The Grail Cypher: A radical reassessment of Arthurian history

The Grail Cypher: A radical reassessment of Arthurian history

Walter Kayo sat at his desk in the scriptorium, the cold chill of winter half broken by a flickering fire in the hearth. The velum page before him was still not finished, yet already his eyes felt heavy and refused to focus. As he dipped his quill to begin the final paragraph there was a commotion outside, accompanied by the tramp of heavy boots. Three burly men strode in bearing armor and arms, their white mantles emblazoned with large splayed red crosses. They introduced themselves as being ambassadors of King Baldwin of Jerusalem, and deposited a large manuscript on his desk.

Kayo wafted away the large cloud of dust they had disturbed, and looked balefully at the enormous volume before him. He had no idea what it was about, but it obviously meant a lot more work for his small understaffed scriptorium. The officer in charge pointed to some marked pages, so Kayo hefted the manuscript open and started to slowly read. But the text was old, tattered, often illegible, and in Aramaic, which was not his favorite language. Half way down the page his eyes started to widen and his jaw took it upon itself to drop down. He looked up bearing an expression that clearly stated: “what the hell is this!”

The officer understood Kayo’s perplexion and returned a wry smile, which was reinforced by muffled laughter from the two soldiers behind. The officer approached more closely, disturbing some sheaves on the desk and creating another cloud of dust. He lowered his voice to a whisper and said: “King Baldwin wants you to turn this into an interesting story.” Kayo’s jaw was now beyond control, but he managed a small nod in acknowledgement.

Count Baldwin liberates Christian Edessa from Muslim control, during the First Crusade. Public domain.

Historical crossword

The story of King Arthur and his gallant knights that this semi-mythical Walter Kayo eventually crafted is complex, frustrating and fraught with contradictions and impossibilities. In the hands of subsequent Arthurian authors it became a compilation of two histories blended together in such a clumsy manner that it betrays confusion in both its broad outline and finer detail.

Very few of the names and events recorded in these chronicles exist in the historical record, and so the text represents a huge historical crossword puzzle that is almost impossible to crack. But how can we derive an answer for two-down in this puzzle, if we have not discovered the solution for five-across? That is the central problem that has faced all previous researchers of Arthurian history, because starting this decipherment is next to impossible. Happily, Tyche-Fortuna has smiled upon these endeavors, because the previous historical analysis in the King Jesus Trilogy has already answered the question for five-across, and so we can now confidently begin to fill in the rest of the crossword. And the result will be a latticework of answers and conclusions that will be both controversial and challenging.

Arthurian history is traditionally set in the fifth or sixth centuries, the era of the Dark Ages. This is a period in British history that is not simply ‘dark’ because of an economic and social collapse following the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire, it is also ‘dark’ because it lacks any historical records. This makes it difficult to decipher what was happening in this era, and it is this lacuna in British history that has enabled the life of King Arthur to remain enigmatic and semi-legendary for so long. Had Arthur been a king of the fourth or ninth centuries, we could easily have determined if these legends were fact or fiction, but Arthur has managed to slip into a historical crevasse where there are many known unknowns and several unknown unknowns.

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  • The conspiracy theories of Bérenger Saunière and Rennes-le-Château
  • British Police Join Search for Legendary Holy Grail

But this simple observation is interesting, and begs two obvious questions. Did a real King Arthur become semi-legendary simply because he lived in a Dark Age era of historical phantoms? Or did a mythical King Arthur get deliberately placed into this historical lacuna, because Walter Kayo and the other 12th and 13th century scribes and chroniclers knew that they could hide a semi-fictional legend in the poorly documented confusion of the Dark Ages?

The earliest known image of King Arthur - on Modena Cathedral in Italy. Credit: Ralph Ellis

British emperors

At the end of the Western Roman Empire there were two revolts against Rome organized by strong leaders who were based in or came from Britain. The first of these was Magnus Maximus of the late fourth century, and then there was Constantine III in the early fifth century. Both of these ‘British’ kings became emperor of Rome for a short while, but their revolts ultimately failed and they were executed.

Several venerable British historians recorded the events of these tumultuous times, including Gildas, Bede and Nennius. But none of these chroniclers said anything about the classical King Arthur, because he never existed in this era and in this region. The one or two one-sentence references we have to a warrior Arthur were actually talking about a heroic semi-divine Hercules figure, who was supposed to come to the aid of an army in its time of need. This is why Nennius records that a warlord called Arthur was involved in twelve great battles, because these were hazy recollections of the twelve labors of Hercules and therefore symbolic of the precessional zodiac.

