Outline Map of the Shiloh Campaign

Outline Map of the Shiloh Campaign

Outline Map of the Shiloh Campaign

Outline Map of the Shiloh Campaign

Map taken from Battles and Leaders of the Civil War: I: Sumter to Shiloh, p.466

Return to Battle of Shiloh/ Pittsburg Landing

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American Civil War

General Sherman's march through the state of Georgia from Atlanta to Savannah was one of the most devastating blows to the South in the American Civil War. Not only did he take control of Atlanta, a major railroad hub, and Savannah, a major sea port, but he laid the land between Atlanta and Savannah to waste, destroying all that was in his path.

Prior to his famous march to the sea, General Sherman led 100,000 men into the southern city of Atlanta. He defeated Confederate General John Hood at the Battle of Atlanta on July 22, 1864. He had a lot more soldiers than General Hood who only had 51,000. General Sherman finally gained control of the city of Atlanta on September 2, 1864.

The March to Savannah

After establishing control of Atlanta, General Sherman decided to march to Savannah, Georgia and take control of the sea port there. He was well into enemy territory, however, and didn't have supply lines back to the north. This was considered a risky march. What he decided to do was live off the land. He would take from the farmers and livestock along the way to feed his army.

General Sherman also decided that he could hurt the Confederacy even further by destroying cotton gins, lumber mills, and other industries that helped the Confederate economy. His army burned, looted, and destroyed much that was in their path during the march. This was a deep blow to the resolve of the Southern people.

During the march, Sherman divided up his army in four different forces. This helped to spread out the destruction and give his troops more area to get food and supplies. It also helped to confuse the Confederate Army so they weren't sure exactly what city he was marching to.

When Sherman arrived in Savannah, the small Confederate force that was there fled and the mayor of Savannah surrendered with little fight. Sherman would write a letter to President Lincoln telling him he had captured Savannah as a Christmas gift to the president.


On the strength of his novel Shiloh, Random House asked Foote for a short Civil War history. Foote soon realized that the project would require much more time and energy, and therefore offered to write a comprehensive narrative history of the war. Random House agreed, and using the money from his 1955 Guggenheim Fellowship (Foote won Guggenheims also in 1956 and 1959), Foote set out to write the trilogy's first volume, Fort Sumter to Perryville. This 400,000-word account was published in 1958. By 1963 Foote had finished the second volume, Fredericksburg to Meridian.

In 1964 he began Volume 3, Red River to Appomattox, but found himself repeatedly distracted by the ongoing events in the nation and was not able to finish and publish it until 1974. Writing the third volume took as many years as had the first two combined.

The Civil War: A Narrative

Volume 1, first edition

Volume 2, first edition

Volume 3, first edition

Fort Sumter to Perryville Edit

The first volume covers the roots of the war to the Battle of Perryville on October 8, 1862. All the significant battles are here, from Bull Run through Shiloh, the Seven Days Battles, Second Bull Run to Antietam, and Perryville in the fall of 1862, but so are the smaller and often equally important engagements on both land and sea: Ball's Bluff, Fort Donelson, Pea Ridge, Island No. Ten, New Orleans, Monitor versus Merrimac, and Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign.

Fredericksburg to Meridian Edit

The second volume is dominated by the almost continual confrontation of great armies. The starting point for this volume is the Battle of Fredericksburg, fought on December 13, 1862, between General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and the Army of the Potomac commanded by Maj. Gen. Ambrose E. Burnside. For the fourth time, the Army of the Potomac attempts to take Richmond, resulting in the bloodbath at Fredericksburg. Then Joseph Hooker tries again, only to be repulsed at Chancellorsville as Stonewall Jackson turns his flank, resulting in Jackson's mortal wounding.

In the West, one of the most complex and determined sieges of the war has begun. Here, Ulysses S. Grant's seven relentless efforts against Vicksburg demonstrate Lincoln's and Grant's determination. With Vicksburg finally under siege, Lee again invades the North. The three-day conflict at Gettysburg receives significant coverage. (The lengthy chapter on Gettysburg has also been published as a separate book, Stars in Their Courses: The Gettysburg Campaign, June–July 1863 his account of Vicksburg was published separately as The Beleaguered City: The Vicksburg Campaign, December 1862 – July 1863.)

Red River to Appomattox Edit

The final volume opens with the beginning of the two final, major confrontations of the war: Grant against Lee in Virginia, and Sherman pressing Johnston in north Georgia in 1864. The narrative describes the events and battles from Sherman's March to the Sea to Lincoln's assassination and the surrender of Lee at Appomattox.

I am what is called a narrative historian. Narrative history is getting more popular all the time but it's not a question of twisting the facts into a narrative. It's not a question of anything like that. What it is, is discovering the plot that's there just as the painter discovered the colors in shadows or Renoir discovered these children. I maintain that anything you can possibly learn about putting words together in a narrative form by writing novels is especially valuable to you when you write history. There is no great difference between writing novels and writing histories other than this: If you have a character named Lincoln in a novel that's not Abraham Lincoln, you can give him any color eyes you want to. But if you want to describe the color of Abraham Lincoln's, President Lincoln's eyes, you have to know what color they were. They were gray. So you're working with facts that came out of documents, just like in a novel you are working with facts that came out of your head or most likely out of your memory. Once you have control of those facts, once you possess them, you can handle them exactly as a novelist handles his facts. No good novelist would be false to his facts, and certainly no historian is allowed to be false to his facts under any circumstances. I've never known, at least a modern historical instance, where the truth wasn't superior to distortion in every way.

  • The Civil War: A Narrative . New York: Random House. 1958–1974. ISBN0-307-29038-7 .
    1. The Civil War: A Narrative, Vol. 1: Fort Sumter to Perryville. New York: Random House. 1958. ISBN0-307-29039-5 .
    2. The Civil War: A Narrative, Vol. 2: Fredericksburg to Meridian. New York: Random House. 1963. ISBN0-307-29040-9 .
    3. The Civil War: A Narrative, Vol. 3: Red River to Appomattox. New York: Random House. 1974. ISBN0-307-29041-7 .

Vintage Books, a Random House subsidiary, issued the series as trade paperbacks in 1986:

  • The Civil War: A Narrative . New York: Vintage Books. 1958–1974. ISBN0-394-74913-8 .
    1. The Civil War: A Narrative, Vol. 1: Fort Sumter to Perryville. New York: Vintage Books. 1958. ISBN0-394-74623-6 .
    2. The Civil War: A Narrative, Vol. 2: Fredericksburg to Meridian. New York: Vintage Books. 1963. ISBN0-394-74621-X .
    3. The Civil War: A Narrative, Vol. 3: Red River to Appomattox. New York: Vintage Books. 1974. ISBN0-394-74622-8 .

Beginning in 1999, Time–Life published a fourteen volume "40th Anniversary Edition" with contemporary photographs and illustrations, addended with maps originally commissioned for their own 1983-87 comprehensive The Civil War book series. This edition was sold by subscription, but when Time–Life exited the book business, remaindered copies appeared in bookstores. Relatively few copies of volume 13 were printed, increasing the after-market value of that volume and the set as a whole. The divisions were based on keeping each volume to 288–300 pages (a few are shorter or longer), rather than historic or thematic considerations. Each volume has its own index, which appears to be more detailed than the indexes in the three-volume edition. For example, "Rockfish Gap" appears in volume 13 of the Time–Life set, but not in volume 3 of the original edition.

