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In this "This Day in History" video clip learn about different events that have occurred on January 5th. Some of these events include Benedict Arnold leading British troops and Nixon starting the space shuttle program. Also, Elian Gonzales returns to Cuba and construction on the Golden Gate Bridge begins.
1846: Captain John Fremont declares California&rsquos independence from Mexico and names the mile-wide entrance to the San Francisco Bay as Chrysopylae, which means Golden Gate in Greek.
1849: The population of San Francisco explodes after gold is discovered in northern California. Once a village called Yerba Buena with a population of about 400, San Francisco is now a city of 35,000.
1868: Regular ferry service links San Francisco and Sausalito in Marin County with the ferry vessel Princess. Land speculators claimed that Marin County real estate would increase in value due to its proximity to San Francisco. The ferry vessel Princess was owned by Sausalito Land and Ferry Company which gave free ferry passes to anyone that bought a lot in Sausalito.
1869: Joshua Norton arrived in San Francisco in 1849. He is the son of an industrious London merchant and is determined to build a fortune in San Francisco. By 1869, a gone mad and bankrupted Gold Rush merchant, he declares himself Norton I, Emperor of the United States, and begins issuing decrees. San Franciscans tolerate him. He is the first to call publicly for the construction of bridges across the San Francisco Bay. He reigned as Emperor Norton until his death in 1880.
January 1870: Joseph Baermann Strauss is born in Cincinnati, Ohio.
1872: Railroad executive and entrepreneur Charles Crocker announces to the Marin County Board of Supervisors that Central Pacific Railroad engineers had prepared plans and cost estimates for a suspension bridge crossing the Golden Gate Strait that would also carry rail cars.
1872: Bridge designer and theorist Leon Moisseiff is born in Latvia.
1876: Charles Alton Ellis, the engineer who will one day be instrumental in the design calculations for the Golden Gate Bridge, is born in Maine.
April 18, 1906: San Francisco is devastated by a massive earthquake and fire.
1915: The Panama Pacific International Exposition opens in San Francisco to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal (a year after it opened).
1916: James H. Wilkins, a former structural engineer and then newspaper editor for the San Francisco Call Bulletin, proposes a design for spanning the Golden Gate Strait. His articles generate some interest, but World War I differed further progress towards a bridge across the Strait.
1918: Late in the year, Richard Welch, a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, requests Congress to authorize that the federal government take soundings in the Golden Gate Strait, specifically in the channel separating the Marin peninsula and the Presidio in San Francisco.
1919: San Francisco Board of Supervisors tell San Francisco City Engineer Michael O&rsquoShaughnessy to proceed with the study of the feasibility of a bridge across the Golden Gate Strait.
January 1920: San Francisco City Engineer Michael O'Shaughnessy requests the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey to make soundings of the channel bottom. The U.S.S. Natoma completes the sounding of the channel in May 1920.
May 1920: O'Shaughnessy receives the Natoma's survey data. O'Shaughnessy consults engineers from around the country about feasibility and cost. Many say it cannot be done, and if it can be the cost would exceed $100 million. O&rsquoShaughnessy writes a letter to three prominent engineers: Joseph B. Strauss in Chicago Francis C. McMath, president of the Canadian Bridge and Iron Company in Detroit and leader in the construction of the Quebec Bridge and Gustav Lindenthal, the man who engineered the 1,000-foot Hell Gate Arch over New York's East River in 1916. Strauss, who has designed nearly 400 spans, claims a bridge can be built, and it can be built for $25 to $30 million.
June 28, 1921: Joseph B. Strauss, working with his staff in Chicago, develops a hybrid structure with cantilever side spans with a suspension bridge between the ends of the two cantilevers. He submits preliminary sketches to O'Shaugnessy with a cost estimate of $27 million (Note: this cost estimate varies depending on the source from $17 million to $27 million).
December 27, 1921: Strauss applies for a patent on the hybrid cantilever-suspension bridge plan with the US Patent Office. The patent (#1,453,084) is granted on April 24, 1923.
1922: Michael O'Shaughnessy, Joseph B. Strauss, and Edward Rainey, a mayoral aide, propose the creation of a special political entity for the Golden Gate Bridge project.
1922: Strauss adds Charles Ellis, professor of structural and bridge engineering at the University of Illinois, to his staff.
December 7, 1922: Almost a year and a half after receiving Strauss's preliminary sketches, O'Shaughnessy makes the Strauss design public. (Note: this date reference is also listed as June 1922 as the date O&rsquoShaughnessy presents the plan to the San Francisco City Council).
January 13, 1923 (we have seen this date published as January 15 also): An organization meeting of Bridging the Golden Gate Association, which was formed to promote Strauss&rsquo plans for a bridge, is held in Santa Rosa, CA.
May 25, 1923: The California legislature passes the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District Act of California which was introduced by Senator Frank Coombs of Napa. The Association of Bridging the Gate is empowered to create a district to build the bridge.
Spring 1924: As the owner of the land on both sides of the Golden Gate Strait, the federal War Department is the only entity that can authorize construction. San Francisco and Marin counties make a joint application to the War Department for a permit to build the Bridge.
May 16, 1924: Strauss submits his plans to the War Department for review. War Department officials are concerned about the possibility of a bridge hindering navigation and if adequate financing is available to build a bridge.
December 24, 1924: Secretary of War John W. Weeks issues a temporary construction permit for the Bridge. (Note: This date is also listed in some records as December 20, 1924).
1925: Strauss has Ellis send the hybrid cantilever-suspension bridge plans to two prominent engineers: George Swan at Harvard, and Leon Moisseiff, New York City for review. That same year, Strauss asks Moisseiff to submit to him a plan for a conventional suspension bridge.
December 4, 1928: The Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District is incorporated as the entity to finance, design, and construct the Bridge. The District consists of San Francisco, Marin, Sonoma, Del Norte, and parts of Mendocino and Napa counties.
January 23, 1929: The Board of Directors of the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District meet for the first time. William P. Filmer is elected president and Robert H. Trumbull of Marin county is elected vice president. Also, Alan MacDonald of San Rafael is appointed as general manager, W.W. Felt, Jr. of Santa Rosa is named secretary, John R. Ruckstell of San Francisco is named auditor, and George Harlan of Sausalito is appointed attorney.
August 15, 1929: Joseph B. Strauss is appointed by the Board of Directors as chief engineer for the Golden Gate Bridge. Leon S. Moisseiff, O. H. Amman, and Charles Derleth, Jr. are named consulting engineers. Some sources show these appointments were also made on this date: Clifford E. Paine is named chief assistance engineer and Irving F. Morrow consulting architect.
October 29, 1929: The stock market crashes and the Great Depression begins.
December 9, 1929: Two dedication ceremonies were held to mark the start of borings for the Golden Gate Bridge tower piers at Fort Scott in San Francisco starting at 1pm, and two hours later on the Marin County side. Chief Engineer Joseph Strauss stated, &ldquo This is a day of big projects, and the building of the Golden Gate Bridge ranks among the biggest. But, while we can scarcely exaggerate its importance, we must not exaggerate its difficulty. Building the structure, after all, is a simple engineering operation, every detail of which has been checked and calculated in advance. If praise is deserved by any, it is the men whose patience and enthusiasm made it possible for building to start&hellip&rdquo San Francisco Supervisor Gallagher presided on the San Francisco side and Harry J. Ridgway, President of Marvelous Marin, Inc. presided on the Marin side.
March 1, 1930: After overseeing test boring in San Francisco, Charles Ellis returns to Strauss Engineering offices in Chicago to start the preliminary design. Working long hours, and consulting via telegram with Leon S. Moisseiff in New York, Ellis computes dozens of factors involved in the Bridge design.
March 12, 1930: Joseph Strauss presented this Report of Chief Engineer to the Board of Directors, for the period February 19 to March 12, 1930.
Summer 1930: Strauss hires a local architect, Irving Morrow, to design an architectural treatment for the Bridge. Morrow will later be recognized for his aesthetic contributions &ndash the Golden Gate Bridge's distinctive Art Deco lines, burnt red-orange hue, and the structure's dramatic lighting.
August 11, 1930: The War Department issues a final permit for the construction of a suspension bridge with a 4,200-foot main span, a vertical clearance of 220 feet at midspan and a 210-foot clearance at the sidespans.
August 27, 1930: Joseph B. Strauss submits his final plans for the Golden Gate Bridge to the District Board of Directors.
November 4, 1930: Voters from the six counties that comprise the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District agree to a $35 million bond issue, using their homes, farms, vineyards, and business properties as collateral to support the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge. The vote is 145,657 in favor and 46,954 against.
February 1931: Consulting Geologist A. E. Sedgwick publishes a Foundations of the Golden Gate Bridge report on a study to determine the competency of the foundation rock under the north and south peirs to carry an average load of 13 tons and maximum load of 18 tons per square foot.
July 8, 1931: Lump sum bids received for the construction of the principal items of the Golden Gate Bridge show that the project can be completed within the estimated cost of $35 million.
December 22, 1932: The contract for the Marin tower pier commences with the construction of a 1,700-foot-long road from the end of the existing road at Fort Baker to the location of the Marin tower pier, near the Lime Point Lighthouse.
January 5, 1933: Official start of Golden Gate Bridge construction.
January 1933 to June 1933: It took 6 months to build the Marin (north) tower pier.
January 1933 to May 1935: The San Francisco (south) anchorage was constructed.
January 1933 to June 1935: Marin (north) anchorage was constructed.
February 1933: Work begins on the east approach road through The Presidio.
February 15, 1933: Russell G. Cone is appointed resident engineer for the Golden Gate Bridge project.
