACP’s emphasis on working within “the system” represented a conservative alternative to the direct action of the newer organizations represented in the march’s coalition. Poignantly, W. E. B. Du Bois died just one day before the march, and it was left to Wilkins to announce from the podium the passing of this great leader.

Martin Luther King Jr., President, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
In 1963, Martin Luther King was the most widely known civil rights leader in the country. Schoolchildren across America had heard of King’s work with the Montgomery bus boycott and witnessed the shocking images of dogs and fire hoses turned on children in Birmingham, Alabama. As president of SCLC, King moved quickly to sites of civil rights struggle and brought leadership experience and media attention to local campaigns. King and other religious leaders founded SCLC in 1957 as a leadership council. SCLC helped coordinate the nonviolent protests occurring across the nation by working with existing civil rights groups.


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