  1. The Civil War: A Narrative, Secession to Fort Henry (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 1999. ISBN0-7835-0100-5 .
  2. The Civil War: A Narrative, Fort Donelson to Memphis (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 1999. ISBN0-7835-0101-3 .
  3. The Civil War: A Narrative, Yorktown to Cedar Mountain (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 1999. ISBN0-7835-0102-1 .
  4. The Civil War: A Narrative, Second Manassas to Pocotaligo (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 1999. ISBN0-7835-0103-X .
  5. The Civil War: A Narrative, Fredericksburg to Steele Bayou (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 1999. ISBN0-7835-0104-8 .
  6. The Civil War: A Narrative, Charleston Harbor to Vicksburg (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 1999. ISBN0-7835-0105-6 .
  7. The Civil War: A Narrative, Gettysburg to Draft Riots (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 1999. ISBN0-7835-0106-4 .
  8. The Civil War: A Narrative, Tullahoma to Missionary Ridge (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 1999. ISBN0-7835-0107-2 .
  9. The Civil War: A Narrative, Mine Run to Meridian (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 2001. ISBN0-7835-0108-0 .
  10. The Civil War: A Narrative, Red River to Spotsylvania (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 2001. ISBN0-7835-0109-9 .
  11. The Civil War: A Narrative, Yellow Tavern to Cold Harbor (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 2000. ISBN0-7835-0110-2 .
  12. The Civil War: A Narrative, James Crossing to Johnsonville (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 2000. ISBN0-7835-0111-0 .
  13. The Civil War: A Narrative, Petersburg Siege to Bentonville (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 2000. ISBN0-7835-0112-9 .
  14. The Civil War: A Narrative, Fort Stedman to Reconstruction (40th Anniversary ed.). Alexandria, VA: Time-Life. 2000. ISBN0-7835-0113-7 .

In 2005, Random House published the narratives as nine volumes by splitting the original three into three volumes each. Some of the maps from the original work, hand drawn by Foote, were replaced by more elaborate, full-color maps that originally appeared in the Time-Life Civil War history series. Photographs and artwork were also added.

  1. The Civil War: A Narrative, Fort Sumter to Kernstown: First Blood–The Thing Gets Under Way. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29023-9 .
  2. The Civil War: A Narrative, Pea Ridge to the Seven Days: War Means Fighting, Fighting Means Killing. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29024-7 .
  3. The Civil War: A Narrative, Second Manassas to Perryville: The Sun Shines South. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29025-5 .
  4. The Civil War: A Narrative, Fredericksburg to Chancellorsville: The Longest Journey. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29026-3 .
  5. The Civil War: A Narrative, Gettysburg to Vicksburg: Unvexed to the Sea. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29027-1 .
  6. The Civil War: A Narrative, Tullahoma to Meridian: Riot and Resurgence. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29028-X .
  7. The Civil War: A Narrative, Red River to Chattahoochee: Another Grand Design. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29029-8 .
  8. The Civil War: A Narrative, Petersburg to Savannah: War Is Cruelty–You Cannot Refine It. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29030-1 .
  9. The Civil War: A Narrative, Five Forks to Appomattox: Victory and Defeat. New York: Random House. 2005. ISBN0-307-29031-X .

In 2011, Random House released a new edition of the trilogy, [1] edited by Jon Meacham, along with a companion volume by Meacham entitled American Homer: Reflections on Shelby Foote and His Classic The Civil War: A Narrative:

See the animated map and learn about the Battle of Shiloh

Two hundred and fifty Union men of Everett Peabody's brigade are up early on patrol. For the past three days, the pickets had been exchanging shots with Confederates. Many worried it signaled a pending attack. But no one in high command had been convinced.

That Sunday morning, within earshot of their camps, they fine a monster lurking amidst the Tennessee timber 9,000 Confederates spearheading a surprise attack. After the next two days at Shiloh, our nation would come to realize the true, bloody cost of civil war. By the spring of 1862, the Union's disaster in the east at Bull Run the previous summer seemed a distant memory thanks to a string of victories in the West.

In February, the Army and Navy, under Union Brigadier General Ulysses Grant and Flag Officer Andrew Foot, had worked together to capture Forts Henry and Donelson. Combined with the loss at Mill Springs, Kentucky, General Albert Sidney Johnston, the western Confederate commander, was forced to move southwest, handing over Kentucky and much of Tennessee, including the crucial supply and industrial center of Nashville. Major General Henry Halleck, commanding the department of Mississippi, ordered federal forces up the Tennessee River, a major conduit into the heart of the western Confederacy.

The federals embarked in March, using 174 steamboats to ferry almost 40,000 men toward their eventual target, a now bustling junction in northern Mississippi. In this day, rivers and rails are the key means to move men and supplies quickly, and Corinth, Mississippi is a crucial southern rail link. It straddles the Mobile & Ohio Railroad and sat on the only line connecting the Atlantic and the Mississippi. And by mid-March, Grant's army was in position to capture it as they encamped around Pittsburg Landing.

His was a good defensive position. Waterways protected both flanks and their rear, and they were within 20 miles of Corinth. But Halleck, cautious, has ordered Grant to hold until the 30,000 men of Don Carlos Buell's army of the Ohio arrives from Nashville.

On April 2, Johnston learns that Buell's approaching column is near Savannah, Tennessee. It is an opportunity to strike his opponents while they are divided, and Johnston seizes it. General P.G.T. Beauregard, the hero of Fort Sumter and Bull Run, plans a very complex attack that attempts to coordinate Johnston's four Corps.

But rainy weather turns the road into mush, delaying the attack. Believing surprise is lost, Beauregard urges retreat. Undeterred, Johnston declares, "Gentlemen, we will attack at daylight." Despite warnings, Union commanders are confident that Johnston's army remains at Corinth. General Grant headquarters across the river at Savannah, and few of the regiments, manning what is to become his front lines, had ever been in a full scale battle.

Johnston's intent is to turn Grant's left flank away from the lifeline at Pittsburg Landing, but it's Grant's right that receives the first Confederate attacks, as William Hardy's brigades advance on the camps of William Sherman's division. As late as 7:00 AM, General Sherman remains unconvinced this is a general attack, until rebel skirmishes from Cleburne's brigade kill his orderly, and shoot him in the hand. Two of Cleburn's six regiments move around the swamp and get caught up in vicious cross fire. The intense fighting here is just south of a church with a Hebrew name that ironically meant place of peace-- Shiloh.

Despite initial resistance, the Union's lines are soon stretched thin. Benjamin Prentiss forms a sixth division, including 12 guns, on the eastern Corinth road. His untested ranks wither Gladden's brigade. But around 8:45, Confederate attacks forced Prentiss to fall back. Many don't stop until they get to Pittsburg Landing, leaving empty camps, hot meals, and all their belongings.

Hungry rebels pause to eat and loot. An hour is lost, as commanders including Johnston struggle to get these men moving again. Amidst the panic, Union defensive lines are patched together with anyone in shouting distance. Casualties and terrain unravel Confederate command structure. By mid-morning, the battle of Shiloh has become a soldier's fight.

Alerted by the distant thunder of artillery, Grant departs from Pittsburgh Landing around 7:30. He orders Bull Nelson's division of Buell's army to begin moving down the river, but Nelson is unable to march until early afternoon. Grant also orders Lew Wallace's 7,500 man division to reinforce his lines, but a series of errors and delays turn a two hour march into seven. Neither will arrive before nightfall.

Despite a sprained ankle, after arriving at the landing, Grant rides the length of his battle line and rushes men and ammunition to his defenders. But until Wallace and the elements of Buell's army arrive, Grant will fight, outnumbered.

By 10:30 AM, the Confederate onslaught starts to overwhelm Grant's right flank. Attacks put Sherman and McClernand in the back, first to the crossroads of the Purdy and Corinth Roads, and then to Jones Field, a mile and a half from Pittsburg Landing. Johnston succeeds in bending Grant's line, but in the wrong direction-- toward Pittsburg landing, where the line can be shorter and stronger. With the Union right flank in retreat, entire Confederate regiments fall out of line to eat and pillage.

This [INAUDIBLE] allows Sherman and McClernand to regroup and launch a feroucious counterattack. By noon, they've rolled over the unprepared moving Confederates. For the next three hours, Sherman and McClernand's determined stand will force Johnston to commit his last reserves and occupy the entire western two-thirds of the Confederate army.

Confederate brigades on Johnson's right make repeated attempts to dislodge Stephen Hurlbut's division from a blooming peach orchard just south of a pond, where the dying crawl for a final drink. By 2 o'clock, Hurlbut's line begins to give after Johnston personally rallies his brigades to attack en mass.

Johnson had an old dueling wound that kept his right leg numb most of the time. He may not have paid much mind to the mini ball that severed his artery. By 2:45, Johnston bleeds to death. He is the highest ranking officer to be killed during the Civil War.