February 26, 1933: The official ground breaking ceremony for the Golden Gate Bridge takes place at Crissy Field starting at 2 pm with a parade.
August 14, 1933: The McCormick Steamship Line&rsquos Sidney M. Hauptman, outbound to Portland, plowed through the thick fog and crashed into the newly completed access trestle extending 1,100 feet out into the Golden Gate Strait waters from the San Francisco shore, ready to start construction of the San Francisco tower fender.
October 31, 1933: Construction of 5 of 22 sections of the San Francisco tower fender were completed when disaster struck the access trestle again. Swells from a Pacific storm battered the trestle and 3 of the 5 completed fender sections were swallowed up along with the end of the access trestle and the construction equipment.
November 7, 1933: Steel plates laid at the Marin pier marking the start of the Marin tower construction.
December 13, 1933: As a southwest gale beat the Bay Area for two days, the access trestle for the San Francisco tower fender construction was again battered this time there was 800 feet of wreckage done to the access trestle.
April 1934: Ray Strong&rsquos panoramic depiction of the Golden Gate Bridge under construction pays tribute to the feat of engineering required to span the Golden Gate Strait. Read more at the Smithsonian American Art Museum website: http://americanart.si.edu/collections/search/artwork/?id=23442.
May 1934: The Golden Gate Bridge & Highway District organization chart lists Board of Directors and staff.
June 28, 1934: Marin tower was topped off it was not completed and ready for cable spinning until November 1934 as noted below.
October 24, 1934: San Francisco fender wall completed.
November 1934: Marin tower completed. From page 152, Golden Gate Bridge, Report of the Chief Engineer, 1937.
November 27, 1934: The San Francisco fender wall is unwatered. &ldquoThe wall was found to be remarkably tight, and very little pumping was needed to keep the bottom dry.&rdquo From page 145, Golden Gate Bridge, Report of the Chief Engineer, 1937.
January 8, 1935: The San Francisco pier was completed and the steel erector was in place, ready to begin construction of the San Francisco tower. From page 152, Golden Gate Bridge, Report of the Chief Engineer, 1937.
June 24, 1935: San Francisco tower completed in just six months.
August 1, 1935: For the first time since constructed started, on August 2, 1935, the Golden Gate Strait was to be closed to shipping. Shipping was to be held up for 15 minutes while bridge workers strung the first tramway cable between the San Francisco and Marin towers as part of the operations to ready the span for the construction of footwalks (catwalks) that had to be constructed before cable spinning could begin. Shipping would be held while a barge sunk a one-inch cable to the 350-foot bottom and the cable was hoisted into the air between the towers. Information is from the San Francisco News, August 1, 1935.
September 27, 1935: Catwalks (aka footwalks) completed in readiness for main cable spinning to begin.
March 19, 1936: Start of construction of the Marin (north) approach viaduct structures.
May 20, 1936: According to the San Rafael Independent, the main cable spinning process was completed with the last cable wire going into place--next, the main cables would undergo cable compression, and already six cable compressors were loaded on the dock at Lime Point in readiness to start the operation.
May 22, 1936: Spinning of the two main cables is completed.
June 18, 1936: Start of the construction of the main suspended structure. From page 176, Golden Gate Bridge, Report of the Chief Engineer, 1937, by Joseph B. Strauss.
July 12, 1936: Start of the construction of the Fort Point Arch.
July 21, 1936: Start of the construction of the San Francisco (south) approach viaduct structures.
August 31, 1936: Safety net added under the suspended structure construction zone.
September 11, 1936: Per the Sausalito News, with the resumption of the erection of the suspended structures of the Golden Gate Bridge, the employment roll rose past the 1000 mark &ndash the most at one time since construction started.
October 21, 1936: A travelling derrick toppled, killing Kermit Moore the first man to die on the Bridge project.
November 20, 1936 (this has also been cited as occurring on November 18 and 19, 1936): The two sections of the Golden Gate Bridge's main span were joined. A brief and informal ceremony marked the occasion when groups from San Francisco and Marin met and exchanged remarks at the center of the span. Major Thomas L. McKenna, Catholic Chaplin of Fort Scott, blessed the span while sprinkling holy water. The November 20 date is noted on page 178 of Golden Gate Bridge, Report of the Chief Engineer, 1937.
February 17, 1937: 10 men lost their lives. While removing scaffolding from the underside of the roadway structure ten tons of timber tilted and fell into the safety net. There were 13 men on the scaffolding &ndash one was able to jump off the net to a girder, 12 went down, 2 lived and 10 perished in the waters below.
March 14, 1937: As reported in the San Francisco Chronicle, blame for the February 17 accident (noted above) in which 10 workmen lost their lives was assigned to two entities by an investigating committee appointed by the San Francisco Building Trades Council. One was that of the Pacific Bridge Company, which the committee says failed to heed warnings by State officials that the scaffold, which fell 250 feet into the bay, carrying the men to their deaths, was dangerous. The other was Chief Engineer Joseph B. Strauss, who was criticized for failure to prevent use of the scaffold. The investigating committee reported that warnings by the Industrial Accident Commission's Inspectors were not heeded and "inexperienced laborers, ignorant of the hazard, were used to move the scaffold," the committee stated. "It is the duty of Engineer Strauss to enforce terms of contracts. The affidavits of our brother workmen and the statements of Engineer Strauss, who, it is reported, will receive $1,000,000 for his services, show that Engineer Strauss failed to enforce the contracts in such manner as to prevent the use of the dangerous scaffolding."
April 19, 1937: Paving of the roadway deck is completed.
April 27, 1937: The Last Rivet Ceremony - A ceremony of completion was held at midspan. . With hundreds of on lookers, ironworker Edward &ldquoIron Horse&rdquo Stanley, the man who had driven the first rivet on the Bridge, took his rivet gun and drove that rivet&hellip.and the golden rivet disintegrated right before everyone&rsquos eyes.
May 27, 1937: Golden Gate Bridge opens to pedestrian traffic. When writing about Pedestrian Day the next day, San Francisco Chronicle reporter Wills O&rsquoBrien wrote, &ldquoA necklace of surpassing beauty was placed about the lovely throat of San Francisco yesterday.&rdquo View a YouTube video of Pedestrian Day here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sow_vHGdMXo.
Opening Day on the Golden Gate Bridge
May 28, 1937: Golden Gate Bridge opens to vehicular traffic at twelve o'clock noon, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt pressed a telegraph key in the White House to announce the event to the world. When FDR pressed the telegraph key, every fire siren in San Francisco and Marin was sounded, every church bell rang, ships sounded their whistles, and every fog horn blew. The Bridge opened ahead of schedule and under budget.
May 28, 1937: According to the San Francisco Chronicle, &ldquoFlorentine Calegeri, striking houseman of the Palace Hotel, walked the bridge first on stilts, two ways &ndash over and back. He thought it was a good idea&rdquo
January 1938: Visitor parking area opens adjacent to the toll plaza (GGBHD Annual Report FY37/38).
May 4, 1938: With the new commute toll rates in effect, the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District sold over 400 ticket books on May 4&ndashthe first day the books were available for sale. These new rates are: $8 for 40 single trips, or 20 cents per trip, good for car and driver for a 30-day period $7 for 20 single trips, or 35 cents per trip, for car and five passengers, good for 60 days from date of purchase
Photo courtesy of San Francisco Public Library Historical Photograph Collection
May 27, 1938: One-Year Anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge. Written on the back of the photo: "The Golden Gate Bridge celebrates first birthday. View of Warren Shannon, president of the Golden Gate Bridge & Highway District, blowing out candle on birthday cake. Festivities were held in &ldquoThe Round House&rdquo, the new restaurant build at the Toll Plaza on the Bridge.&rdquo
May 27, 1938: The $10,000 Round House building was complete on the southeast side of the Golden Gate Bridge. The Round House was leased as a restaurant. The building was located as to offer customers an unexcelled panoramic view of the Golden Gate Bay and surrounding area. (GGBHD Annual Report FY37/38). According to the Marin IJ (2/17/2014), local civil engineer Alfred Finnila&ndashwho died in 2000&ndashdesigned the Round House as a diner.
June 30, 1938: During the first full fiscal year, the Golden Gate Bridge serves 3,892,063 motor vehicles, carries more than 8,000,000 passengers, and in excess of 400,000 pedestrians walked the sidewalks (GGBHD Annual Report FY37/38).
July 25, 1938: Southern Pacific-Golden Gate Ferries, Ltd. suspends operations between San Francisco (Hyde Street Pier) and Sausalito as a result of the opening of the Golden Gate Bridge (GGBHD Annual Report FY 38/39).
October 1, 1938: Blackie, a 12-year-old horse, swam across the waters of the Golden Gate Strait. The horse not only made aquatic history, but he soundly defeated two human challengers from the Olympic Club, and won a $1000 bet for his trainer Shorty Roberts. Blackie made the swim in 23 minutes, 15 seconds. Shorty couldn't swim, but he made the trip, too - and this was part of the bet - by hanging onto Blackie's tail. A rowboat led the way, with Shorty's brother offering a handful of sugar cubes from the stern to keep the sweets-lovin' horse on track. Watch a short film made of the adventure about Blackie&rsquos famous swim!
September 7, 1939: First fatality - Cyril McNear of San Francisco was the first person to die in a fatal accident on the Golden Gate Bridge.
FY 1938/1939: The largest item in the Golden Gate Bridge maintenance budget is for painting the steel. In FY 38/39, $112.431.84 was spent on painting: $86,589.13 on labor $5,430.67 on brushes and tools and $20,412.64 on paint (GGBHD Annual Report FY 38/39).