The Boy's King Arthur : the death of Arthur and Mordred

This threadbare Arthurian history, if one can call these few moth-eaten strands a history of Arthur, takes us all the way through to the beginning of the 12th century. And perhaps it is worth reinforcing this fact. The classical story of King Arthur is totally missing from the historical record for some 600 years. Until we reach the 12th century there is absolutely no classical King Arthur whatsoever. According to the many chroniclers of this era, he simply did not exist; and this is the vast lacuna that any history of King Arthur must explain, before it can become regarded at true history. And yet it can be explained quite satisfactorily, if we open our eyes to the full spectrum of possibilities.

Crusades

In 1096 the People’s Crusade to the Holy Land began, as a popular revolt against the Muslim invasion of the Judaeo-Christian Near East. Within this large force were Baldwin of Boulogne and Tancred of Norman Italy, who campaigned in southeastern Anatolia. The army of Tancred then did the obvious thing and turned south towards Antioch-Orontes in Syria, while Count Baldwin kept marching east, capturing towns near modern Gaziantep and then Antioch and Edessa. The situation had been pretty grim in Christian Edessa prior to Baldwin’s arrival, and so he was invited in by the people as a liberating hero. But this Crusade had started out as a campaign to liberate Judaea, so why was Baldwin campaigning to the east of the Euphrates in Mesopotamia? Did he already know that Edessa had been a pivotal city during the tumultuous first century events that gave rise to the gospel stories?

Whatever the case, the literary realm of Western Europe began to dramatically change from this time onwards, and the classical Arthurian genre was about to suddenly blossom. And it is worth taking a minute here to wonder why this event happened in Normandy at this very moment in time. Hand-written manuscripts of this magnitude were hugely expensive to manufacture, and the later Vulgate Cycle was about twice the size of the entire Bible. So why in the 1130s and 1140s did various aristocrats from Brittany and Normandy and eventually through to Holland, Germany, Italy and Spain, start producing these enormously expensive volumes about a history of a British king who never existed? And we know that the classical King Arthur of Britain never existed, because nobody had ever mentioned him up until this time. The answer lies in the history of the Knights Templar.

Artist’s impression of a Templar Knight ( Wikimedia Commons )

King Baldwin I of Jerusalem was succeeded in 1118 by Baldwin II, the son of Hugh I. And in 1119 Hugues de Payens and Godfrey de Bouillon approached Baldwin and requested permission to set up a monastic order for the protection of pilgrims in the Near East. This new martial monastic order was, of course, the Poor Soldiers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon— or the Knights Templar for short. And note that Hugues de Payens had chosen a name that reflected the first century Nazarene, Ebionites, Essene, and Boethusians, in being called the ‘Poor Knights’, and so the Knights Templar were covertly declaring themselves to be the true heirs to the Nazarene-Ebionite sect of Jesus and James.

Baldwin II ceeding the location of the Temple of Solomon to Hugues de Payns and Gaudefroy de Saint-Homer. The fourth person is Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem. ( Wikimedia Commons ).

The formation of the Knights Templar is central to this story. Not only did Wolfram von Eschenbach name the Templars as the Guardians of the Holy Grail-stone, but this was exactly the kind of secretive order that would have been required to carry out the dangerous literary mission that created the Arthurian genre. And the dates are suspiciously coincident too. It was immediately after the foundation of the Knights Templar in 1119 that novel manuscripts started turning up in Normandy, the very region and era that these European aristocrats originally came from. Baldwin of Boulogne was from eastern Normandy; Hugues Payens was from Troyes in northeastern France; while Godfrey Bouillon was from Ardennes and Lorraine which encompassed much of modern Belgium and Holland.

The novel texts that had been acquired in Judaeo-Syria, most probably from Edessa, were decidedly heretical - the sort of text that only a secretive and initiatory organization like the Templars could possibly have handled. Norman aristocrats like Hugues and Godfrey were probably devout Christians, but obviously Christians with an open mind, because what Count Baldwin had discovered in Edessa represented a radically new perspective on classical Christian history. Here were texts that said that the biblical Jesus was a warrior king of Edessa, who had led the Jewish Revolt against Rome. The new story was very similar to the traditional gospel story, but the import of this amendment - from pauper prince to warrior king - was incendiary to say the least. And yet the eastern bishops were adamant that this was the gospel truth: Jesus had been a king of Edessa.