In Grant's center, the division of W.H.L. Wallace and the remnants of Prentiss' ranks form a half mile flank in the thick overgrowth along an old wagon cut. 6,200 men and 25 cannon make the names of the places there the Sunken Road, the Hornet's Nest, synonymous with bloodshed.

Thousands of Grant's men have retreated in panic. Lew Wallace is missing, and Bull Nelson, Buell's lead element, is an hour out of Savannah. Low on options, Grant orders a new line of defense at the Landing.

Around 4:00, Sherman and McClernand, with depleted ranks and no fresh troops, fall back. Confederates pause their attack to get ammunition to the front lines. Sherman and McClernand reform along the heights of a rugged ravine.

By 4:00 PM, Hurlbut withdraws, forcing Prentiss to refuse his left flank, with the Grant's right and left flanks in retreat, sounds of heavy fighting in the [INAUDIBLE] draw Confedereate brigades like a magnet. W.H.L. Wallace's outnumbered federals put up a fierce defense from an overgrown thicket. Their intense fire thickens the air with whizzing metal. Rebels call it the Hornet's Nest.

Brigadier General Daniel Ruggles pounds the Hornet's Nest with almost 60 cannons, the largest concentration of artillery on the North American continent up to that time. By 5:00 PM, elements of 14-- no, 16 Confederate brigades on the field surround the Hornet's Nest. Wallace and Prentiss start to withdraw, then Wallace is shot in the head and left for dead. Over 2,000 men are captured. The day-long federal stand waged all across the battlefield at such places as the peach orchard, Hornet's Nest, and crossroads, staves off total defeat and buys Grant another day to fight.

Grant's army has fallen back two miles and incurred immense casualties. Heavy cannon fire from the Union Timber Clads Tyler and Lexington pesters the Confederate lines. Grant's last line on April 6 is formidable. Confederates much cross huge ravines at Dill and Tillman Bridge.

Stall, the Confederates withdraw to the captured Union camps. Little effort is made to supply ammunition or reform their exhausted ranks. That night, a heavy rain moves in, soaking the living and the dead alike.

Beauregard, now in command, believes Grant's reinforcements are not coming and sends a dispatch to Richmond, proclaiming complete victory. In fact, the lead divisions of Buell's army had a hand in defending Grant's last line, and Lew Wallace's division family arrives on the scene about dusk. Though these reinforcements had been spotted by rebel Colonel Nathan Bedford Forrest, no one in Confederate high command took any action. Handed his greatest setback since the war began, Grant vows to whip them at daylight.

By 6:00 AM, Grant has 40,000 at the ready, half of which are battle fresh. The weary Confederates number around 28,000. Despite their exhaustion and disorganization, when Grant's army moved to retake the field and drive the rebels back, Beauregard eventually manages a solid defense. Despite his savage counterattacks, he is forced back two hours later to a position along the Hamburg Purdy Road.

Ultimately, the Union numbers are too great for Beauregard's depleted ranks. At 2:00, he pulls back in retreat to Corinth. Grant does not pursue until the next day.

Almost 24,000 men are killed, missing, or maimed in just two days. Shiloh is the bloodiest battle in American history up to that time. Despite winning Shiloh, Grant is vilified for the shocking losses and near defeat. Many demand his removal from command. President Lincoln refuses, saying I can't spare this man. He fights.

In Albert Sidney Johnston, the Confederacy loses a prized leader. No general will fill his void in the Western theater. Beginning in May with Corinth, the Union army embarks on a Western mission of conquest, with many more places to fall-- Vicksburg, Chattanooga, Atlanta.

The battlefield is quiet now, though a new fight is ongoing against the foes of time and progress. Nearly 4,000 acres of land have been preserved. Most recently, the site of the Fallen Timbers action. Once host to two of the bloodiest days in American history, Shiloh is now one of the best preserved battlefields of the Civil War. A sprawling, living monument to the sacrifices made there 150 years ago.

The Confederate Attacks on the Hornet’s Nest

The first Confederates to attack a portion of the Hornet’s Nest area were from the extreme right flank of Major General Benjamin Cheatham’s brigade most of the brigade attacked Wallace in the Sunken Road area, unsuccessfully. Next came the 4th, 13th, and 19th Louisiana and 1st Arkansas of Colonel Randall Gibson’s Division, which took fire from so many different angles that Col. James Fagan of the 1st Alabama thought he must be receiving fire from other Confederates. Over the course of three charges, Gibson’s brigade was decimated. Appeals to his superior, Maj. Gen. Braxton Bragg, to make flank attacks instead of frontal assaults were rejected. Piecemeal attacks continued throughout the afternoon Bragg failed to coordinate the assaults.

Outline Map of the Shiloh Campaign - History

Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th U.S. state on June 1, 1796.

Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, and the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. The state of Tennessee is geographically and legally divided into three Grand Divisions: East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee.

Paleo-Indians are believed to have hunted and camped in what is now Tennessee as early as 12,000 years ago. The first recorded European excursions into what is now called Tennessee were three expeditions led by Spanish explorers, namely Hernando de Soto in 1540, Tristan de Luna in 1559, and Juan Pardo in 1567. Pardo recorded the name "Tanasqui" from a local Indian village, which evolved to the state's current name. At that time, Tennessee was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people. Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Native tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the native populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including the Muscogee, Yuchi, Chickasaw and Choctaw peoples.

The first British settlement was Fort Loudoun, near present-day Vonore, Tennessee, in 1756. Prior to statehood, Tennesseans struggled to gain a political voice and suffered for lack of the protection afforded by organized government. Six counties—Washington, Sullivan and Greene in East Tennessee and Davidson, Sumner, and Tennessee in Middle Tennessee—had been formed as western counties of North Carolina between 1777 and 1788. After the American Revolution, however, North Carolina did not want the trouble and expense of maintaining such distant settlements, embroiled as they were with hostile tribesmen and needing roads, forts and open waterways. Nor could the far-flung settlers look to the national government, for under the weak, loosely constituted Articles of Confederation, it was a government in name only. See also State of Franklin .

Tennessee Civil War Map

Southwest Territory Map

(Left) Map of principal Civil War battles fought in Tennessee. (Right) The "Territory South of the River Ohio", more commonly known as the "Southwest Territory", was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 26, 1790, until June 1, 1796, when it was admitted to the United States as the State of Tennessee.

When North Carolina finally ratified the Constitution of the United States in 1789, it also ceded its western lands, the Tennessee country, to the Federal government. North Carolina had used these lands as a means of rewarding its Revolutionary soldiers. In the Cession Act of 1789, it reserved the right to satisfy further land claims in Tennessee. Congress designated the area as the "Territory of the United States, South of the River Ohio", more commonly known as the Southwest Territory. The territory was divided into three districts—two for East Tennessee and one for the Mero District on the Cumberland—each with its own courts, militia and officeholders. President George Washington appointed William Blount as "territorial governor." He was a prominent North Carolina politician with extensive holdings in western lands.

In 1795, a territorial census revealed a sufficient population for statehood. A referendum showed a three-to-one majority in favor of joining the Union. Governor Blount called for a constitutional convention to meet in Knoxville, where delegates from all the counties drew up a model state constitution and democratic bill of rights. The voters chose Sevier as governor. The newly elected legislature voted for Blount and William Cocke as Senators, and Andrew Jackson as Representative. Tennessee leaders thereby converted the territory into a new state, with organized government and constitution, before applying to Congress for admission. Since the Southwest Territory was the first Federal territory to present itself for admission to the Union, there was some uncertainty about how to proceed, and Congress was divided on the issue. Nonetheless, in a close vote on June 1, 1796, Congress approved the admission of Tennessee as the sixteenth state of the Union. They drew its borders by extending the northern and southern borders of North Carolina, with a few deviations, to the Mississippi River, Tennessee's western boundary.

From 1838 to 1839, the US government forced Cherokees to leave the eastern United States. Nearly 17,000 Cherokees were forced to march from Eastern Tennessee to Indian Territory west of Arkansas. This came to be known as the Trail of Tears, as an estimated 4,000 Cherokees died along the way. In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi—"the Trail Where We Cried".