1954: At age 40, one of the founding fathers of fitness, Jack LaLanne, proved his belief that &ldquoanything in life is possible if you apply yourself&rdquo by captivating the entire world when he swam the length of the Golden Gate Strait (approx 1.7 miles) with 140 pounds of equipment strapped to his body. A year later, he swam from Alcatraz Island to San Francisco while handcuffed.
March 22, 1957: A 5.3 earthquake centered in Daly City hits the San Francisco Bay Area, resulting in no deaths but lots of damage. According to the San Francisco Chronicle, at about 11:45 a.m. on March 22, a "twisting, jarring side-rolling motion" caused skyscrapers in downtown San Francisco to sway visibly. People ran into the streets, some "sobbing hysterically," and the Golden Gate Bridge "undulated as in a fierce gale."
May 8, 1959: According to the San Francisco Chronicle, the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District had agreed to cooperate in the make-believe destruction of San Francisco on May 8 for Stanley Kramer's movie "On the Beach&rdquo but the climax - a monumental traffic jam - in the early morning rush hour wasn't in the script. According to plans, the 15-person movie crew made its way onto the west sidewalk at 5 a.m. Cameras were to roll at sunrise (6:10 am), filming a submarine passing underneath the Bridge. But the sunlight could not pierce the morning fog. Navy men, with the film crew, contacted the submarine's captain and asked him to cruise around until the fog lifted. Soon it was 7 a.m. and the Marin County commuters were on their way to work. By 9 a.m., three lanes of traffic were jammed up a mile back.
February 27, 1960: The Golden Gate Bridge sidewalks began closing at night. Bridge directors voted to close the pedestrian walkways of the span between sunset and sunrise in the interests of public safety.
1961: Clem Mathis, brother of San Francisco&rsquo very own crooner Johnny Mathis, was hired as a Golden Gate Bridge toll collector.
October 29, 1963: Reversible lanes were inaugurated on the Bridge, greatly aiding the flow of traffic during the heavy peak periods.
In 1967: San Francisco topless star Yvonne D&rsquoAngers, dubbed the Persian Lamb, chained herself to the Golden Gate Bridge to protest her long-threatened deportation to Iran.
October 25, 1967: Bridge Painter Lee Patrick fell to his death while working under the San Francisco approach span (see reference to this in the Board of Directors meeting minutes). Since the original construction of the Bridge when 11 lives were lost, this is the first death of a Bridge worker.
October 19, 1968: The Bridge launched one-way toll collection with auto tolls FREE for northbound travelers and a $.50 toll collected from southbound travelers.
November 10, 1969: The California State Legislature passed Assembly Bill 584 authorizing the District to develop a transportation facility plan for implementing a mass transportation program in the Golden Gate Corridor. This was to include any and all forms of transit, including ferry. At that time, the word "Transportation" was added to the District name to indicate its new commitment to public transportation.
February 28, 1970: Golden Gate Bridge west sidewalk opens to bicycle use during non-work hours. Bridge work forces use the west sidewalk during the day to perform a variety of on-going maintenance and repair tasks.
August 15, 1970: Golden Gate Ferry begins service between Sausalito and San Francisco.
July 1, 1971: The remaining original bonds issued for the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge are retired. The $35 million in principal and nearly $39 million in interest were financed entirely from Bridge tolls.
July 9, 1971: At the Board of Directors meeting, the Board of Directors receives a commendation from the California State Legislature to the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District &ldquofor their achievement of a debt-free Bridge, and the Directors and Management, past and present, for their successful stewardship.&rdquo
January 1, 1972: Golden Gate Transit regional intercounty (between counties) bus service begins.
January 12, 1973: At the Board of Directors meeting, the Board of Directors acknowledges receipt of the San Francisco Bay Area Council&rsquos Award of Merit &ldquofor meritorious contributions to the Bay Area Environment.
August 2, 1973: In a discussion at a Joint Finance and Transportation Committee, members expressed concern regarding the financial impacts of establishing a free carpool period from 6 am to 9 am on weekdays, except holidays. The policy was not enacted until 1976 (see below).
1974: Reversible lane traffic management system was modified to include the installation of &ldquobuffer&rdquo lanes (unoccupied lanes creating a median space between opposing lanes of traffic) on the Bridge during periods of light traffic at night and during storms, thick fog, or high winds.
February 5, 1976: It snowed up to two inches on San Francisco streets with a in dusting the Marin Headlands, just north of the Golden Gate Bridge. Click here for a photo of the snow.
February 26, 1976: The Golden Gate Bridge appears on the cover of Rolling Stone Magazine as the backdrop with five prominent San Francisco based rockers of the day, with a title above the photo that reads, "What a Long Strange Trip It's Been."
April 1976: Toll free passage began for carpools defined as vehicles with three or more occupants during the peak traffic hours of 6 am to 9 am and 4 pm to 6pm. The free carpool policy was aimed at further enhancing the efficient flow of traffic during the heaviest peak commute periods.
December 11, 1976: Golden Gate Ferry service expands to include service between Larkspur and San Francisco.
February 17, 1983: In a stunt to publicize Ford Motor Company&rsquos new 1983 Thunderbird, one of the new cars was slung from a 50-foot-long cable under a helicopter and flown under the Golden Gate Bridge at approximately 11:25 am.
October 1, 1983: The speed limit on the Bridge was reduced to 45 mph.
September 29, 1984: The District Board of Directors decides to allow a British production company to film a scene of a new James Bond movie on one of the Golden Gate Bridge main cables, at a height of more than 700 feet above water. The film, "A View to a Kill," features Roger Moore as Bond. One of the more spectacular scenes is a fight between Bond and a villain on the north tower of the Bridge with the loser of the fight falling to his death from the main cable. To capture this scene, the producers hoped to talk the Board into letting them drop a dummy from the north tower to the roadway this portion of filming was denied. "With all the problems we have with suicides on this Bridge, I think this is a bum idea," said Director Quentin Kopp of San Francisco.
February 22, 1985: One billionth car crosses the Golden Gate Bridge.
August 15, 1985: Construction is complete on the replacement of the original Golden Gate Bridge roadway with a modern orthotropic steel plate deck. As part of this project, the roadway is widened from 60 to 62 feet, allowing for two 11-foot wide curb lanes, one in each direction, to better and more safely accommodate buses and trucks.
May 24, 1987: Golden Gate Bridge celebrates its 50th Anniversary.
May 2, 1988: The California Highway Patrol launched a safety campaign by dispatching a unit of six motorcycle officers to crack down on speeders on the Golden Gate Bridge. Bridge customers were notified in the toll plaza with a flyer &ldquoOver 45 MPH = CHP&rdquo that stated, &ldquoBeginning the week of May 2, 1988, a special unit of six CHP motorcycle officers will be patrolling the Bridge from dawn to dusk. The officers will be issuing citations to drivers who exceed the 45 MPH speed limit, make unsafe lane changes, follow another car too closely or are in violation of the vehicle code. The goal of this program is to ensure that drivers adhere to the speed limit and drive safely. Test shows that the driver who obeys the speed limit can cross the Bridge, pass through the toll gates and reach either the Doyle Drive/Lombard off-ramp or the 19th Avenue /Lake Street intersection in only 61 seconds more than it takes at the illegal speed of 55 MPH.&rdquo
May 13, 1988: The results of the safety campaign launched on the Bridge on May 2, 1988, by the California Highway Patrol were released. Collisions during the two-week period were reduced by more than 70% and the average speed was considerably lower 75% of the tickets issued were for speeding. To support the success of the campaign, which continued for 14 months, the District gave away bumper stickers to interested motorist as reminder of the Bridge&rsquos 45 MPH speed limit.
September 18, 1987: During his 1987 spiritual outreach tour of several U.S. cities, Pope John Paul II made a stop at a Golden Gate Bridge vista point in San Francisco. His entourage included San Francisco's then-Archbishop John Quinn. After the bridge stop, John Paul rode in the popemobile in a motorcade down Geary Boulevard.
January 1993: The San Francisco Bicycle Coalition presented the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District with a Golden Wheel Award &ldquofor supporting San Francisco Bay Area bicyclists by arranging bicycle use of the bridge any and all times of the day and night!&rdquo
March 4, 1993: Shortly after midnight, 5 young men intending to bungee jump at the north end of the Golden Gate Bridge were stopped by Bridge security forces and turned over to Marin County Sheriff&rsquos Department, who made the arrest for trespassing.
October 1993: In recognition of "enduring excellence in design," the Society of American Registered Architects (SARA) honored the Golden Gate Bridge with its "Distinguished Building Award." For the first time in SARA's history, the Distinguished Building Award was presented to a structure other than a building. The Golden Gate Bridge was honored because of its "impact on the city, design, economic value, cultural statement, engineering accomplishment and contribution to the overall furtherance of the region." The award commended the work of Bridge Architect Irving Morrow, Chief Engineer Joseph Strauss and the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District.
February 16, 1994: The Golden Gate Bridge was named one of the Seven Civil Engineering Wonders of the United States by the American Society of Civil Engineers, along with the Hoover Dam, Interstate Highway System, Kennedy Space Center, Panama Canal, Trans-Alaska Pipeline and world Trade Center.
June 7, 1994: The emergency call box system on the Golden Gate Bridge sidewalks was modified to allow callers to be directly transferred, if requested, to the suicide hotline at San Francisco Suicide Prevention. All of the call box signs were changes to read: Emergency and Crisis Counseling. See September 2005 for additional sign changes to the call box system.