Subversive esoterica

But what could be done with texts that contained such a radical reevaluation of the gospel stories? These manuscripts were of such importance they could not be buried and forgotten, and yet this was not an era in which a count or even a king could challenge the established creed of the Catholic Church. In fact, the only way in which this information could be preserved for future generations, is if some courageous and creative authors crafted a fictional story about heroic knights that incorporated all of the many historical heresies contained within these Edessan manuscripts. And what these Norman authors needed, in order to achieve this, was a real history upon which this new semi-fictional history of Jesus could be hung; which could provide the new story with a degree of historical authenticity. These authors did not want to craft a fairy-story for children, they wanted a plausible history to intrigue an intellectual aristocrat. What they needed was a rebel prince or king who had been involved in a tax-dispute with the Roman Empire and had set out to become the next emperor, just as the biblical King Jesus had likewise done in the first century.

This is why Wolfram von Eschenbach says that Master Kyot was sent out to search many other lands, including Ireland and Britain, in order to discover the rest of the story. But what Kyot was actually looking for was not ‘the rest of the story’, instead he wanted ‘the ideal cover-story’. Kyot finally found what he was looking for in Anjou, in northwestern France, and what he discovered there was the history of the Bretton-British usurper emperors of Rome, Magnus Maximus and Constantine III. Here were two warrior monarchs of a small ‘oppressed’ land who could act as the perfect substitute and camouflage for the Edessan history of King Jesus of Judaea. Both Maximus and Constantine had been kings of a small nation who had led a revolt against Rome, and just as importantly they had lived at the very start of the Dark Ages when much of the history of Europe had been lost to the sands of time.

The next thing that these intrepid authors required was a pseudonym for their hero, one that reflected Jesus’ true status and position but would only be recognized by a few enlightened initiates. And since it was known that Jesus was often portrayed as the central Sun-god figure on a zodiac, as is depicted on the Beit Shean zodiac from Galilee, the answer was obvious. All they needed to do was replace the central Helios Sun-king on this Christian zodiac, with the figure that was already displayed at the center of many of the more empirical zodiacs—the constellation of Ursa Major. Ursa Major was the central constellation around which the twelve signs of the zodiac rotated and the Great Bear is the root of Arthur’s name. And since the Round Table was an allegoric circle of the zodiac, the symbolic synchronicity was now complete:

  • Ursa Major, the Great Bear, is encircled by twelve signs of the zodiac.

Ursa Major Constellation

  • King Arthur-Bear was encircled encircled by twelve Knights of the Round Table.

King Arthur's knights, gathered at the Round Table to celebrate the Pentecost, see a vision of the Holy Grail.

  • King Jesus-Izas was encircled by twelve disciples at the Last Supper table.

Jesus and disciples at the last supper. Roman mosaic.

In which case, the popular King Arthur of Britain from classical Arthurian history never existed, at least not in the manner which we expect. In reality, the history of the new King Arthur that had been crafted in the 12th century by the Knights Templar, represents the heretical gospel story that had been outlawed and destroyed by the Catholic Church - the Gospel of the Monarchal and Martial Jesus.

  • The Fatal Secret Jesus took to Jerusalem
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Such a radically different gospel obviously existed at one time but Christian Edessa and Christian Mesopotamia had become cut off from the Roman and Constantinople Churches, behind the fifth century velvet curtain of the Council of Chalcedon, and behind the seventh century iron curtain of Islam. And so the copious compositions of Aphrahat, Ephrem, Moses of Chorene, Yohannes Drasxanakertci, Dionysius of Tel Mahre and numerous others besides, were lost to Western theology and scholarship for hundreds of years—before East met West once again during the Crusades.

From the evidence outlined in this book, it is axiomatic that one of the forgotten manuscripts rediscovered in Edessa during the Crusades was the source for all of Arthurian history, and its rediscovery caused a muted sensation in the courts of northern France. There followed some consternation about how to handle these heretical texts, and then a great flurry of literary excitement and endeavor. The result was the creation of a pseudo-historical monarch called King Arthur, who valiantly attempted to free his people from Roman ‘oppression’. But the unmentionable sub-text to this esoteric story, was that the semi-fictional King Arthur of Britain and Gaul was actually the historical King Jesus of Judaea and Edessa.