In 1861, as the nation divided, so did Tennessee. In the state's three grand divisions, Confederates and Unionists fought their own political war to determine which way Tennessee would go as the Confederate States of America took form in neighboring Alabama. West Tennesseans, led by Governor Isham G. Harris, overwhelmingly wished connection with the Confederacy, while in East Tennessee most residents remained fervidly loyal to the Union. In the state's middle section, the counties in the Central Basin leaned heavily toward secession, but those on the basin's rim were more ambivalent in their support, a discrepancy which led to divided communities and divided families and prepared the way for vicious neighbor-against-neighbor guerrilla conflict when the American Civil War (1861-1865) commenced.

Tennessee Civil War History Map

Tennessee and the Civil War

In the early years of settlement, planters brought slaves with them from Kentucky and Virginia. Enslaved African Americans were first concentrated in Middle Tennessee, where planters developed mixed crops and bred high quality horses and cattle, as they did in the Inner Bluegrass region of Kentucky. East Tennessee had more subsistence farmers and few slaveholders.

During the early years of state formation, there was support for emancipation of slaves, founded in part on fears by whites of competition with slave labor (who could be hired out) in the middle and eastern parts of the state. At the constitutional convention of 1796, free Negroes were given the right to vote if they met residency and property requirements. Efforts to abolish slavery were defeated at this convention and again at the convention of 1834. The convention of 1834 also marked the state's retraction of suffrage for most free African Americans. By then slaveholding had expanded markedly in the state, especially in the Mississippi Delta where cotton planters held large groups of enslaved African Americans, often numbering in the hundreds.

By 1830 the number of African Americans had increased from less than 4,000 at the beginning of the century, to 146,158. This was chiefly related to development of large plantations and transportation of numerous slaves to the Cotton Belt in West Tennessee, in the area of the Mississippi Delta. African American labor created the cotton plantations that generated so much wealth for the planters. By 1860 the enslaved population had nearly doubled to 283,019, with only 7,300 free Negroes in the state. While most of the slaves were concentrated in West Tennessee, planters in Middle Tennessee also used enslaved African Americans for labor but had smaller operations and held fewer slaves. According to the 1860 census, enslaved African Americans comprised about 25% of the state's population of 1.1 million before the Civil War.

When the Emancipation Proclamation was announced in 1863, Tennessee was mostly held by Union forces. Thus, Tennessee was not among the states enumerated in the Proclamation, and the Proclamation did not free any slaves there. Nonetheless, enslaved African Americans escaped to Union lines to gain freedom without waiting for official action. Old and young, men, women and children camped near Union troops. Thousands of former slaves fought for the Union, nearly 200,000 in total.

Initially, most Tennesseans showed little enthusiasm for separating from a nation whose struggles it had shared for so long. In 1860, they had voted by a slim margin for the Constitutional Unionist John Bell, a native son and moderate who continued to search for a way out of the crisis.

A vocal minority of Tennesseans spoke critically of the Northern states and the Lincoln presidency. "The people of the South are preparing for their next highest duty– resistance to coercion or invasion," wrote the Nashville Daily Gazette on January 5, 1861. The newspaper expressed the view that Florida, Georgia, and Alabama were exercising the highest right of all by taking control of all forts and other military establishments within the area– the right to self-defense. A pro-secessionist proposal was made in the Memphis Appeal to build a fort at Randolph, Tennessee, on the Mississippi River.

Governor Isham G. Harris convened an emergency session of the Tennessee General Assembly in January 1861. During his speech before the legislative body on January 7, he described the secession of the Southern states as a crisis caused by "long continued agitation of the slavery question" and "actual and threatened aggressions of the Northern States . upon the well-defined constitutions rights of the Southern citizen." He also expressed alarm at the growth of the "purely sectional" Republican Party, which he stated was bound together by the "uncompromising hostility to the rights and institutions of the fifteen Southern states." He identified numerous grievances with the Republican Party, blaming them for inducing slaves to run off by means of the Underground Railroad, John Brown's raids, and high taxes on slave labor.

Harris agreed with the concept of popular sovereignty, a doctrine that only the people within a state can determine whether or not slavery could exist within its borders. Furthermore, he regarded laws passed by Congress that made U.S. territories non-slave states as taking territories away from the American people and transferring them to the North, territories from which "Southern men unable to live under a government which may by law recognize the free negro as his equal" were excluded. Governor Harris proposed holding a State Convention. A series of resolutions were presented in the Tennessee House of Representatives by William H. Wisener against the proposal. He declared passing any law reorganizing and arming the state militia to be inexpedient. In Memphis, Unionists held two torchlight processions to honor their cause. The secessionists replied with their own demonstrations and a celebratory ball. That week, on February 9, the state of Tennessee was to vote on whether or not to send delegates to a State Convention that would decide on secession. The General Assembly convened by Governor Isham Harris did not believe it had the authority to call a State Convention without a vote of the people.

In February 1861, fifty-four percent of the state’s voters voted against sending delegates to a secession convention, defeating the proposal for a State Convention by a vote of 69,675 to 57,798. If a State Convention had been held, it would have been very heavily pro-Union. 88,803 votes were cast for Unionist candidates and 22,749 votes were cast for Secession candidates. That day the American flag was displayed in "every section of the city," with zeal equal to that which existed during the late 1860 presidential campaign, wrote the Nashville Daily Gazette. On the corner across from the newspaper office, a crowd had gathered around a bagpipe player playing Yankee Doodle, after which ex-mayor John Hugh Smith gave a speech that was received with loud cheers.

On March 7, the Memphis Daily Appeal wrote that the abolitionists were attempting to deprive the South of territories won during the U.S.-Mexican War. It stated that the slave states had furnished twice as many volunteers as the free states and territories. On March 19, the editors of the Clarksville Chronicle endorsed a pro-Union candidate for state senator in Robertson, Montgomery, and Stewart counties. On April 12, the Memphis Daily Appeal ran a satirical obituary for Uncle Sam, proclaiming him to have died of "irrepressible conflict disease," after having met Abraham Lincoln. One Robertson County slave owner complained that she could not rent her slaves out for "half [of what] they were worth" because "the negros think when Lincoln takes his last, they will all be free." With the Rebel attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, followed by President Abraham Lincoln’s call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion in the seceded states, public sentiment turned dramatically against the Union.

Historian Daniel Crofts thus reports:

Unionists of all descriptions, both those who became Confederates and those who did not, considered the proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand troops "disastrous." Having consulted personally with Lincoln in March, Congressman Horace Maynard, the unconditional Unionist and future Republican from East Tennessee, felt assured that the administration would pursue a peaceful policy. Soon after April 15, a dismayed Maynard reported that "the President's extraordinary proclamation" had unleashed "a tornado of excitement that seems likely to sweep us all away." Men who had "heretofore been cool, firm and Union loving" had become "perfectly wild" and "aroused to a frenzy of passion." For what purpose, they asked, could such an army be wanted "but to invade, overrun and subjugate the Southern states." The growing war spirit in the North further convinced Southerners that they would have to "fight for our hearthstones and the security of home."

Governor Isham Harris began military mobilization, submitted an ordinance of secession to the General Assembly, and made direct overtures to the Confederate government. In a June 8, 1861, referendum, East Tennessee held firm against separation, while West Tennessee returned an equally heavy majority in favor. The deciding vote came in Middle Tennessee, which went from fifty-one percent against secession in February to eighty-eight percent in favor in June. Having ratified by popular vote its connection with the fledgling Confederacy, Tennessee became the last state to formally declare its withdrawal from the Union.

Map of Nashville, Tennessee, Civil War Battles

High Resolution Map of Greater Nashville Civil War Battles

Map of Tennessee Civil War Battles

High Resolution Map of Tennessee Civil War Battlefields

According to the 1860 U.S. census, Tennessee had a free population of 834,082 and an additional slave population of 275,719.

Tennessee recruited more than 120,000 men for the Confederate Army, and more than 31,000 Tennesseans served in the Union forces. Indicating a greatly divided state was the fact that Tennessee recruited for the Union Army more soldiers than all the other Southern states combined. A compilation made from the official rosters of the Confederate Armies as they stood at various battles, and at various dates covering the entire period of the war, shows that Tennessee kept the following number of organizations in almost continuous service in the field: 61 regiments, and 2 battalions of infantry 21 regiments, and 11 battalions of cavalry 1 regiment, and 1 battalion of heavy artillery and 32 batteries of light artillery.