August 15, 1995: Golden Gate Ferry celebrates 25th Anniversary.
September 13, 1996: Golden Gate Bridge is designated a double-fine zone, doubling the fine for moving violations. The Bridge was one of twelve "Safety Enhancement&mdashDouble Fine Zone" pilot projects implemented statewide under SB 1367. Legislation enacted subsequent to SB 1367 added a "sunset provision" to the Double Fine Zone pilot program, and the Double Fine Zone on the Bridge expired on December 31, 2003. Efforts in 2004, 2005, and 2006 to obtain legislation authorizing re-establishment of the double fine zone were unsuccessful. The accident rate on the Bridge dropped by 50% when comparing the five-year period after implementation to the five-year period before implementation. In March 2007 (see below), the Golden Gate Bridge was designated as a Safety Awareness Zone.
January 1, 1997: Golden Gate Transit regional intercounty bus service celebrates its 25th Anniversary.
May 1, 1997: As part of the public outreach efforts to raise awareness about the Bridge&rsquos 45 mph speed limit, 15 NASCAR Winston Cup race cars crossed the Bridge with &ldquotaxi-top&rdquo signs reading &ldquoI Can Drive 45 on the Golden Gate Bridge."
May 27, 1997: Golden Gate Bridge celebrates its 60th Anniversary.
August 5, 1997: Groundbreaking ceremony held for Phase I of the Golden Gate Bridge Seismic Retrofit Construction.
August 11, 1997: CHP began using LIDAR technology for speed enforcement on the Bridge.
April 1988: Senator Quentin Kopp proposed legislation was hotly contested and ultimately scrapped. It would have eliminated Napa, Mendocino, and Del Norte counties from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District, and would have cut the number of Board members from 19 to 9.
November 23, 1996: Actor Woody Harrelson and eight other demonstrators were arrested for climbing onto the Golden Gate Bridge main cable and south tower with a banner protesting the logging of ancient redwoods in Humboldt County. The protest tied up traffic for hours.
September 3, 1998: United States Postal Service unveils Golden Gate Bridge commemorative stamp.
November 20, 1998: The Board of Directors, under Resolution # 98-290, authorized the General Manager to execute a license agreement between the District and Golden Gate Associates Partners LLC relative to the Official Ballad of the Golden Gate Bridge titled, &ldquoThe Bridge: Golden Gate.&rdquo
November 20, 1998: The District, because of its sister bridge relationship with the Yanpu Bridge, Shanghai, China, received a beautiful plaque from the City of Shanghai inscribed:&ldquoYanpu Bridge of Shanghai, China, Bridge Friendship 1998/99."
March 1999: The Golden Gate Bridge awarded the number two position in the Top 10 Construction Achievements of the 20th Century by CONEXPO-CON/AGG. The Top 10 Rankings were: Chunnel Tunnel Golden Gate Bridge Dwight D. Eisenhower System of Interstate and Defense Highways Empire State Building Hoover/Boulder Dam Panama Canal Sydney Opera House Aswan High Dam World Trade Center and, the Hong Kong Airport.
April 10, 2000: Several college students videoed themselves riding on a couch being dragged behind a pickup truck and entering onto the Golden Gate Bridge roadway. All involved were arrested and cited for various violations.
July 13, 2000: FasTrak electronic toll collection system is launched on the Golden Gate Bridge.
August 15, 2000: Golden Gate Sausalito Ferry celebrates 30 years of service on the San Francisco Bay.
September 19, 2000: American Public Works Association selects the Golden Gate Bridge as the Top Ten Public Works Projects of the Century.
September 2000: The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) selects Golden Gate Ferry to receive an MTC Award of Merit for its part in the successful Pacific Bell Park Transit Campaign.
September 2000: The District takes first place in APTA's distinguished 1999 AdWheel Awards Competition for its Bus Operator Recruitment Campaign in the "Marketing on a Shoestring Campaign" category.
October 24, 2000: The first of several shipments of massive cranes, at a maximum height of 223.75 feet above waterline, bound for the Port of Oakland from China, passes under the Golden Gate Bridge with an estimated clearance of about 13 feet.
February 5, 2001: In the wee hours of the morning, students from University of British Columbia School of Engineering claimed credit for dangling a VW bug off the side of the Golden Gate Bridge, per their past tradition of hanging something large from a known structure. The so-called prank tied up traffic for several hours that morning.
May 11, 2001: A construction contract is awarded to Shimmick Construction Company, Inc./Obayashi Corportation, a Joint Venture, Hayward, CA for Phase 2 of the Golden Gate Bridge Seismic Retrofit Construction.
May 30, 2001: The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) names the Golden Gate Bridge a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millenium.
July 20, 2001: The Golden Gate Ferry high-speed catamaran, Motor Vessel (M.V.) Mendocino, is christened at Noyo Harbor, near Fort Bragg, CA. Built by Nicols Bros., Freeland, WA, it is named in honor of Mendocino County as it is one of six counties that comprise the District.
July 22, 2001: M.V. Mendocino ferry vessel arrives at the Golden Gate Larkspur Ferry Terminal in Larkspur, CA.
August 24, 2001: M.V. Mendocino ferry vessel is christened, for a second time, at the San Francisco Golden Gate Ferry Terminal.
September 10, 2001: M.V. Mendocino ferry vessel enters into service between Larkspur and San Francisco.
April 12, 2002: The Lone Sailor Memorial, a replica of the statue created by sculptor Stanley Bleifeld for the United States Navy Memorial in Washington, was dedicated in 2002 as a tribute to the women and men of the Navy, Marines, Coast Guard and Merchant Marines who shipped out through the Golden Gate &ndash more than a million and a half during World War II. The Memorial is located on Caltrans property, at Vista Point at the northeast side of the Bridge.
April 26, 2002: A contract is awarded for the installation of six new engines on the three original 725-passenger Larkspur Ferry vessels, referred to as the Spaulding vessels (after the designer).
May 1, 2002: The second shipment of massive cranes, at a maximum height of 227.7 feet above waterline, bound for the Port of Oakland from China, passes under the Golden Gate Bridge with an estimated clearance of about 7.9 feet.
May 26, 2002: An anti-war protest, organized by the All People's Coalition, on the Golden Gate Bridge led to the arrest of 30 demonstrators, causing a traffic backup several miles long.
May 27, 2002: Golden Gate Bridge celebrates its 65th anniversary without fanfare.
June 14, 2002: A third shipment of massive cranes, at a maximum height of 227.7 feet above waterline, bound for the Port of Oakland from China, passes under the Golden Gate Bridge with an estimated clearance of about 10 feet.
September 1, 2002: Golden Gate Bridge toll increases to $5.00 cash, $4.00 FasTrak and $2.50 per axle (for vehicles exceeding two axles).
August 2003: The Bridge toll plaza roof was replaced for the first time since original construction. As part of the preparations for the roof replacement, the round 8-foot diameter clock that was added to the toll plaza in 1949 was taken down and replaced by a more modern replica. Exposure over the years to salt air lead to corrosion and the clock was no longer able to be easily repaired.
February 27, 2004: The Board of Directors authorized the Board President and General Manger to execute the Dissolution Agreement between the GGBHTD, County of Marin and the North Coast Rail Authority (NCRA) to dissolve the Northwestern Pacific Railroad Authority (NWPRA). In January 2003, the Sonoma-Marin Rail Transit District (SMART) was created under AB224 as the entity to plan and operate a passenger rail system. In May 2003, the NWPRA agreed to transfer its assets to SMART with the transfer scheduled to occur in March 2004. Upon the transfer of NPWRA assets to SMART, the mission of the NWPRA was completed, and therefore dissolved.
April 2004: After assisting with security and public safety at the Golden Gate Bridge since November 2001, the California National Guard troops departed. Security remains intact, as it has since opening day, with the security partners on site including the California Highway Patrol and others.
March 5, 2005: At about noon, two giant $7 million Panamax cranes bound for the Port of Oakland from China safely passed under the Golden Gate Bridge.
September 2005: The message associated with the Crisis Counseling/Motorist Call Boxes on the Bridge sidewalks was modified to include: &ldquoThere is hope, Make the Call. The consequences of jumping from this Bridge are fatal and tragic.&rdquo
June 23, 2006: The Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District received a Certificate of Merit, Toll Excellence Award for &ldquocontributing to the advancement of the worldwide toll industry from the International Bridge, Tunnel and Turnpike Association.
July 14, 2006: Contract awarded for the replacement of the FasTrak Toll Lane and Toll Plaza Equipment. Many of the original FasTrak equipment installed in 1999 had reached the end of their estimated 7-year life cycle. Following development and installation, the new equipment was operational in 2008.
In 2007: The San Francisco Bay Guardian named the Golden Gate Bridge the BEST HISTORICAL LANDMARK in its annual "Best of the Bay" edition.
January 1, 2007: CHP took 10 war protesters into custody at the Golden Gate Bridge after a three-hour standoff that backed up traffic. The confrontation began at noon when members of the women's peace organization CodePink prepared to walk across the bridge as a vigil to remember the 3,000 U.S. soldiers killed in Iraq.
March 23, 2007: In accordance with SB 988, the Golden Gate Bridge was designated as a Safety Awareness Zone by the Board. SB 988, introduced by Senator Carole Migden and signed into law on September 29, 2006, designates the Golden Gate Bridge as a Safety Awareness Zone upon the passage of a resolution by the Board authorizing such designation.
May 2007: Installation of a new access system for maintenance activities in the Marin approach viaduct structures began.