King Arthur was King Jesus.

The 'Round Table' at Hamat teverya on the Sea of Galilee. Here is King Arthur (‘Jesus’), surrounded by the twelve disciple-knights of the Round Last Supper Table. Credit: Ralph Ellis

The Grail Cypher is a new title by Ralph Ellis, soon to be available at Edfu Books www.edfu-books.com. Available now on Amazon. See the Grail Cypher Epilogue for a summary.

Featured image: Detail, The Boy's King Arthur: "And when they came to the sword that the hand held, King Arthur took it up."

By Ralph Ellis


*** The Grail Cypher ***
A radical reassessment of Arthurian history
by Ralph Ellis

• The history of King Arthur was modeled upon the life of Jesus.
• Jesus-Arthur had twelve disciple-knights of the Round (Last Supper) Table.
• The son of Jesus-Arthur was the king of Palmyra in Syria.

This is the most comprehensive and radical reassessment of Arthurian history ever undertaken. The conclusion is that the Classical Arthur did not exist. This is why there is no mention of King Arthur for nearly 600 years, until the early 12th century. It was only when Templar Crusaders returned to Normandy from Syria and Judaea, that the Arthurian genre was born.

Because in reality, King Arthur was the alter ego for the biblical King Jesus of Judaea (and Edessa). The Templar Crusaders had discovered a manuscript in Syria detailing the true monarchal and martial life of King Jesus and his family. But this revised history was decidedly heretical and positively dangerous. Being unable to record and preserve this history directly, the Norman Templars crafted an alternate pseudo-history about a 'British' monarch called King Arthur.

This is a comprehensive analysis of all Arthurian literature, and includes explanations for the many tangential stories within Arthurian history, including:

• St. Peter as the Guardian of the Holy Grail
• Pompey the Great and the pirates of Gibraltar
• Secrets of Mithras and the bull of Taurus
• King Arthur’s battle with Vespasian
• The Roman creation of Christianity
• The Holy Grail brought to Earth by aliens
• Sir Galahad dressed as a woman (really!)
• The burial of Jesus-Arthur at Stonehenge

The ‘King Jesus Trilogy’ includes:
Cleopatra to Christ,
King Jesus,
Jesus, King of Edessa.
. and now .
The Grail Cypher


The Grail Cypher: The Secrets of Arthurian History Revealed: 4 Paperback – 18 September 2015

Ralph Ellis is so cutting edge that often he is on the bleeding edge, poking his nose into speculations and some rather above-coincidental history. His King Jesus collection makes a lot of sense to me. And now this, what are the odds that shortly after the Templars appear in the Holy Land, particularly they beeline to Antioch (also called Edessa, Ur, Sanliurfa) instead of Jerusalem, [remember, Jesus was King of Edessa, not the misdirecting story put out by the Roman church]. The Jewish tradition says that the Ur that Abraham was from is this Ur in Turkey, NOT the one proclaimed by archeologist Leonard Wooley. Not only that, Sanliurfa is only 8 miles from Gobekli Tepe, a site reliably dated to 10,000 BCE. This area appears to be a very ancient center of learning.

To underscore that, Egyptologist Carmen Boulter [note added Feb 2017) is releasing photos of recently opened tombs in Turkey which look similar to King Tut's bling. One theory is that Nefertiti fled here. Only problem: the sacrophagus of wood dates back to . 10,000 BCE! Atlantean? This seems to buttress my feeling that this area goes way back beyond all the derivative tales we usually hear.

Here in Ur did they discover the true story of who Jesus was. [which means the Romish whore is built on lies], . and they carry back to Europe, particularly northern France, this new history, cleverly disguised as Tales of one King "Arthur." OR, as I have just learned the Templars are close associated with the Cathars, who never bought into the Official Romish Version. and that the Templars were given a dispensation by the Caliphate in Cairo to dig on the Temple Mount. This means they were on friendly terms with groups in Islam. How could that be if Christians were at enmity with Islam? I also heard in the lecture that the Templars initiated Saladin into their rites!

It may well be that they already had the alternative version of history as to who "Jesus" was, and came looking for confirmation.