The second most populous state in the South, Tennessee was the geographical heart of the Confederacy, and held immense strategic military importance. Located in the state was a large percentage of the South's iron works, munitions factories, gunpowder mills, and copper mines, making the region the largest concentrated area for the production of war materials in the Confederacy. Tennessee provided more mules and horses, corn, and wheat, than any other Confederate state east of the Mississippi. This state was a crossroads for South's main east-west rail lines, the western Confederacy's major north-south lines, and the key rail links between Virginia, the South Atlantic, and the West. Passing through or bordering on Tennessee, three important western rivers, the Mississippi, Tennessee, and Cumberland, were available to traffic commerce, war materials, and armed forces. Linked by this network of rivers and railroads, the communities of Memphis, Nashville, and Chattanooga served as important centers of manufacturing, communications, and trade within the region.

Only Virginia witnessed more Civil War battles than Tennessee. Tennessee was the last of the Southern states to declare secession from the Union, but was host to hundreds of battles during the war. Its rivers were key arteries to the Deep South, and, from the early days of the war, Union efforts focused on securing control of those transportation routes, as well as major roads and mountain passes such as the Cumberland Gap . There was little heavy industry in the South but the Western Iron District in Middle Tennessee was the largest iron producer in Confederacy in 1861. One of the largest operations was the Cumberland Iron Works, which the Confederate War Department tried and failed to protect. Nashville was productive because of its depots, warehouses and hospitals serving the war effort, and furthermore the city was much safer than the rural areas . Unionists and Confederate sympathizers both flooded in, as did free blacks and escaped slaves, and businessmen from the North.

A large number of important battles occurred in Tennessee, including the vicious fighting at the Battle of Shiloh , which at the time was the deadliest battle in American history (it was later surpassed by a number of other engagements). Other large battles in Tennessee included Fort Donelson , Stones River , Chattanooga, Nashville, and Franklin. See also Ten Bloodiest and Costliest Battles of the American Civil War .

Although the state became a part of the Confederacy , pockets of strong pro-Union sentiments remained throughout the war, particularly in the mountains in East Tennessee. The Vice President of the United States, Andrew Johnson , was a Tennessee Union loyalist, as were a number of congressmen and state politicians. On the Confederate side, significant leaders included noted cavalryman Nathan Bedford Forrest and corps commanders Leonidas Polk and Benjamin F. Cheatham, as well as Governor Isham Harris.

East Tennessee remained a stronghold of Unionism throughout the war most slaves were house servants—luxuries—rather than the base of plantation operations. The dominant mood strongly opposed secession. Tennesseans representing twenty-six East Tennessee counties met twice in Greeneville and Knoxville and agreed to secede from Tennessee. They petitioned the state legislature in Nashville, which denied their request to secede and sent Confederate troops under Felix Zollicoffer to occupy East Tennessee and prevent secession.

East Tennessee thus came under Confederate control from 1861 to 1863. Nevertheless East Tennessee supplied significant numbers of troops to the Federal army and it became an early base for the Republican Party in the South. Strong support for the Union challenged the Confederate commanders who controlled East Tennessee for most of the war. Generals Felix K. Zollicoffer, Edmund Kirby Smith, and Sam Jones oscillated between harsh measures and conciliatory gestures to gain support, but had little success whether they arrested hundreds of Unionist leaders or allowed men to escape the Confederate draft. The railroads in the area were vital to the Confederacy, because they were used to transport troops and supplies between the war’s eastern and western theaters. Union forces finally captured the region in 1863.

Many East Tennesseans engaged in guerrilla warfare against state authorities by burning bridges, cutting telegraph wires, and spying for the North. Bordered with western North Carolina, southwestern Virginia, Kentucky, and the Cumberland Gap, East Tennessee remained vulnerable to both Union and Confederate armies vying for its control. After Knoxville, the largest city in East Tennessee, was captured by General Burnside’s army in 1863, the region became a staging area for attacks into the bordering states. Also a hotbed for deserters, bushwhackers and raiders, East Tennessee remained a concern for the Confederacy and was often addressed by Confederate President Jefferson Davis. General William Sherman's famous March to the Sea saw him personally escorted by the 1st Alabama Cavalry regiment, which consisted entirely of Unionist southerners. Despite its name, the regiment consisted largely of men from East Tennessee.

Tennessee Civil War Map

High Resolution Map of Tennessee

In West Tennessee, control of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers was important in gaining control of Tennessee during the age of steamboats. Tennessee relied on northbound riverboats to receive staple commodities from the Cumberland and Tennessee valleys. The idea of using the rivers to breach the Confederate defense line in the West was well known by the end of 1861 Union gunboats had been scanning Confederate fort-building on the twin rivers for months before the campaign. Ulysses S. Grant and the United States Navy captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers in February 1862 and held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April of the same year.

The capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the Union control of the Western and Middle sections. Control was confirmed at the battle of Murfreesboro in early January 1863. After Nashville was captured (the first Confederate state capital to fall) Andrew Johnson, an East Tennessean from Greeneville, was appointed military governor of the state by Lincoln. During this time, the military government abolished slavery (but with questionable legality). After winning a decisive victory at Chickamauga in September 1863, the Confederates besieged Chattanooga but were finally driven off by Grant in November. Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of the incompetent General Braxton Bragg, who led the Army of Tennessee from Shiloh to the Confederate defeat at Chattanooga. The last major battles came when the General John Bell Hood led the Confederates north in November 1864. He was checked at Franklin, and his army was virtually destroyed by George Thomas's greatly superior forces at Nashville in December.

During Reconstruction, Tennessee sought to spur the growth of manufacturing through state-sponsored development, but agriculture remained important to the state.

In 1864, Andrew Johnson (a War Democrat from Tennessee) was elected Vice President under Abraham Lincoln. He became President after Lincoln's assassination in 1865. Under Johnson's lenient re-admission policy, Tennessee was the first of the seceding states to have its elected members readmitted to the U.S. Congress, on July 24, 1866. Because Tennessee had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, it was the only one of the formerly secessionist states that did not have a military governor during the Reconstruction period.

After the war, Tennessee adopted the 13th Amendment on February 22, 1865 ratified the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution on July 18, 1866 and was the first state readmitted to the Union on July 24, 1866.

Because it ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, Tennessee was the only state that seceded from the Union that did not have a military governor during Reconstruction. This did not placate those unhappy with the Confederate defeat. Many white Tennesseans resisted efforts to expand suffrage and other civil rights to the freedmen. For generations white Tennesseans had been raised to believe that slavery was justified. Some could not accept that their former slaves were now equal under the law. When the state Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of African American suffrage in 1867, the reaction became stronger. The Nashville Republican Banner on January 4, 1868, published an editorial calling for a revolutionary movement of white Southerners to unseat the one-party state rule imposed by the Republican Party and restore the legal inferiority of the region's black population.

"In this State, reconstruction has perfected itself and done its worst. It has organized a government which is as complete a closed corporation as may be found it has placed the black man over the white as the agent and prime-move of domination it has constructed a system of machinery by which all free guarantees, privileges and opportunities are removed from the people. The impossibility of casting a free vote in Tennessee short of a revolutionary movement . is an undoubted fact."

The Banner urged its readers to ignore the presidential election and direct their energy into building "a local movement here at home" to end Republican rule.

According to the 1860 census, African Americans comprised only twenty-five of Tennessee's population, which meant they could not dominate politics. Only few African Americans served in the Tennessee legislature during Reconstruction. However, the Nashville Banner may have been reacting to increased participation by African Americans on that city's council, where they held about one-third of the seats.