May 28, 2007: Golden Gate Bridge celebrates its 70th Anniversary with the release of a new book, "The Golden Gate Bridge, Report of the Chief Engineer, Volume 2, by Stahl, Mohn, Currie.
September 17, 2007: TransLink®, the Bay Area&rsquos smartcard fare payment system, is made available to all Golden Gate Transit and Golden Gate Ferry customers.
November 18, 2007: With a permit granted from the District, artist, educator, and health advocate Michael Grbich tap-danced across the Golden Gate Bridge sidewalkto celebrate his 75th birthday. Watch it on YouTube! Note: an advance permit is required for activities such as these.
In 2008: The San Francisco Bay Guardian named the Golden Gate Bridge the BEST HISTORICAL LANDMARK in its annual "Best of the Bay" edition.
April 7, 2008: Three pro-Tibet protesters climbed the Golden Gate Bridge vertical suspension cables at a location near the south tower at about 10:30 am and unfurled two banners intended to draw attention to Chinese human rights violations in Tibet. The protest by Students for a Free Tibet came the day before the Olympic Torch was set to arrive in San Francisco for its only North American stop before this summer's games in Beijing. One banner read, "One World, One Dream, Free Tibet 08," a play on the official slogan of the Olympic Games, "One World, One Dream." The other read simply, "Free Tibet." The protesters also hung two Tibetan flags.
June 14 & 15, 2008: San Rafael's Italian Street Painting Festival entry of the Golden Gate Bridge by artist Ian Ross.
August 10, 2008: A distressed pelican is rescued from the southbound curb lane of the Bridge at approximately 2:44pm and transferred to animal care.
October 25, 2008: A Zeppelin NT, a 246-foot blimp-like airship, passed over the Golden Gate Bridge en route to its new home at Moffett Field in Mountain View. A California startup plans to offer aerial tours of the San Francisco Bay area in the newly built zeppelin, one of only three in the world. It carries 12 passengers, and tickets start at $495 per person.
2009: Lisa Locati becomes the ninth person in the bridge captain role, and the first woman to hold the position. Upon her retirement from bridge captain in July 2018, Lisa Locati was asked how she felt about her place in history as the first female bridge captain. &ldquoI was proud to be the first female, but I hope I got the job because I was the most qualified,&rdquo she said.
March 11, 2009: The largest crane barge on the west coast passes under the Golden Gate Bridge. The crane, nicknamed the "The Left Coast Lifter,'' is fixed to a barge that measures 400 feet by 100 feet. The crane&rsquos boom is 328 feet long, weighs 992 tons, and is capable of lifting 1,873 tons of materials. The crane will be used in the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge Seismic Safety Project and will place all of the self-anchored suspension bridge deck sections and the lower portions of the new span's tower, projected to stand 525 feet tall.
May 3, 2009: At about 6:20 pm, the CHP stopped a horseback rider who was crossing the Golden Gate Bridge sidewalk. Horses are not allowed to cross the Bridge sidewalks due to safety considerations.
January 20, 2010: Travel + Leisure Magazine names the Golden Gate Bridge as one of the World&rsquos Ten Most Amazing Views, along with the Grand Canyon Manhattan skyline in New York City The Matterhorn, Switzerland Cliffs of Moher, Ireland Paris skyline Great Wall of China Machu Picchu, Peru Great Barrier Reef, Australia The Tiger's Nest (or Paro Taktsang Monastery), Bhutan.
January 22, 2010: It snowed on the north side of the Golden Gate Bridge this photo was taken at 6:30 am..
January 27, 2010: At 6:45 am, the Queen Victoria was greeted by the Golden Gate Bridge foghorns operated by Bridge Electrician R. Reesnik. View the arrival here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PHYjyW-hkVI and check out the cool photo below by Al Mueller. The Queen Victoria, Cunard's newest luxury liner and the company's second largest, was making her Maiden Call to San Francisco during her current world voyage. See another great photo here: http://www.csmonitor.com/CSM-Photo-Galleries/Photos-of-the-Day/2010/Photos-of-the-Day-01-27.
January 28, 2010: Cemex cement plant in Davenport, CA closed after 104 years in operation. The portland cement from Cemex was one of the ingredients that was mixed with the sand, gravel, and water at the construction site to make most of the concrete that was used to build the Golden Gate Bridge anchorages, foundations, and part of the original concrete deck. The portland cement was brought in huge barrels, and the aggregates were delivered by barge, with the mixing occurring on-site. At least two other cement manufacturers furnished cement for the concrete in the Bridge: Monterey Portland Cement Company, Monterey, and the Permanent Portland Cement Company, Milpitas.
March 16, 2010: Three massive cranes aboard the Zhen Hua 15 which came from Shanghai, China en route to the Port of Oakland, passed under the Golden Gate Bridge just after 8:30 am. The crew spent the past weekend in Drakes Bay lowering the structural apexes of the cranes as they are 253 feet high at full height and the midspan clearance of the Golden Gate Bridge is 220 ft.
April 11, 2011: The Golden Gate Bridge security program includes features that are visible to the public and many that are not. Security measures are modified and/or upgraded routinely. The latest addition, the first of four (two on each of the main cables) Main Cable security gates, was installed on the west side main cable to further assist in the prevention of unauthorized persons climbing on the main cables.
May 27, 2012: The Golden Gate Bridge 75th anniversary celebration was centered at nearby Crissy Field, and the day was capped with an amazing fireworks show. Visit the 75th anniversary website to read more.
July 9, 2012: As Part of Phase 3A of the Golden Gate Bridge Seismic Retrofit Construction Project, the contractor completed the installation of the new roadway deck panels (fabricated in Napa, CA) that replaced the North Anchorage Housing roof/roadway deck. The first new deck section was installed on February 13, 2012. The last roadway deck section was installed on July 9, 2012. This work was done at night with traffic allowed to cross the Bridge at all times.
August 1, 2012: A collectible, limited edition Clipper card was developed in partnership with the Metropolitan Transportation Commission and released for public purchase as a tribute to the Golden Gate Bridge 75th Anniversary on May 27, 2012.
August 2 and 3, 2012: A little after 6 pm on August 2, a distraught man climbed on to the main cable and after law enforcement attempts to talk him down failed, he spent the night in the cold and fog. The next morning (August 3), at 8:30 am and again at 9:40 am, traffic was stopped so that law enforcement personnel could safely apprehended the man.
September 21, 2012: The Space Shuttle Endeavour made a pass over the Golden Gate Bridge on the way to its new home at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, CA.
October 26, 2012: The Board of Directors authorized the filing of a Notice of Exemption based on the environmental studies and approved proceeding with the final design and preparation of the construction bid documents for installation of a moveable median barrier on the Golden Gate Bridge.
January 22, 2013: The design consultant submitted the 65% completion design plans for the Golden Gate Bridge Suicide Deterrent Net System.
January 25, 2013: The Board, by Resolution No. 2013-004, established the Golden Gate Bridge Wind-Locks Rehabilitation project to undertake repairs to the wind-locks located on the suspension bridge portion of the Bridge. The work was completed in October 2013.
March 27, 2013: At midnight, toll collection at the Golden Gate Bridge was converted from a combination of electronic and manual to all electronic tolling. The Golden Gate Bridge was the first major toll bridge in the United States to convert. The all electronic tolling marketing campaign was uniquely branded.
April 23, 2013: The Solar Impulse airplane flew over the Golden Gate Bridge. See the photo here.
August 2013: The District developed a new look for its See Something? Say Something! public awareness program. Posters were created for each of the District's operating divisions as an ongoing enhancement to existing safety and security measures. See Something? Say Something! is a simple reminder to customers to report suspicious or atypical persons or things encountered while traveling on a bus or ferry or across the Bridge. The posters&mdashdisplayed throughout District facilities, at bus stops and transit terminals, and in various Bridge locations&mdashencourage customers to join the District employees as the "eyes and ears" of their transportation environment to aid in maintaining a safe environment for everyone. This campaign won a First Place APTA (Amercian Public Transportation Association) AdWheel Award!
Labor Day Weekend 2013: During the Labor Day 2013 weekend closure of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, Larkspur and Sausalito Ferry added morning, afternoon, and late night service to provide extra capacity for East Bay residents traveling to and from San Francisco. In additional, Golden Gate Bridge saw a 25% increase in traffic during the four-day closure.
September 9, 2013: The Golden Gate Bridge is ranked #8 in the Top Ten Best Attractions by USA Today and 10Best. http://www.10best.com/awards/travel/best-iconic-american-attractions/.
September 20, 2013: With the completion of the required design, environmental, and technical studies, the Board of Directors approved the final design and purchase of a Moveable Median Barrier. The one-foot wide, 32-inch concrete and steel barrier will provide a safer division of traffic and help eliminate head-on collisions, and will allow for easier lane configuration changes to better meet traffic demands.
September 2013: Just six months after the Golden Gate Bridge's conversoin to all electronic tolling, 85% of motorists are using FasTrak to pay their toll. The remaining 15% are using the new Pay-by-Plate payment options.
October 18, 2013: The relay switch of the Golden Gate Bridge foghorn mounted on the south tower broke and was stuck in the ON position from approximately 2:00 am to 3:15 am. Here is a blog written about this event.
April 7, 2014: After extensive outreach where the public weighed in on four multi-year toll increase options, a $1 Golden Gate Bridge toll increase went into effect. The toll increase will help raise $138 million over five years and will greatly assist in reducing a projected $142 million 5-year shortfall.
May 2014: The District rolled out a new campaign aimed at increasing safety awareness among employees and customers. these colorful posters are reminders to stay safe by being alert and aware of their surroundings. Keep each other safe&mdashTogether we are Golden!