The main corpus of the Grail stories suddenly appears full blown, with the characters in the "Arthurian" stories a coded gloss for King Jesus and his allies and court in their attempted takeover of the Roman empire. and then, how they lost, and their story was rewritten to support the Roman Cult as version 3.0,

Take note that if you search for Origins of Christianity blog (can't put link in) you will learn of "Chrestianity." NOT, note, Christianity, and that there were no mentions of one "Jesus Christ" in the first centuries until the monks began to rewrite and fabricate books and church "fathers." This is another indication of how the alternative truths were written out of history by the political victor.
To understand how there was NO mention of Christianity (with an "i") for centuries, see site [. ]


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Mind bending and awe inspiring. Never did I think King Arthur was the biblical Jesus but it's proven without doubt to me now.

Ralph Ellis is so cutting edge that often he is on the bleeding edge, poking his nose into speculations and some rather above-coincidental history. His King Jesus collection makes a lot of sense to me. And now this, what are the odds that shortly after the Templars appear in the Holy Land, particularly they beeline to Antioch (also called Edessa, Ur, Sanliurfa) instead of Jerusalem, [remember, Jesus was King of Edessa, not the misdirecting story put out by the Roman church]. The Jewish tradition says that the Ur that Abraham was from is this Ur in Turkey, NOT the one proclaimed by archeologist Leonard Wooley. Not only that, Sanliurfa is only 8 miles from Gobekli Tepe, a site reliably dated to 10,000 BCE. This area appears to be a very ancient center of learning.

To underscore that, Egyptologist Carmen Boulter [note added Feb 2017) is releasing photos of recently opened tombs in Turkey which look similar to King Tut's bling. One theory is that Nefertiti fled here. Only problem: the sacrophagus of wood dates back to . 10,000 BCE! Atlantean? This seems to buttress my feeling that this area goes way back beyond all the derivative tales we usually hear.

Here in Ur did they discover the true story of who Jesus was. [which means the Romish whore is built on lies], . and they carry back to Europe, particularly northern France, this new history, cleverly disguised as Tales of one King "Arthur." OR, as I have just learned the Templars are close associated with the Cathars, who never bought into the Official Romish Version. and that the Templars were given a dispensation by the Caliphate in Cairo to dig on the Temple Mount. This means they were on friendly terms with groups in Islam. How could that be if Christians were at enmity with Islam? I also heard in the lecture that the Templars initiated Saladin into their rites!

It may well be that they already had the alternative version of history as to who "Jesus" was, and came looking for confirmation.

The main corpus of the Grail stories suddenly appears full blown, with the characters in the "Arthurian" stories a coded gloss for King Jesus and his allies and court in their attempted takeover of the Roman empire. and then, how they lost, and their story was rewritten to support the Roman Cult as version 3.0,

Take note that if you search for Origins of Christianity blog (can't put link in) you will learn of "Chrestianity." NOT, note, Christianity, and that there were no mentions of one "Jesus Christ" in the first centuries until the monks began to rewrite and fabricate books and church "fathers." This is another indication of how the alternative truths were written out of history by the political victor.
To understand how there was NO mention of Christianity (with an "i") for centuries, see site [. ]


By Ralph Ellis

Volume four of the King Jesus Trilogy (in four parts).This is the most comprehensive and radical reassessment of Arthurian history ever undertaken. The conclusion is that the Classical Arthur did not exist. This is why there is no mention of King Arthur for nearly 600 years, until the early 12th century. It was only when Templar Crusaders returned to Normandy from Syria and Judaea, that the Arthurian genre was born. Why?

Because in reality, King Arthur was the alter ego for the biblical King Jesus of Judaea (and Edessa). The Templar Crusaders had discovered a manuscript in Syria detailing the true monarchal and martial life of King Jesus and his family. But this revised history was decidedly heretical and positively dangerous. Being unable to record and preserve this history directly, the Norman Templars crafted an alternate pseudo-history about a 'British' monarch called King Arthur.

This is a comprehensive analysis of all Arthurian literature, and includes explanations for the many tangential stories within Arthurian history, including: St. Peter as the Guardian of the Holy Grail Pompey the Great and the pirates of Gibraltar secrets of Mithras and the bull of Taurus King Arthur’s battle with Vespasian the Roman creation of Christianity the Holy Grail brought to Earth by aliens Sir Galahad dressed as a woman (really!) and the burial of Jesus-Arthur at Stonehenge.


King Arthur Was the Biblical Jesus

This is the most comprehensive and radical reassessment of Arthurian history ever undertaken. The conclusion is that the Classical Arthur did not exist. This is why there is no mention of King Arthur for nearly 600 years, until the early 12 th century. It was only when Templar Crusaders returned to Normandy from Syria and Judaea, that the Arthurian genre was born.