After the formal end of Reconstruction, the struggle over power in Southern society continued. Through violence and intimidation against freedmen and their allies, White Democrats regained political power in Tennessee and other states across the South in the late 1870s and 1880s. Over the next decade, the state legislature passed increasingly restrictive laws to control African Americans. In 1889 the General Assembly passed four laws described as electoral reform, with the cumulative effect of essentially disfranchising most African Americans in rural areas and small towns, as well as many poor Whites. Legislation included implementation of a poll tax, timing of registration, and recording requirements. Tens of thousands of taxpaying citizens were without representation for decades into the 20th century. Disfranchising legislation accompanied Jim Crow laws passed in the late 19th century, which imposed segregation in the state. In 1900, African Americans made up nearly twenty-four percent of the state's population, and numbered 480,430 citizens who lived mostly in the central and western parts of the state.

Outline Map of the Shiloh Campaign - History

Attila the Hun
More about the greatest of all Barbarian rulers:

Greco-Persian Wars
Also called the Persian Wars, the Greco-Persian Wars were fought for almost half a century from 492 to 449 BC. Greece won against enormous odds. Here is more:

Observe and learn from Seneca .

American Civil War 1861-1865

The American Civil War is also called The War Between the States .

The Federal government of the United Sates, headed by President Abraham Lincoln , with 23 states vs. 11 Southern states.

The Southern states were: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina.

After seceding from the Union in 1860 and 1861, the South formed the Confederate States of America . The president of the Confederacy was Jefferson Davis . Vice president was Alexander H. Stephens .

What Was the Core Issue?

Slavery, trade, and tariffs.

Abraham Lincoln was elected president in late 1860. He was the candidate of the antislavery Republican Party.

All along, the Southern states had threatened to leave the Union if their demands weren't met. Lincoln's election was the straw that broke the camel's back. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina passed their Ordinance of Secession.

In January 1861, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, and Louisiana seceded.

Texas followed on February 1, 1861.

In April 1861, after the outbreak of the Civil War, Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee seceded.

And here is a map of the secession in the United States:

What Ignited the American Civil War?

April 12, 1861.

Fort Sumter, in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina.

What Happened?

85 U.S. soldiers in Fort Sumter were fired upon by 5,500 besieging Confederate soldiers.

The Union soldiers surrendered.

How Many People Died in the American Civil War

A low estimate is 750,000 combined deaths. About half of these victims were never identified.

According to Drew Gilpin Faust (author of This Republic of Suffering: Death and the American Civil War) this number would be proportionally to today's population 7 million people.

The Battles of the American Civil War

July 21, 1861 - First Battle of Bull Run (also called: First Manassas)

August 10, 1861 - Battle of Wilson's Creek

March 9, 1862 - Battle of the Monitor and Merrimack (also called: Battle of Hampton Roads)

April 4 - July1, 1862 - Peninsular Campaign

April 6-7, 1862 - Battle of Shiloh (also called: Battle of Pittsburg Landing)

April 24-25, 1862 - Battle of New Orleans. The Confederacy lost New Orleans.

May 27, 1862 - Battle of Hanover Court House

May 31-June1, 1862 - Battle of Seven Pines (also called: Battle of Fair Oaks)

August 29-30, 1862 - Second Battle of Bull Run (also called: Second Manassas)

September 17, 1862 - Battle of Antietam (also called: Battle of Sharpsburg)

October 3 - 4, 1862 - Battle of Corinth

December 31, 1862 - January 2, 1863 - Battle of Stone's River (also called: Battle of Murfreesboro)

May 1-5, 1863 - Battle of Chancellorsville

July 1-3, 1863 - Battle of Gettysburg

September 8, 1863 - Battle of Sabine Pass

September 19-20, 1863 - Battle of Chickamauga Creek

November 23 - 25, 1863 - Battle of Chattanooga

May 5-7, 1864 - Battle of the Wilderness

May 8-19, 1864 - Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

Maps of the American Civil War

With this map comes the inset Vicinity of Gettysburg.

And here is a nifty map of the Civil War locations.

Here's a huge map of all US Battle Sites

What Else? American Civil War Trivia

Here is a list of eye witness accounts .

People are concerned about the preservation of Civil War battlefields. There's a Battlefield Protection Program out there to address this concern.

American Civil War Timeline

Check the costs of major US wars in comparison.

Check the American war casualties report

Maybe, see also American Timeline

Go here for the Battle of New Orleans that was fought on January 8, 1815, as part of the War of 1812 .

What You Need to Know:

There were more casualties—24,000—at Shiloh than there had been in the American War of Independence, the War of 1812, and the Mexican War combined, and yet the battle itself was a bloody draw. After battle of Shiloh, Grant said: “I gave up all idea of saving the Union except by complete conquest.”

The Battle of Shiloh was a battle in the Western Theater fought April 6–7, 1862, in southwestern Tennessee. On the first morning, 40,000 Confederate troops struck Union Soldiers at Pittsburg Landing. They were under the command of Major General Ulysses S. Grant. The Confederate Army of Mississippi, under the command of General Albert Sidney Johnston, launched a surprise attack on Grant’s army from its base in Corinth, Mississippi. Johnston was mortally wounded during the fighting Beauregard took command of the army and decided against pressing the attack late in the evening. Overnight, Grant was reinforced by one of his divisions stationed further north and was joined by three divisions. The Union forces began an counterattack the next morning which reversed the Confederate gains of the previous day.

Timeline of the Roman Empire and Lands of the Celtic People

475BC The people of Rome and their allies (the Latin League) overthrew their Etruscan rulers. After the Gallic attack on Rome the city was gradually rebuilt to become one of the largest in Italy. BY 338 BC the Romans ruled the Latin League with absolute power. From 300-280BC the Romans mastered their local enemies: the Etruscans, Samnites and the Gauls of North of Italy (Po Valley).

The Greek cities in the south of Italy concerned at the power of Rome sent their champion Pyrrhus against her. He won several battles but he eventually left to fight in other wars and with his final defeat in 275BC the Romans were masters of all of Italy.

279BC The Gauls advanced into Macedonia, Greece and Thrace. They were soon forced out of each of these countries but remained in Thrace until the end of the century. From Thrace three Gallic tribes advance into Anatolia and formed a new kingdom called Gallatia.

264-241BC The Romans went to war with Carthage and built a strong navy. They finally defeated Carthage in 241 BC and gained control of the island of Sicily and later the islands of Corsica and Sardinia.

236BC The Celts began to loose their lands to other people. The Romans conquered the Gauls in the Po valley. The Romans destroyed several Gallic armies and some important Gallic tribes even left Italy and went to live north of the Alps.

In 219BC Celtic tribes lost land in Spain to the Carthaginians. When Hannibal, the Carthagian general, attacked Seguntum the Romans came to the cities defence. This was the beginning of the Second Punic War.

218BC Hannibal won many battles against the Romans including the battle of Cannae where he defeated four Legions of the Roman republic. The Romans attacked and conquered Spain and then Carthage itself. The Carthaginians were finally defeated at the battle of Zama in 203BC. The Romans gained all of Carthage's territories in Spain.

200-191BC The Gauls of the Po Valley who had sided with Hannibal were defeated and the area became the Roman Province of 'Nearer Gaul'. At the end of the century the Thracians drove the Gauls out of Thrace. The Celts also lost a lot of land in Gallatia when the Seleucids and Pergamenes attacked them.

We do not know to whether large movements of Celtic people or close trade brought Celtic culture to Britain. Some Celtic tribes from Gaul settled in Britain before the Romans attacked Britain, in 55BC.

200-146BC The Romans fought with Greek states but mainly Macedonia.

149BC The Romans finally took over Macedonia after winning their Third Macedonian War. In 146BC the Romans brought all of Greece under their direct control.

149BC In a third war between the two countries Carthage was raised to the ground and its people sold as slaves. Following this final victory the Romans gained Carthage's North African territories.

133BC The king of Pergamum died and left his kingdom to Rome. The Romans now controlled nearly all of the lands surrounding the Mediterranean sea.

42BC Mark Anthony and his Roman legions fought the Parthians and suffered heavy casualties. He withdrew and made the Romans overlords of Armenia.

31BC Mark Anthony also helped Cleopatra recreate the Ptolemies Empire in Egypt. This was unpopular with the Romans and Julius Caesar's son Octavius defeated him at the battle of Actium.