May 23, 2014: The Board of Directors awarded a contract in May 2014 for the installation of a Moveable Median Barrier on the Golden Gate Bridge. The one-foot wide, 32-inch concrete and steel barrier will provide a safer division of traffic and help eliminate head-on collisions, and will allow for easier lane configuration changes to better meet traffic demands. Installation &ndash planned for January 2015 &ndash will require a full weekend closure of the Bridge roadway. Bridge sidewalks will remain open for pedestrians and bicyclists, and Golden Gate Transit buses will be allowed passage on the roadway.
June 27, 2014: The Board of Directors approved a funding plan for the construction of the Golden Gate Bridge Physical Suicide Deterrent System Project in the amount of $76 million. This decision came with the understanding that the project will be funded with $22 million of federal Local Highway Bridge Program (HBP) funds programmed by Caltrans, $27 million of federal Surface Transportation Program (STP) funds programmed by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), $7 million of California Mental Health Service Act Funds (Proposition 63), and $20 million from District reserves.
August 5, 2014: The famous 8-foot Art Deco Toll Plaza clock was removed in preparation for the Moveable Median Barrier construction and to undergo some needed refurbishment. The clock will be reinstalled in early 2015.
Beginning week of September 2, 2014: The four east-most Golden Gate Bridge toll booths were removed as part of the Moveable Median Barrier construction project. One new toll booth will be reconstructed (toll booth 8).
September 5, 2014: Two black-tailed deer made their way across the Golden Gate Bridge during the evening commute. Traffic stopped in both directions while the deer made their way from San Francisco to Marin County. Watch a video of their safe crossing HERE.
January 10-12, 2015: The Golden Gate Bridge became safer for drivers after the weekend of January 10, 2015, when a new Moveable Median Barrier (MMB) was installed that virtually eliminates the possibility of a head-on collision. The solid, semi-rigid barrier is made up of 3,517-interlocking steel and concrete units, each weighing 1500 pounds and standing 32 inches tall. To accommodate the narrow lanes on the Golden Gate Bridge, the Barrier was constructed to be just 12 inches wide. It replaces the yellow plastic pylons that had visually separated northbound and southbound traffic ever since lane management began in the early 1960&rsquos. The Barrier cost $30 million to design and install, with $20 million provided by state funds through the Metropolitan Transportation Commission. The District held a ribbon cutting ceremony on January 11 at Vista Point. Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi, Congresswoman Jackie Speier, crash survivor Dr. Grace Dammann, and Metropolitan Transportation Commissioners Steve Kinsey and Bob Alvarado all shared their support of the new barrier.
December 2018: Construction Dive named the Suicide Deterrent System its 2018 Project of the Year and reported that it had the potential to reduce suicides that take place at the Golden Gate Bridge each year. When complete, the steel netting, positioned 20 feet below the Bridge's sidewalks, will extend out 20 feet on either side below the Bridge. More information can be found here.
April 27, 2018: Design for new toll gantry approved. The need for toll booths became obsolete with the introduction of electronic tolling on the Bridge in 2013, deeming the old toll gantry structure outdated. The District received public input on new toll gantry designs from architecture groups and interested individuals through small group meetings, social media posts, and input sent to our customer service center. After considering the input, the District Board of Directors selected the "Bridge Light" (pictured above) design by unanimous vote. The chosen 'Bridge Light' style mirrors the curved bend of the lighting elements on the Bridge and on Presidio Parkway. Regardless of the toll plaza changes, the beloved art deco clock will always have a place of honor at the Bridge.
April 30, 2018: The Bridge towers got their first arm's length inspection. For the first time, the Golden Gate Bridge towers received an up-close-and personal inspection by engineers rappeling by rope from the top to the bottom. The inspections began on Monday, April 30th and took a week to complete. The District contracted with HDR Engineering to conduct this work, which was done to examine the condition of the steel and determine necessary repairs. Here is a video of the inspections!
July 2018: Construction on the Suicide Deterrent Net System begins. Project background and updates can be found here.
April 2019: Chief Engineer wins award for her seismic retrofit work. Ewa Z. Bauer-Furbush, P.E., M.ASCE, NAC, who was honored by the American Society of Civil Engineers as one of four 2019 Outstanding Projects and Leaders (OPAL) award winners. Bauer-Furbush won the honor in the Management category and was recognized particularly for her leadership in seismic retrofit work.
July 2019: West railing replacement begins as part of the Suicide Deterrent System (SDS) and Wind Retrofit Project. Beginning in February of 2019, contractors began work to remove and replace the west sidewalk handrail as part of the SDS and Wind Retrofit Project. Most noticeably, the new handrail features thinner vertical slats than the old handrail, along with other design elements to reduce wind drag, while blending in with the existing Bridge design. The new railing will be installed on the west sidewalk between the South and North Towers.
March 2020: Bridge sees 70% drop in traffic almost overnight due to Shelter-in-Place orders during COVID-19 pandemic.
June 2020: Golden Gate Bridge sings during high winds. On Friday, June 5, many people on and around the Bridge heard a humming sound coming from the Golden Gate Bridge. The sound is the result of sustained high winds coming from the northwest and passing at a specific angle through the recently installed new west sidewalk Bridge railing. This new railing is part of the Bridge Wind Retrofit project.
June 6, 2020: Black Lives Matter protest draws over 15,000 people to the Golden Gate Bridge and garnered much media attention. The event was permitted under the District's expressive activities program and, most importantly, remained peaceful for the duration of the event with no injuries reported. Some protestors got onto the roadway, so traffic was stopped for some time in order to ensure public safety. Once pedestrians exited the roadway, vehicular traffic was restored. Bridge security and operations staff did an exemplary job ensuring all involved remained safe during this extraordinary event.
December 2020: New generators replace decades-old generators (the oldest was installed in 1973!) and provide near instantaneous power to the Bridge and District facilities in the event of a power failure.
* All Photos (except where noted) copyright © Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District. All Rights Reserved.
In 1769 Spain occupied the San Francisco area and by 1776 had established the area's first European settlement, with a mission and a presidio. To protect against encroachment by the British and Russians, Spain selected Punta del Cantil Blanco, a promontory with a high white cliff (cantil blanco) located at the narrowest part of the bay's entrance,  to construct a fortification. The Castillo de San Joaquin was constructed in 1794, subordinate to the nearby Presidio de San Francisco. It was an adobe structure housing nine to thirteen cannons. 
Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821, gaining control of the region and the fort, but in 1835 the Mexican army moved to Sonoma leaving the castillo's adobe walls to crumble in the wind and rain. On July 1, 1846, after the Mexican–American War broke out between Mexico and the United States, U.S. forces, including Captain John Charles Fremont, Kit Carson and a band of 10 followers, captured and occupied the empty castillo and spiked (disabled) the cannons.
Sometime during the Spanish and Mexican eras, the Punta del Cantil Blanco came to be known as the "Punta del Castillo" ("Castle Point"),  which was carried over into the era of U.S. sovereignty, in rough translation, as "Fort Point".
U.S. era Edit
Following the United States' victory in 1848, California was annexed by the U.S. and became a state in 1850. The gold rush of 1849 had caused rapid settlement of the area, which was recognized as commercially and strategically valuable to the United States. Military officials soon recommended a series of fortifications to secure San Francisco Bay. Coastal defenses were built at Alcatraz Island, Fort Mason, and Fort Point.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began work on Fort Point in 1853. Plans specified that the lowest tier of artillery be as close as possible to water level so cannonballs could ricochet across the water's surface to hit enemy ships at the water-line.  Workers blasted the 90-foot (27 m) cliff down to 15 feet (4.6 m) above sea level. The structure featured seven-foot-thick walls and multi-tiered casemated construction typical of Third System forts. It was sited to defend the maximum amount of harbor area. While there were more than 30 such forts on the East Coast, Fort Point was the only one on the West Coast. In 1854 Inspector General Joseph K. Mansfield declared "this point as the key to the whole Pacific Coast. and it should receive untiring exertions".
A crew of 200, many unemployed miners, labored for eight years on the fort. In 1861, with war looming, the army mounted the fort's first cannon. Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, commander of the Department of the Pacific, prepared Bay Area defenses and ordered in the first troops to the fort. Kentucky-born Johnston then resigned his commission to join the Confederate Army he was killed at the Battle of Shiloh in 1862.
On This Day in History, 27 май
With 5 million people living within 50 km of the quake's epicenter, about 6000 died, and 1.5 million were left homeless.
1942 Czech resistance fighters kill Reinhard Heydrich
The high-ranking German Nazi official was one of the main architects of the Holocaust. In retaliation, the Nazis murdered all male inhabitants over 15 years of age in the Czech village of Lidice and deported most of the remaining people to concentration camps.
1937 The Golden Gate Bridge is opened
The suspension bridge connecting San Francisco peninsula with Marin County is one of the most recognized works of United States architecture.
1933 Walt Disney's cartoon Three Little Pigs is released
The animated short film is one of the best-known cartoons of all time. In 1934, it was awarded the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film.
1851 The world's first chess tournament is held in London
Adolf Anderssen, a maths teacher from Wrocław, won the tournament, which was held parallel to the 1851 Great Exhibition.
Births On This Day &ndash 27 май
1975 Jamie Oliver
1934 Harlan Ellison
American author, screenwriter
1923 Henry Kissinger
German/American politician, 56th United States Secretary of State, Nobel Prize laureate
De-mist-ifying the Fog: Five Fun Facts
The image of quintessential San Francisco isn’t complete without the looming fog gliding over the Golden Gate Bridge like a cold blanket ready to hug the warmth out of the city. Sure, it may affect visibility and can make summer feel like winter—especially in August, aka “Fogust”—but it is beloved nonetheless. Here are some foggy facts to “de-mist-ify” this local weather phenomenon.