Because in reality, King Arthur was the alter ego for the biblical King Jesus of Judaea. The Templar Crusaders had discovered a manuscript in Syria detailing the true monarchal and martial life of King Jesus and his family. But this revised history was decidedly heretical and positively dangerous. Being unable to record and preserve this history directly, the Norman Templars crafted an alternate pseudo-history about a 'British' monarch called King Arthur.

A revolutionary 650-page book available on: Apple, Kindle, Kobo, Nook.

Paperback pre-orders from Adventures Unlimited of Illinois .

*** See the Grail Cypher Epilogue for a summary ***
*** See the Edfu Books Website for details ***

The Grail Cypher - the sequel to the Gospel of King Jesus Trilogy:

Cleopatra to Christ
The biblical family was descended from a daughter of Queen Cleopatra, who became the queen of Parthia but was exiled to Syria .
Amazon ebook: Cleopatra to Christ.
PoD paperback: Cleopatra to Christ.

King Jesus
St. Paul (Saul) was Josephus Flavius the historian. But this means that the biblical Jesus MUST be Jesus of Gamala, the leader of the Jewish Revolt. This rebel prince was subsequently exiled to Dewa, a prison fortress in Britain .
Amazon ebook: King Jesus.
PoD paperback: King Jesus.

Jesus, King of Edessa
The history of Jesus of Gamala is further refined, and he has now been identified as King Izas-Jesus of Edessa. King Izas led the Jewish Revolt, but was captured and crucified while wearing the traditional Edessan royal Crown of Thorns.
Amazon ebook: Jesus, King of Edessa.
PoD paperback: Jesus, King of Edessa.

The Grail Cypher
King Arthur of Britain was actually King Jesus-Izas of Judaea.
Amazon ebook: The Grail Cypher.
PoD paperback: The Grail Cypher.


From Scythia to Camelot: A Radical Reassessment of the Legends of King Arthur, the Knights of the Round Table, and the Holy Grail

Littleton and Malcor have made a fresh contribution to the study of Arthurian legends. They examine both the sources and outcomes of northeast Iranian additions to the fables so popular and influential in western culture. Though many modern scholars acknowledge the contribution of Sarmatian and Alan cultures to the corpus of Arthurian history and legend, few have explained the connection in such detail.

Unfortunately, the product is less than it appears. Littleton and Malcor try to attribute all Littleton and Malcor have made a fresh contribution to the study of Arthurian legends. They examine both the sources and outcomes of northeast Iranian additions to the fables so popular and influential in western culture. Though many modern scholars acknowledge the contribution of Sarmatian and Alan cultures to the corpus of Arthurian history and legend, few have explained the connection in such detail.

Unfortunately, the product is less than it appears. Littleton and Malcor try to attribute all aspects of Arthurian legend to Northeast Iranian traditions, even to the point of seemingly inventing or twisting evidence (see below). Their one-size-fits-all approach becomes most strained the closer it approaches Arthur. Their case seems much more plausible, and less dependent on hearsay, as they relate it to Lancelot, Grail, Fisher King legends. Their Sword in the Stone hypothesis is pure speculation—plausible and entertaining, but thinly supported.

Littleton and Malcor’s “Introduction” warned readers that “hypothetical sequences of events, based on our findings” would be included. Since they seldom delineate such scenarios, the unwary reader may assume many such are supported by scholarly documentation. In fact, their theories intermix with cited materials in a way which defies unsorting. In fairness, drawing Second Century Sarmatian, Sixth Century Alan and modern Ossetian sources out of Medieval (Twelfth Century and later) romances would daunt any scholar.

At first glance the impressive quantity of chapter endnotes and appendices gives the appearance of solid scholarship. Closer examination shows the notes and appendices as much padding as relevant material. Also, the author's penchant for multiple, consecutive notes from a single source and notes for expository material weaken what is assumedly well-documented research. The numerous genealogies entertain, but add little to their thesis.

A word about sources. Though Littleton and Malcor acknowledge some evidence for their theory comes from “the ever-popular Anonymous,” in fact one of their most commonly cited sources is “personal communication” with various individuals. At least nineteen such citations dot the text and notes, most with John Colarusso, whose chatty, condescending “Foreword” sets the hyperbolic tone for the entire work. Interestingly, Littleton and Malcor seldom cited Colarusso’s published works. All these “personal communications” seem convenient, if not contrived.