Under Octavius Augustus' rule the Celtic kingdom of Galatia and (25BC) and Paphlagania (6BC) were absorbed into the Roman Empire.
Under Octavius although there was relative peace the Roman frontier was pushed to the River Danube. When the Romans tried to push the frontier to the River Elbe the Germans in the North of the country under the leadership of Arminius ambushed and slaughtered three Roman legions.

Cappadocia was added to the Roman Empire by the Emperor Tiberius and Mauretania by the Emperor Caligula.

41AD The Emperor Claudius invaded Britain and won a decisive battle at Medway. The Celtic chief Caractacus fled with his band of warriors to seek the assistance of the warlike tribe of the Silures (in today's South Wales).

The Silures were successful in ambushing smaller groups of Roman soldiers and at times they successfully fought larger units. In one battle they defeated a Roman legion and only fled when a relieving legion arrived.

78AD Julius Frontinus, the Roman Governor of Britain finally defeated the Silurians after moving the Second Legion Augustus to Caerleon.

The Emperor Domitian built forts in the German lands between the Rhine and Danube rivers and took the Roman frontier into the Black Forest and Taunus Mountains.

In 79AD Agricola became Governor of Britain and he led the Romans into the mountains of Britain. He immediately defeated the warlike Ordovician tribe of North Wales. The Brigantia tribe of North England & Southern Scotland were his next victims. Finally in 84AD the Romans fought the Caledonian tribes of Scotland and defeated them in the battle of Mons Graupius.

However, fighting on the Danube meant that the Romans had to reduce the number of legions in Britain to three and the Romans withdrew their frontier in the North of Britain.

The Emperor Trajan brought together ten Roman legions to fight the Dacians and after much hard fighting the Romans were victorious. Dacia was Rome's first province beyond the Danube River.

Armenia was made a Roman province in 114AD.

Adiabene and Mesopotamia were conquered by the Romans in 116AD.

When Trajan died in 117AD the Roman Empire had reached its greatest size.

The Emperor Hadrian did not try to conquer new lands but was content to defend the Empires frontiers. He withdrew from Mesopotamia and Armenia.

In Britain his troops built a wall across Northern Britain to protect the Roman frontier from the stubborn Caledonian tribes. In 145AD the frontier in Britain was moved northwards to the Antonine Wall.

In 251AD the Romans found themselves under attack and defeated by the Goths who gained control of the Balkans and then Anatolia. Five years later the Franks and Alemanni from Germany overran Roman Gaul, and raided into Spain and Italy. The Persians conquered Armenia and in 260AD they broke through out to Syria and sacked Antioch.

The Emperor Aurelian (270-275AD) officially abandoned Dacia to the Germanic Goths and Gepids. In Germany the Rhine-Danube triangle was also officially abandoned to the German Alemanni tribe.

The Roman Empire became permanently divided into the Western and Eastern Empires. The Eastern Roman Empire became known as the Byzantium Empire.

In the fourth century AD warrior horsemen from the East called Huns forced some German tribes to move into the Western Roman Empire. Rome itself was sacked by the Visigoths in 410AD. In the same year the Roman Emperor told the British that they would have to organise their own defence without assistance from Roman troops. Throughout much of Britain and Gaul, Roman administrators were expelled and the natives organised their own defence. Some Romans remained to fight the invaders.

Britain was now an easy target and was attacked by Picts from the North and by Irish Celts in the West. In Eastern Britain German mercenaries were employed by the Romano-British leader Vortigen to help defend against invading groups. In return these mercenaries were given the chance to settle in Eastern Britain. However, these foreign mercenaries encouraged other members of their tribes to join in the plunder of Britain and settle in Celtic lands. The new migrants included the Saxons, Jutes and Angles. They formed their own kingdoms in what is now known as England.

In 455 and 493AD an Ostrogothic kingdom was established in Italy and Roman domination was at an end. The Byzantium Empire survived for another thousand years until the Turks captured Constantinople in 1453 AD.

Map of the Roman Empire and Celtic Lands

You can also find all of this text within the map -

800BC The Celts controlled most of central Europe and by 700BC they also conquered the lands of Northern Spain. Over the next hundred years they expanded into the centre of Spain but lost their lands in the North of Spain. The Celts in central Europe become known as Gauls. The Celts may have begun to arrive in Britain around 480BC. They continued their settlement of Britain throughout this time.

410-390BC The Gauls expanded down through the lands, which the river Danube flows, and into the North of Italy. There they conquered the Etruscan people and they defeated the Romans and sacked Rome.

What are the best Major Civil War Battlefields?

1. Gettysburg Battlefield

Gettysburg National Military Park in the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania is brimming with approximately 1,328 monuments, markers and memorials relating to the American Civil War.

In fact, Gettysburg was just a small town until the summer of 1863, when it became the scene of one of the bloodiest battles in the war between General Robert E. Lee and his Confederate Army and General George Meade’s Union Army of the Potomac.

The Battle of Gettysburg raged from 1 to 3 July 1863, resulting in over 51,000 casualties and victory for Meade and the Unionists. It marked a significant turning point in the war, followed twenty one months later by Lee’s surrender.

Visitors can follow the route of Battle of Gettysburg, from Seminary Ridge and Culp’s Hill to Cemetery Ridge and Devils Den as well as visiting David Wills’ house, a museum about the town.

The National Park Service Museum and Visitor Center is a good place to start as it contains a wide range of Civil War related information as well as a plethora of guided tours and exhibitions. The Soldiers’ National Cemetery also offers a draw, being the location of Abraham Lincoln’s famous Gettysburg Address. This site features as one of our Top Ten US tourist Attractions.

2. Richmond National Battlefield Park

Richmond National Battlefield Park in Virginia is a collection of several historic battlefields, representing some of the fiercest fighting in the American Civil War, including the Seven Days’ Battles.

Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy, meaning that, between 1861 and 1865 Richmond and its surroundings were at the centre of a bloody tug of war between the Union and Confederate armies.

Richmond National Battlefield Park spans 1900 acres of Civil War sites, including famous battle sites such as Cold Harbor, Drewry’s Bluff and Gaines Mill, as well as the Chimborazo Medical Museum, which commemorates the work done at Chimborazo Hospital. This was one of the largest hospitals of its time, treating over 76,000 Confederates during the war.

With such an array of Civil War sites, it is worth starting your visit to Richmond National Battlefield Park at the Civil War Visitor Center at the Tredegar Iron Works. Not only is this the place to find park ranger guided tours of the battlefields, but the centre also includes an expansive military exhibit.

3. Antietam Battlefield

Antietam Battlefield was where, on 17 September 1862, General Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia met Major General George B. McClellan and the Army of the Potomac in what became the most brutal battle of the American Civil War. In fact, the Battle of Antietam remains the USA’s bloodiest single day of battle to date.

Part of the Maryland Campaign and the Confederate Army’s first incursion into the North, the Battle at Antietam raged for twelve hours and ended with a Confederate withdrawal, though only after a long, inconclusive, mutually destructive day's fighting. The total cost to both sides was estimated to be upwards of 23,000 casualties.

However, although not a conclusive victory for the Union, it did provide enough political cover to allow President Lincoln to move forward with his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.

Antietam Battlefield National Park commemorates this battle and is a goldmine of information about the War. With so many activities and tours, one could spend days there. However, those with limited time can visit the Antietam Battlefield visitors centre to see their exhibits, enjoy a battlefield talk by one of the Park Rangers or embark on an 8½ mile self guided tour of the Antietam Battlefield by car, bicycle or on foot.

The Antietam Battlefield tour has eleven stops and audio/CD guides are available at the park’s bookstore. There are also audiovisual experiences, one of which is introductory and runs for half an hour and the second an award-winning hour long recreation of the battle.

4. Vicksburg Battlefield

Vicksburg Battlefield was the site of one of the most important Union victories of the American Civil War and, together with the Battle of Gettysburg, marked a pivotal moment during the conflict.

With its strategically vital location near the Mississippi River, wealth of resources, access to Richmond and ability to split the south, President Abraham Lincoln considered Vicksburg to be “the key” to winning the war. Thus, Lincoln launched the Vicksburg Campaign to seize the town from the Confederates and, in 1863, Major General Ulysses S. Grant led the Union Army of the Tennessee towards the fateful battlefield.