The fog along the coast of the Golden Gate National Parks is called “advection fog.”
This type of fog forms when humid air from the Pacific Ocean swoops over the chilly California wind current flowing parallel to the coast. The fog stays low to the ground and then the warm, moist air condenses as it moves across the San Francisco Bay or nearby land. This is common near any coastline.
The Golden Gate Bridge has two fog horns, which blast for 2.5 hours each day, on average.
Unlike the sirens from Homer’s The Illiad, the Golden Gate Bridge’s fog horns lure sailors safely through the wall of fog. Their blaring sound has become as synonymous with San Francisco as the bridge itself, which has had them since its opening in 1937 (the color of the span, International Orange, was chosen in part because of its visibility in the fog).
The fog horns are located in two distinct locations: at the middle of the Golden Gate Bridge (mid-span) and at the south tower on the San Francisco side. Each horn omits a different tone at different times.
During March, their blasts can be heard for less than half an hour a day. But during the summer--San Francisco's “winter”/foggy season—they can sound for over five hours a day or for days at a time.
Fog is basically water droplets suspended in the air, mixed with dust and other microscopic particles.
Typically, air already contains water vapor, and the warmer the air, the more H2O the air can hold. However, air can’t hold much water as it cools. When it reaches the dew point, it becomes fully saturated with water vapor. If the air cools even more, it loses the ability to hold all of that water vapor—forcing the vapor to condense around tiny, dust-sized particles to form droplets. When enough of these droplets accumulate—voila! Fog is born.
In summer, coast redwoods can get more than half of their moisture from fog.
The soaring redwoods along the the California coast don’t rely on rainfall alone as fuel for their journey to the sky—fog can be rather. wet. In an article on fog, Bay Nature mentions that “physicist Daniel Fernandez of California State University, Monterey Bay, began measuring its [fog’s] water content. His record haul from a one-square-meter fog collector: 39 liters, or nearly 10 gallons, in a single day.”
Scientists also have confirmed that the trees had to soak up fog’s drippings from the soil and through their leaves.
San Francisco’s Fog has a larger-than-life online personality.
You now have a name to assign to that cloudy entity engulfing the city: Karl. Karl is a name assigned to our local weather phenomenon by a social media account, and he’s insanely popular. @KarltheFog boasts more than 146,000 followers on Twitter and more than 200,000 on Instagram--making him a bonafide Bay-lebrity. We suggest checking out his posts for a good chuckle.
According to an article from SF Weekly on the social media accounts of Bay Area landmarks, the person behind @KarltheFog got the name as a reference to a character in Tim Burton’s film Big Fish.
The next time Karl creeps in over the Golden Gate Bridge and Sutro Tower, you will understand how he helps maintain a balanced ecosystem in the Bay Area.
A History of BART: The Concept is Born
The following is a comprehensive narrative of the history of BART. You may also be interested in the book: BART the Dramatic History of the Bay Area Rapid Transit System written by retired BART spokesman Michael C. Healy and published by Heyday Books.
The BART Concept is Born
The BART story began in 1946. It began not by governmental fiat, but as a concept gradually evolving at informal gatherings of business and civic leaders on both sides of the San Francisco Bay. Facing a heavy post-war migration to the area and its consequent automobile boom, these people discussed ways of easing the mounting congestion that was clogging the bridges spanning the Bay. In 1947, a joint Army-Navy review Board concluded that another connecting link between San Francisco and Oakland would be needed in the years ahead to prevent intolerable congestion on the Bay Bridge. The link? An underwater tube devoted exclusively to high-speed electric trains.
Since 1911, visionaries had periodically brought up this Jules Verne concept. But now, pressure for a traffic solution increased with the population. In 1951, the State Legislature created the 26-member San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit Commission, comprised of representatives from each of the nine counties which touch the Bay. The Commission's charge was to study the Bay Area's long range transportation needs in the context of environmental problems and then recommend the best solution.
The Commission advised, in its final report in 1957, that any transportation plan must be coordinated with the area's total plan for future development. Since no development plan existed, the Commission prepared one itself. The result of their thoroughness is a master plan which did much to bring about coordinated planning in the Bay Area, and which was adopted a decade later by the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG).
The Commission's least-cost solution to traffic tie-ups was to recommend forming a five-county rapid transit district, whose mandate would be to build and operate a high-speed rapid rail network linking major commercial centers with suburban sub-centers.
The Commission stated that, "If the Bay Area is to be preserved as a fine place to live and work, a regional rapid transit system is essential to prevent total dependence on automobiles and freeways."
Thus was born the environmental concept underlying BART. Acting on the Commission's recommendations, in 1957, the Legislature formed the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, comprising the five counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Francisco and San Mateo. At this time, the District was granted a taxing power of five cents per $100 of assessed valuation. It also had authority to levy property taxes to support a general obligation bond issue, if approved by District voters. The State Legislature lowered the requirement for voter approval from 66 percent to 60 percent.
Between 1957 and 1962, engineering plans were developed for a system that would usher in a new era in rapid transit. Electric trains would run on grade-separated right-of-ways, reaching maximum speeds of 75-80 mph, averaging perhaps 45 mph, including station stops. Advanced transit cars, with sophisticated suspensions, braking and propulsion systems, and luxurious interiors, would be strong competition to "King Car " in the Bay Area. Stations would be pleasant, conveniently located, and striking architectural enhancements to their respective on-line communities.
BART employees in the 1970s.
Hundreds of meetings were held in the District communities to encourage local citizen participation in the development of routes and station locations. By midsummer, 1961, the final plan was submitted to the supervisors of the five District counties for approval. San Mateo County Supervisors were cool to the plan. Citing the high costs of a new system-plus adequate existing service from Southern Pacific commuter trains - they voted to withdraw their county from the District in December 1961.
With the District-wide tax base thus weakened by the withdrawal of San Mateo County, Marin County was forced to withdraw in early 1962 because its marginal tax base could not adequately absorb its share of BART's projected cost. Another important factor in Marin's withdrawal was an engineering controversy over the feasibility of carrying trains across the Golden Gate Bridge.
BART had started with a 16-member governing Board of Directors apportioned on county population size: four from Alameda and San Francisco Counties, three from Contra Costa and San Mateo, and two from Marin. When the District was reduced to three counties, the Board was reduced to 11 members: four from San Francisco and Alameda, and three from Contra Costa. Subsequently, in 1965, the District's enabling legislation was changed to apportion the BART Board with four Directors from each county, thus giving Contra Costa its fourth member on a 12-person Board. Two directors from each county, hence forth, were appointed by the County Board of Supervisors. The other two directors were appointed by committees of mayors of each county (with the exception of the City and County of San Francisco, whose sole mayor made these appointments).
The five-county plan was quickly revised to a three-county plan emphasizing rapid transit between San Francisco and the East Bay cities and suburbs of Contra Costa and Alameda counties. The new plan, elaborately detailed and presented as the "BART Composite Report, " was approved by supervisors of the three counties in July 1962, and placed on the ballot for the following November general election.
The plan required approval of 60 percent of the District's voters. It narrowly passed with a 61.2 percent vote District-wide, much to the surprise of many political experts who were confident it would fail. Indeed, one influential executive was reported to have said: "If I'd known the damn thing would have passed, I'd never have supported it. "
The voters approved a $792 million bond issue to finance a 71.5 mile high-speed transit system, consisting of 33 stations serving 17 communities in the three counties. The proposal also included another needed transit project: rebuilding 3.5 miles of the San Francisco Municipal Railway. The new line would link muni streetcar lines directly with BART and Market Street stations, and four new Muni stations would be built.
The additional cost of the transbay tube -- estimated at $133 million -- was to come from bonds issued by the California Toll Bridge Authority and secured by future Bay Area Bridge revenues. The additional cost of rolling stock, estimated at $71 million, was to be funded primarily from bonds issued against future operating revenues. Thus, the total cost of the system, as of 1962, was projected at $996 million. It would be the largest single public works project ever undertaken in the U.S. by the local citizenry.
After the election, engineers immediately started work on the final system designs, only to be halted by a taxpayer's suit filed against the District a month later. The validity of the bond election, and the legality of the District itself, were challenged. While the court ruled in favor of the District on both counts, six months of litigation cost $12 million in construction delays. This would be the first of many delays from litigation and time-consuming negotiations involving 166 separate agreements reached with on-line cities, counties, and other special districts. The democratic processes of building a new transit system would prove to be major cost factors that, however necessary, were not foreseen.
Artisan crafts furniture from pieces of Golden Gate Bridge's history
1 of 3 Using recovered steel from the Golden Gate Bridgeâ€™s redesign, the furniture is painted in international orange -- the official color of the bridge. SONY DSC Christy Bulan Show More Show Less
2 of 3 Richard Bulan made countless visits to the Golden Gate Bridge as a child, and now crafts furniture from one of San Franciscoâ€™s most recognizable landmarks. SONY DSC Christy Bulan Show More Show Less
San Francisco's most recognizable landmark inspired aesthetic function in one of its native sons.
Furniture maker Richard Bulan harbors many fond childhood memories of visiting the Golden Gate Bridge, that famed suspension link spanning the Golden Gate Strait, the entrance to San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean.
After seeing a news story about historic steel being removed from the bridge during its handrail replacement, Bulan was prompted to creative action in an effort to own a piece of history from the city he loved.