They also relied heavily on the 1986 version of The Arthurian Encyclopedia edited by Norris J. Lacy et al., though their style of citation prevented naming that document, and they only intermittently named the author of individual entries. The 1996 revised and expanded Encyclopedia was not referenced.

"Radical" hits it on the head, as L & M join Barber & Pickett, and the incredible Wilson & Blackett. Here, we find refences/notes citing "private correspondence" from the same individual who wrote their introduction. A hefty batch of notes refer to postulations from mid-20th-century (or earlier) authors who were exactly that-- postulators.

We find a hefty reliance on Continental matter, not much from historical Britain, either during the late Roman or post-Roman periods. But worst of all, the boo "Radical" hits it on the head, as L & M join Barber & Pickett, and the incredible Wilson & Blackett. Here, we find refences/notes citing "private correspondence" from the same individual who wrote their introduction. A hefty batch of notes refer to postulations from mid-20th-century (or earlier) authors who were exactly that-- postulators.

We find a hefty reliance on Continental matter, not much from historical Britain, either during the late Roman or post-Roman periods. But worst of all, the book falls short of thorough research. Littleton & Malcor are unaware of the two Equites Taifali units sent into Britain in 396, or even the modern reenactment unit by the same name. This Alano-Gothic connection could have helped discover such items as Alanic hauma cups (grails) with bear-shaped handles. In fact, the bear (a "protective" figure, and on the Equites Taifali Seniors' shield)was known as "artos."

Instead, we are given the wickedly hilarious prognosis that a character named Lucius Artorius Castus led a group of socalled "Sarmatians" known as the Iasyges throughout the British countryside. In truth, Iasyges were Saraumatae, not related to Alans or Sarmatians. Artorius Castus had the rank of "praefectus castrorum" while stationed in Britain, that of an old vet, an officer who no longer commanded alas but puttered around as "keeper of the castle." So much for Artorius.

All of these facts, not speculations, were available, especially in the official Notitia Dignitatum, an illustrated Roman record still extant. But then again, evidently it's more fun to speculate and be a little radical:) . more


The Grail Cypher: The Secrets of Arthurian History Revealed

This was a difficult book to rate. On the one hand, I can’t imagine a more profound, convincing and important book ever written about some of the hidden (esoteric) histories of both the grail and Christian religion, and their direct connection. For this reason alone, I would have given the book the highest possible rating. The author, very convincingly, undercovers some major, mind-blowing revelations regarding these histories and their connection, which explains some of the key historical gaps This was a difficult book to rate. On the one hand, I can’t imagine a more profound, convincing and important book ever written about some of the hidden (esoteric) histories of both the grail and Christian religion, and their direct connection. For this reason alone, I would have given the book the highest possible rating. The author, very convincingly, undercovers some major, mind-blowing revelations regarding these histories and their connection, which explains some of the key historical gaps that other researchers have failed to explain. However, having done that, the author then continues to explore an overwhelming amount of detail concerning these important points, trying to connect numerous historical characters mentioned in these histories. The author should have stopped with the major discoveries and let further research deal with the details.

Therefore, on the other hand, the author’s constant use of very imaginative, and mostly unconvincing etymologies of names to connect as many of the numerous historical characters as possible, as well as his strategy of often combining several characters into single characters, greatly diminishes the overall approach he used to explore these histories, and exposes him to the attack of academics, who will then discredit the entire work as a result. For this reason, I rated the book with a “4” rather than a “5”.

However, keeping these observations in mind, and keeping an open mind, this is an outstanding book, if only for some of the key and incredibly important findings that the author has developed. It is sure to greatly upset a lot of those who continue to believe in the traditional Christian teachings and histories, almost solely and completely written by Paul for political purposes, as being historically true.
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The Grail Cypher: The Secrets of Arthurian History Revealed

*** The Grail Cypher *** A radical reassessment of Arthurian history by Ralph Ellis . ** New expanded 2017 edition ** - The history of King Arthur was modeled upon the life of Jesus. - Jesus-Arthur had twelve disciple-knights of the Round (Last Supper) Table. - The son of Jesus-Arthur was the king of Palmyra in Syria. This is the most comprehensive and radical reassessment of Arthurian history ever undertaken. The conclusion is that the Classical Arthur did not exist. This is why there is no mention of King Arthur for . Read More