Vicksburg was heavily defended and, only after two failed attempts on 19 and 22 May 1863, did Grant’s Union army manage to penetrate them. Grant changed his tactics from those of force to instigating a siege, cutting the Confederate troops at Vicksburg off from their communication and supply routes and preparing the way for an attack.

Then, from May 26, the Federal troops undertook a campaign to undermine the Confederate defences by tunnelling underneath them and destroying them with explosives. Two mines were indeed detonated in June together with several clashes and ongoing gunfire.

Finally, on 3 July, Confederate General Pemberton rode to meet Grant, displaying white flags. Initially unable to agree terms, the final Confederate surrender was signed the next day on 4 July 1863. The Union had gained their key to the South.

Today, Vicksburg Battlefield is a National Historic Park, which houses over a thousand monuments commemorating the siege of Vicksburg and its surrounding events together with a restored Federal navy boat, the USS Cairo, with its accompanying museum and a National Cemetery.

There are various activities at Vicksburg Battlefield, including an in-car tour of the site and a visitor centre with several exhibits. Nearby are related sites including the batteries at Louisiana Circle and Navy Circle as well as South Fort.

5. Shiloh Battlefield

Shiloh Battlefield in Shiloh National Military Park in Tennessee and Mississippi was the site of a Union victory in April 1862 during the American Civil War.

Known as the Battle of Shiloh and also as the Battle of Pittsburgh Landing, this clash saw the Confederates, led by General Albert Sidney Johnston mount an initially successful surprise attack on the Union army of Major General Ulysses S. Grant, only to be defeated the next day. Johnston was killed during the battle.

The Battle of Shiloh, which raged from 6 to 7 April 1862, was an attempt by both sides to secure strategic crossroads in the area, resulting in a total of 23,746 casualties.

Today, Shiloh Battlefield is part of the National Parks network and offers visitors a range of tours and exhibits to explore the area’s history.

In addition to viewing Shiloh Battlefield itself, visitors can see Shiloh National Cemetery and the Corinth Interpretative Centre. Corinth was also a crucial strategic point in the American Civil War, often known as the “linchpin” of Union control over the area. Several attempts would be made by the Confederates to seize Corinth, but the Union Army successfully defended their base.

6. Chancellorsville Battlefield

Chancellorsville Battlefield in Virginia was the site of a major Confederate victory during the American Civil War and part of the wider Chancellorsville Campaign, an attempt by the Unionists to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond.

Fought between 30 April and 6 May 1863, the Battle of Chancellorsville saw the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia led by General Robert E. Lee defeat Major General Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac despite all the odds being stacked in favour of the Unionists. Lee’s army was not only half the size of Hooker’s but was also in a state of disarray when the Chancellorsville Campaign began.

Yet, with the help of a risky plan by General Lee combined with Unionist miscommunication, badly managed Unionist corps and Hooker’s inexperience in command, the Confederates achieved victory. However, with over a quarter of Lee’s forces killed or wounded in the battle and the loss of his most important generals, including Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, this was something of a pyrrhic victory.

Today, visitors can explore Chancellorsville Battlefield within the wider remit of the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park. Chancellorsville Battlefield offers numerous tours ranging from driving and walking tours to audio and virtual tours.

There is also a twenty minute video at the Chancellorsville Battlefield Visitor Center as well as exhibitions and literature. The site also has a monument to Stonewall Jackson.

7. Fort Donelson Battlefield

Fort Donelson Battlefield was the site of a fierce and pivotal battle fought from 11 to 16 February 1862 as part of the American Civil War. The two parties involved were the Unionists commanded by the then Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant and the Confederates, led by Brigadier General John B. Floyd.

The Battle of Fort Donelson was preceded by the capture of Fort Henry in western Tennessee by Grant a few days earlier. Viewing this victory as a chance to invade the South, Grant moved his forces towards Fort Donelson on 12 February.

The Battle
After a number of probing attacks and a naval gunship battle won by the Confederates, the Unionists started gaining momentum, due in large part to the reinforcements amassed by Grant. By 16 February, the Confederates had suffered major losses and Confederate Brigadier General Buckner asked Grant for terms to end the fighting. Grant’s now famous response was “No terms except an unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.” And thus Buckner surrendered.

The Battle of Fort Donelson marked a significant win for the Unionists, breaking the South and forcing the Confederates to relinquish southern Kentucky as well as much of West and Middle Tennessee. Grant was promoted to the rank of major general and nicknamed “Unconditional Surrender” Grant. His army would later be known as the Army of Tennessee.

Visiting Fort Donelson
Visitors to Fort Donelson Battlefield can learn more about the battle, its participants and its effects though a six mile self-guided tour as well as visiting the Fort Donelson cemetery.

It’s best to start at the Fort Donelson Battlefield visitor centre, which houses a number of exhibits and offers a short introductory film, giving an insight into the battle and a starting off point from which to plan your day.

8. Chickamauga Battlefield

Chickamauga Battlefield forms part of the Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park and is a major landmark in US history.

In the fall of 1863, General William S. Rosecrans' Union army fought General Braxton Bragg's Confederates for control of Chattanooga, a key rail centre and what was considered the gateway to the South. Nearby Chickamauga became the scene of the first battle for Chattanooga and in which the Confederates emerged victorious.

In fact, this was the last major victory for the South in the Civil War.

The 5,500 acre Chickamauga Battlefield is filled with historical tablets and monuments related to the American Civil War. Visitors can tour Chickamauga Battlefield by a seven-mile self-guiding auto tour as well while hiking and horse trails are also available.

Military enthusiasts will enjoy a visit to the Chickamauga Battlefield Visitor Center to see the Fuller Gun Collection with over 300 examples of military long arms.

9. Cold Harbor

The Battle of Cold Harbor was part of the overland campaign of 1864 during the American Civil War.

It was here in Cold Harbor that, between 31 May and 12 June 1864, the Army of the Potomac led by Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant battled General Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia.

With over 12,000 casualties to the Union army, the battle of Cold Harbor would be one of Lee’s final victories, prompting Grant to change his strategy.

Cold Harbor now forms part of Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia where visitors can find a myriad of Civil War related sites, tours and exhibits. Walking tours of Cold Harbor ranging from one to three miles start at the Visitors Centre in Mechanicsville which also houses a series of exhibits such as an electric map program for Cold Harbor and Gaines Mill.

10. Fredericksburg Battlefield

Fredericksburg Battlefield in Virginia was the site of the Battle of Fredericksburg, a major clash between the Unionists led by General Ambrose E. Burnside and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia led by General Robert E. Lee during the American Civil War. It took place between 11 and 15 December 1862 near the heart of the Confederate capital in Richmond.

Burnside, who had been newly appointed to replace General McClellan, had planned to launch a surprise attack on the Confederates, but was severely compromised by a series of administrative errors. Most heinous of these was the slow arrival of floating bridges which the Union troops needed in order to cross the Rappahannock River. The delay in receiving those bridges lost the Union Army of the Potomac its element of surprise and allowed the Confederates plenty of time to amass their troops in the area.

The result was a series of frantic attempts by the Unionists to regain their advantage. Several attempts were made to cross the river and gain ground, but each was deflected by the Confederates. Both sides fought fiercely, but in the end the Battle of Fredericksburg resulted in a decisive Confederate victory, with 12,653 Union casualties to 5,377 Confederate casualties.

Visitors to Fredericksburg Battlefield are presented with an incredible number of tours including walking, guided, driving, audio and even virtual tours. From the Sunken Road, which acted as a natural trench and the original stone wall to Telegraph Hill or “Lee Hill” and its many monuments, Fredericksburg Battlefield offers an in-depth insight into both the battle itself and the war as a whole.

As part of the larger Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Fredericksburg Battlefield is surrounded by history. Those planning to visit Fredericksburg Battlefield can expect to spend at least half a day there. The audio tour alone lasts three hours. Having said this, the official National Parks website has suggestions for shorter and longer trips and the Fredericksburg Battlefield Visitor Centre does offer a good overview of the battle.

It is also worth noting that visitors can learn about the Second Battle of Fredericksburg, which took place in Marye's Heights on 3 May 1863 as part of the Chancellorsville Campaign.

Watch the video: Shiloh: Animated Battle Map