He arranged to purchase a section of the rail, which Bulan imagined fashioning into a headboard. Although there were some imposing issues of mass and weight to work through, he was undeterred from his idea to create furniture from the Golden Gate Bridge.
"The sections of rail turned out to be much larger and heavier than I anticipated, but I was determined to follow through," he said. "Despite its size and weight, I managed to transport a section of rail to my home."
Starting with a computer prototype, Bulan used tools like a chop saw and plasma torch to section and grind the rail portions until he created one headboard for himself and three more just like it. Friends showed interest in the additional pieces, and thus was born the Golden Gate Bridge Furniture Company in 1994.
In the course of assembly, Bulan works with an "artistic welder" before the steel is sandblasted down to raw metal in preparation for several coats of international orange, the official paint color of the Golden Gate Bridge. He makes it a point to use all materials sourced from within the U.S. in homage to the American-made wonder that inspired his furniture company.
The company still offers the headboard design in king ($12,500), queen ($9,500) and full ($9,500). It also has two lamp designs and eight different table prototypes including a sturdy coffee table ($2,850) in glass and steel.
UPI Almanac for Saturday, Jan. 5, 2019
Today is Saturday, Jan. 5, the fifth day of 2019 with 360 to follow.
The moon is new. Morning stars are Jupiter, Mercury, Uranus and Venus. Evening stars are Mars, Neptune and Uranus.
Those born on this date are under the sign of Capricorn. They include Zebulon Pike, discoverer of Pike's Peak in Colorado in 1779 U.S. baseball executive/Baseball Hall of Fame member Ban Johnson in 1864 artist Yves Tanguy in 1900 actor George Reeves (TV's Superman) in 1914 actor Jane Wyman in 1917 Walter Mondale, former U.S. vice president/1984 Democratic presidential candidate, in 1928 (age 91) Italian writer Umberto Eco in 1932 U.S. football Hall of Fame member Chuck Noll in 1932 football Hall of Fame member Jim Otto in 1938 (age 81) filmmaker Hayao Miyazaki in 1941 (age 78) talk show host Charlie Rose in 1942 (age 77) actor Robert Duvall in 1931 (age 88) actor Diane Keaton in 1946 (age 73) actor Pamela Sue Martin in 1953 (age 66) actor Clancy Brown in 1959 (age 60) singer Iris DeMent in 1961 (age 58) actor Suzy Amis in 1962 (age 57) dancer/TV personality Carrie Ann Inaba in 1968 (age 51) rock singer Marilyn Manson in 1969 (age 50) actor Bradley Cooper in 1975 (age 44) actor January Jones in 1978 (age 41) DJ Deadmau5, born Joel Thomas Zimmerman, in 1981 (age 38) actor Jason Mitchell in 1987 (age 32).
In 1914, the Ford Motor Co. increased its pay from $2.34 for a 9-hour day to $5 for 8 hours of work.
In 1925, Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming was sworn in as the first woman governor in the United States.
In 1933, construction began on the Golden Gate Bridge over San Francisco Bay.
In 1933, former President Calvin Coolidge died of coronary thrombosis at his Northampton, Mass., home at the age of 60.
In 1948, the first color newsreel, filmed at the Tournament of Roses in Pasadena, Calif., was released by Warner Brothers-Pathe.
In 1982, a series of landslides killed up to 33 people after heavy rain in the San Francisco Bay area.
In 1993, the state of Washington hanged serial child-killer Westley Allan Dodd in the nation's first gallows execution in 28 years.
In 1996, the longest U.S. government shutdown ended after 21 days when Congress passed a stopgap spending measure that would allow federal employees to return to work. President Bill Clinton signed the bill the next day.
In 1998, U.S. Rep. Sonny Bono, R-Calif., of Sonny and Cher fame, was killed when he hit a tree while skiing at South Lake Tahoe, Calif.
In 2002, a 15-year-old student pilot, flying alone, was killed in the crash of his single-engine Cessna into the 28th floor of the Bank of America building in Tampa, Fla.
In 2005, Eris, the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system, was discovered.
In 2008, tribal violence following a disputed Kenya presidential election claimed almost 500 lives, officials said. Turmoil exploded after incumbent President Mwai Kibaki was declared the winner over opposition candidate Raila Odinga, who had a wide early lead.
In 2013, a cold wave that sent temperatures far below average in northern India was blamed for at least 129 deaths. Many of the victims were homeless.
In 2014, Jerry Coleman, Hall of Fame broadcaster, ex-New York Yankee infielder and war hero, died at age 89 in San Diego.
In 2014, Portuguese soccer great Eusebio, the "Black Panther," died in Lisbon at 71.
In 2018, Henry Holt and Company published Michael Wolff's book, Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House. President Donald Trump sought to prevent the release of the book days earlier with a cease-and-desist letter.
A thought for the day: "If you don't like something, change it. If you can't change it, change your attitude. Don't complain." -- Maya Angelou
The caretakers of the Golden Gate Bridge include engineers and architects who had a vision to create such an incredible landmark, rugged individuals who built this one-of-a kind masterpiece, and skilled crafts people and engineers who have cared for the Bridge since opening day in 1937. This revered and rugged group of workers battle wind, sea air and fog, often suspended high above the Golden Gate Strait, to repair corroding steel. Visit our You Tube channel to get a glimpse of What We Do!
Ironworkers replace corroding steel and rivets, make small fabrications for use on the Bridge, and assist painters with their rigging. Ironworkers also remove plates and bars to provide access for painters to the interiors of the columns and chords that make up the Bridge.
Painters prepare all Bridge surfaces and repaint corroded areas. For more about painting the Golden Gate Bridge, visit our Painting the Bridge page.
Operating engineers and mechanics ensure that all equipment and vehicles are in good repair.
Electricians maintain toll equipment and all electrical components of the Bridge, and operate the fog horns.
Communications technicians ensure that radio communications are always operational.
The Streets and Grounds team keeps the surrounding areas of the Bridge in proper repair and attractive for the over 10 million visitors each year.
Laneworkers assist Roadway Service Operators by configuring yellow roadway cones for various lane configurations.
Roadway Service Technicians assist disabled vehicles on the Bridge and its approaches, respond to all vehicle accidents and vehicle fires, and operate the Barrier Machine to ensure the Bridge is in the proper configuration for morning and afternoon commutes.
Service operators assist disabled vehicles on the Bridge and its approaches. Tow service trucks are on site 24-hours a day, ready to respond to any emergency.
The Bridge Captain oversees the activities of the toll office and roadway operations, coordinating an around-the-clock workforce to ensure the smooth flow of traffic. There have been 10 Bridge Captains since the Bridge opened in 1937.
Bridge Sergeants and Bridge Lieutenants respond to inquiries, accidents, and emergencies. In fact, to date, two babies have been born at the toll plaza! A team of Bridge Patrol Officers, who also report to the Bridge captain, are responsible for Bridge security.
Explore this Topic Further
The Bridge Opening
Golden Gate Bridge Opening Fiesta Week from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (grade 3 to adult)
The Opening Fiesta was a week-long celebration. It started with pedestrian day on May 27 and automobile day on May 28. Among the many interesting events of the fiesta, Joseph Strauss read one of his poems.
Opening Day of the Golden Gate Bridge
This silent film shows the opening day celebrations and the first cars and pedestrians coming over the Bridge. Wow what a traffic jam! (4:35 minute video)
Maintaining and Upgrading the Bridge
Maintenance and Operations from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (grade 3 to adult)
Today a team of about 200 engineers, iron workers, painters, mechanics, electricians, communications technicians, streets and grounds workers, and other employees maintain all aspects of the Bridge.
Painting the Golden Gate Bridge from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD) (grade 3 to adult)
On this web site the GGBHTD describes the continuous process of painting the bridge to protect it from corrosion.
Major Projects on the Golden Gate Bridge from Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District (all ages)
This web page summarizes the Bridge improvement projects between 1953 and 2008.
Golden Gate Bridge Chronology from PBS American Experience (all ages)
This timeline chronicles important events in the history of the Golden Gate Bridge from 1849 until 1994 when it was declared a Wonder of the Modern world by the American Society of Civil Engineers.
Bridge Inspection from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD)
Deputy District Engineer John Eberle explains how and why the Bridge is continually inspected.
Protecting the Bridge from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD)
Bridge District painter Chris Dzierman explains why the Bridge is painted with special materials to not only preserve its historic International Orange color but also to prevent corrosion.
Paint Testing from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD)
Bridge District painter Chris Dzierman explains how new paint products are continually tested for use on the Bridge.
Moveable Median Barrier from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD)
Bridge Manager Kary Witt shows video footage of how the new (2015) moveable concrete median works, which provides the ability to adjust the number of lanes according to northbound or southbound rush hours.
Replacing Rusted Rivets the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD)
Ironworker Supervisor Darren McVeigh shows how rusted rivets are removed with a "helldog" power chisel and then replaced with new high-strength bolts.
The Bridge in our Lives
Chronology of Fun and Interesting Happenings from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD) (grade 3 to adult)
The first baby boy was born on the Bridge in 1958. Many other interesting events have occurred on or around the Bridge.
Bridge Traffic and Toll Data from the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD) (grade 3 to adult)
On the day the Bridge opened in 1937 the toll was 50 cents each way, but it had dropped to 25 cents each way by 1955. Find out when it went up over the years and or when FasTrak was installed.
World Events during Bridge Construction from the Golden Gate Bridge Highway and Transportation District (GGBHTD) (grade 3 to adult)
This timeline lists key political, arts, entertainment, sports, and pop culture events as well as inventions that occurred during the construction of the Bridge.