*** The Grail Cypher *** A radical reassessment of Arthurian history by Ralph Ellis . ** New expanded 2017 edition ** - The history of King Arthur was modeled upon the life of Jesus. - Jesus-Arthur had twelve disciple-knights of the Round (Last Supper) Table. - The son of Jesus-Arthur was the king of Palmyra in Syria. This is the most comprehensive and radical reassessment of Arthurian history ever undertaken. The conclusion is that the Classical Arthur did not exist. This is why there is no mention of King Arthur for nearly 600 years, until the early 12th century. It was only when Templar Crusaders returned to Normandy from Syria and Judaea, that the Arthurian genre was born. Why? Because in reality, King Arthur was the alter ego for the biblical King Jesus of Judaea (and Edessa). The Templar Crusaders had discovered a manuscript in Syria detailing the true monarchal and martial life of King Jesus and his family. But this revised history was decidedly heretical and positively dangerous. Being unable to record and preserve this history directly, the Norman Templars crafted an alternate pseudo-history about a 'British' monarch called King Arthur. This is a comprehensive analysis of all Arthurian literature, and includes explanations for the many tangential stories within Arthurian history, including: - St. Peter as the Guardian of the Holy Grail - Pompey the Great and the pirates of Gibraltar - Secrets of Mithras and the bull of Taurus - King Arthur's battle with Vespasian - The Roman creation of Christianity - The Holy Grail brought to Earth by aliens - Sir Galahad dressed as a woman (really!) - The burial of Jesus-Arthur at Stonehenge V 2.0 The 'King Jesus Trilogy' includes: Cleopatra to Christ, King Jesus, Jesus, King of Edessa, . and now . The Grail Cypher. *** please search for the 2014 or 2015 editions *** Further information on Edfu-Books dot Com. . Read Less

2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

Fairford, GLOS, UNITED KINGDOM

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  • 2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
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  • ISBN: 1514702630
  • ISBN-13: 9781514702635
  • Pages: 674
  • Edition: ENG
  • Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Published: 9/18/2015 12: 00: 00 AM
  • Language: English
  • Alibris ID: 16557620917
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  • PLEASE NOTE, WE DO NOT SHIP TO DENMARK. New Book. Shipped from UK in 4 to 14 days. Established seller since 2000. Please note we cannot offer an expedited shipping service from the UK.
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2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

Gloucester, GLOUCESTERSHIRE, UNITED KINGDOM

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  • 2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
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  • ISBN: 193914955X
  • ISBN-13: 9781939149558
  • Pages: 674
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  • Published: 2016
  • Language: English
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2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

Castle Donington, DERBYSHIRE, UNITED KINGDOM

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  • ISBN: 1514702630
  • ISBN-13: 9781514702635
  • Pages: 674
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  • New. Trade paperback (US). Glued binding. 674 p. Contains: Illustrations, black & white. In Stock. 100% Money Back Guarantee. Brand New, Perfect Condition, allow 4-14 business days for standard shipping. To Alaska, Hawaii, U.S. protectorate, P.O. box, and APO/FPO addresses allow 4-28 business days for Standard shipping. No expedited shipping. All orders placed with expedited shipping will be cancelled. Over 3, 000, 000 happy customers.
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2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

Exeter, DEVON, UNITED KINGDOM

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  • ISBN: 193914955X
  • ISBN-13: 9781939149558
  • Pages: 674
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  • Published: 2016
  • Language: English
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2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

Exeter, DEVON, UNITED KINGDOM

  • Edition:
  • 2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Trade paperback, New
  • Details:
  • ISBN: 193914955X
  • ISBN-13: 9781939149558
  • Pages: 674
  • Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Published: 2016
  • Language: English
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2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

  • Edition:
  • 2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Trade paperback, New
  • Available Copies: 10+
  • Details:
  • ISBN: 1514702630
  • ISBN-13: 9781514702635
  • Pages: 674
  • Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Published: 2015
  • Language: English
  • Alibris ID: 15109172450
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  • New. Trade paperback (US). Glued binding. 674 p. Contains: Illustrations, black & white.
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2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

  • Edition:
  • 2015, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Trade paperback, New
  • Details:
  • ISBN: 193914955X
  • ISBN-13: 9781939149558
  • Pages: 674
  • Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • Published: 2016
  • Language: English
  • Alibris ID: 16699993463
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Watch the video: The Grail Cypher Ep 1 - Ralph Ellis Michael Tsarion